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GARDINER, W- 

The flora of Forfarshire 

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The flora of Forfarshire 



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Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 



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THE 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE, 



BY WILLIAM GABDLNEB. 



Eeautiful flowers ! to me ye fresher seem 
From the Almighty hand that fashioned all, 
Than those that flourished bv a garden wall." 



LONDON: 

LONGMAN, EROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, £9 PATERNOSTER 

ROAV : ACKERMANN AND CO„ 96 STRAND. 

EDINBURGH: 

DAVID MATHEES, 1 DRCMMOND STREET; J. MENZIES, PRINCE'S STREET, 
DUNDEE : F. SHAW AND W, MIDDLETON. PERTH : P. R. DEW1KOND. 



1818. 



DUNDEE: PRIST ED BY M'COSH, l'AKK, AND DEWAUS 



THIS VOLUME 



IS DEDICATED WITH SINCERE FEELINGS OF RESPECT AND GRATITUDE 



: u tn c v o u s g> ti i> s c r i b £ r a 



WHO HAVE SO KINDLY ENABLED THE AUTHOR TO PRODUCE IT. 



15S OVFRGATE, DUNDEE. 

Nov. 12th 1847. 



PKEFACE. 



In submitting the result of his labours to his patrons and 
the public, the author is not vain enough to suppose that he 
has completed the task of recording all the botanical pro- 
ductions that are to be found in his native county, nor even 
all the stations for the rare and less common plants. To ac- 
complish this effectually every square inch of ground in the 
area comprised would require to be minutely examined, and 
that for a succession of seasons ; but probably no one has 
ever had the leisure or patience thus to investigate any por- 
tion of the earth's surface. The object he had originally in 
view, however, has been accomplished to the fullest extent in 
his power, and he trusts that the following pages will be found 
to contain most of the facts connected with the botany of the 
county hitherto known. Many of these have not been before 
published, and the others were so scattered through various 
works as not to be easily available to those wishing to become 
acquainted with the vegetation of this peculiarly rich and in- 
teresting district. 

To the kind friends who have assisted him with notes and 
specimens, and whose names are associated with the informa- 



VI PREFACE. 

lion they have communicated, he tenders his best thanks ; 
and his heartfelt wish is, that they may, through the blessing 
of heaven, continue to enjoy the pleasure which such pursuits 
always impart to those minds open to their refinirg and en- 
nobling influences. 

A supplementary part, embracing a brief view of the Fauna 
of the county, was promised in the prospectus, but from the 
amount of matter already accumulated, and a consideration 
of the numerous specimens yet to be examined, it has been 
deemed more prudent, rather than offer a garbled list of the 
Forfarshire animals, to publish this separately in a small 
volume, at as early an opportunity as circumstances will per- 
mit, and each subscriber to the Flora will be entitled to a 
copy. In the meantime any information on the subject, well 
authenticated, or specimens in any department of Zoology, 
that have been collected in the county, will be thankfully 
received and acknowledged. A supplement to the Flora, if 
any new facts are elicited, will be appended ; and it is ear- 
nestly hoped that those having it in their power to contribute 
such will do so at their earliest convenience. 

158, Oveegate, Dundee, 
Nov. 10, 1847. 



INTRODUCTION, 



The uses of a local Flora are threefold: Firstly. It en- 
ables a resident in the district, or a visitor, to know what 
plants may be found., and where. Secondly, It shows the 
comparative prevalence of certain species to that of other 
districts. And thirdly, It forms a depository of facts rela- 
tive to the range of species, by indicating more numerous 
stations than could be done in a general Floka ; and afford- 
ing more scope for allusion to the associations which various 
plants awaken in the mind, — and this part of the subject, 
which invests its study with a peculiar charm, is daily be- 
coming more arjpreciated. In accordance with these views 
the following pages have been wiitten. 

The arrangement and nomenclature adopted are those of 
Hooker s British Flora ;* and to prevent any confusion of 
names, the authority for each genus and species is given, to- 
gether with the principal synonymes. The English name is 
added, and after it a reference to the page of the British 
Flora (H.), and to that of Babing ton's Manual f (B.), 
where the characters and descriptions of the species are to be 
found. 

It is not in accordance with the rules laid down by some 
of our best botanists for the construction of a local Flora, 

* Hooker's British Flora, 5th ed. London, Longman & Co. t842. 

+ Babington's Manual of British Botany. London, Van Voorst. 1843 . 
There is a new edition of this work published lately, and if it is referred to, 
the almanac weather rule may have in some instances to be applied, viz., 
the page before or the page after. 



Till INTRODUCTION. 

that the plants should be described, which would only ren- 
der the volume more bulky without adding to its usefulness. 
Every one studying British botany, it is presumed, is in 
possession of one or other of the standard Floras, and there 
the characters and descriptions of the various genera and 
species are detailed at length. With a descriptive Flora in 
the one hand, and a local one in the other, therefore, each 
will perform its legitimate part ; and with these helps in the 
fields and woods, or on the mountains, the merest tyro in the 
study may soon become familiar with the native plants of 
his neighbourhood, or the places he may visit in the course 
of his peregrinations. 

In the beautiful tribe of Ferns there is added a reference 
(N.) to the pages of Newmans British Ferns/''' where the 
species are described and exquisitely figured ; and to those 
of the Phytologist,f where that gentleman has published 
most admirable illustrated monographs of the Lycopodiacecs 
and Equisetacece. 

For descriptions of the Mosses, Hepaticce, Lichens, and 
Characete, the pages of Hooker's British Flora\ are re- 
ferred to. In the same volume, from j3. 248 to p. 415, the 
Alga are described : and to part second (which forms a se- 
parate volume)§ references are made to the pages where a 
descriptive account of the Forfarshire Fungi may be found. 

The period of flowering, where it differs from that in either 
of the above national Floras, must be understood to relate 
solely to what has been observed in this county. Experi- 
ence teaches us that no general rule (or what we usually 
consider such) is exempt from numerous apparent excep- 
tions ; and in this case the variations of the seasons, and the 

* A History of British Ferns, by Edward Newman, F.L.S. London, 
Van Voorst. 1840. 

+ The Phytologist, a Popular Botanical Miscellany. London, Van 
Voorst. Published monthly. 

I Hooker's British Flora, vol. ii., part 1st. London, Longman & Co. 
1833. 

§ Hooker's British Flora, vol. ii., part. 2d. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley. 
London, Longman & Co. 1836. 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

nature of the localities, exercise such an influence over vege- 
tation, that no definite limits can be fixed for the inflores- 
cence of various species. For example, Cochlearia grcen- 
landica is sometimes found in flower on the coast as early as 
April, and in other seasons not till June ; while on the 
mountains its blossoms rarely appear before July, and in late 
seasons, not till August. 

There is the same difficulty in respect to the Zonal range 
of vegetation. Silene maritima, Statice Armeria, Lychnis 
diurna, Cardamine pratensis and hirsuta, Bryum trichodes, 
Weissia nigrita, Fegetella hemispherica, and several others, 
might be placed either in the maritime or subalpine zone ; 
and Lychnis alpina, although found indigenous only on the 
highest ground in the county, flourishes luxuriantly in our 
gardens a little above the sea-level. 

Under these circumstances, it was deemed most prudent 
to leave to those, who possess greater experience, leisure and 
opportunity, with " all appliances and means to boot," to 
ascertain, if possible, or even to approximate, the latitudinal 
and altitudinal limits of the respective species; and merely 
to state such facts in connection with the subject as might, 
with tolerable confidence, be relied upon. There is no 
doubt a limit to every species of plant, as respects latitude, 
longitude, and altitude ; but this is so much under the con- 
trol of local circumstances, that no general rule can apply to 
every locality. 

The comparative numbers of British and Forfarshire ge- 
nera, species, and varieties, are given under each natural 
order ; and those of the species and vai'ielies are repeated 
under each genus ; so that, at a glance, may be seen what 
proportion our county Flora bears to that of Britain. To 
render this comparison more complete, a table is given at the 
end of the book (p. 299) including all the British natural 
orders, in which those absent from Forfarshire are distin- 
guished by being printed in italics. 

The county of Forfar, or Angus, is situated between 56° 27' 
and 56° 56' N. lat., and between 2° 28' and 3° 22' W. lonsr. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

from the meridian of Greenwich. It is hounded on the N. 
and N.W. by Aberdeenshire, on the N.E. by Kincardine- 
shire, on the E. and S.E. by the German Ocean, on the S. 
by the River Tay, and on the W. and S.W. by Perthshire. 
Its area is computed to contain 840 square miles, or 537,600 
English acres, about 200,000 of which are under cultivation ; 
and its surface is highly diversified, both as respects eleva- 
tion and soil ; hence the native vegetation is varied and in- 
teresting. 

The Rev. Mr Headrick, in his survey of the county, di- 
vides it into four districts — the coast, the Sidlaw Hills, the 
valley of Strathmore, and that portion of the Grampian 
mountains which it includes. The maritime district extends 
from Invergowrie bay to the mouth of the North Esk, four 
miles N.E. from Montrose. From nearly Invergowrie to 
Craigo, two miles E. from Dundee, the banks of the Tay are 
abrupt and rocky; and near Broughty Ferry a singular 
ridge of rocks called the Hare Craigs, present some plants 
peculiar to the mountain district, as Cochlearia grcenlandica, 
ParmeJia conspersa, Gyrophora polyphylla, &c, inter- 
mingled with heaths and the usual coast-plants. From 
Broughty to Arbroath the coast is low and sandy ; and one 
portion of it, the Sands of Barrie, extending from Monifieth 
to Carnoustie, forms a kind of delta, the extreme point of 
w-hicb, sea-wards, rises abruptly into a considerable sand-hill, 
known as " Button-ness.'' These sands have formerly been 
under water, and no doubt, at some remote period, the base of 
the terrace that bounds them on the north was washed by the 
ocean waves. The surface is in some places flat and covered 
with pasturage, or marshy ; in others, diversified with nume- 
rous swelling knolls and ridges, either of bare sand, or 
clothed with mosses, lichens, and maritime grasses. Culti- 
vation is gradually advancing southwards over this sandy 
tract, and probably, in a few years, fields and gardens will 
occupy the place now claimed by Juncus Balticus, Ammo- 
phila arundinacea, and such like plants. At present, how- 
ever, it affords a rich field to the botanist, who will here find, 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

besides the usual maritime vegetation, many rarities, as 
Equisetum rariegatum, Eryngium maritimum, Vicia lallnj- 
roides, Genitalia Amarella, Weissia nigrita, Bryum t rich- 
odes, Hypnum abietinum and lycopodioides, &c. ; and the 
entomologist will be gratified with such treasures as Cara- 
bns nit ens, Phyllopertha Frischii, Argynnis Aglaia, &c. 

From Arbroath to Montrose the undulating outline of the 
coast presents a series of pictures of the wildest grandeur. 
The sandstone rocks, so easily abraided by the continued 
action of the waves, are moulded into the most fantastic 
forms, and perforated in all directions, some of the perfora- 
tions being indeed spacious caverns. The rocks and inter- 
vening bays are rich in maritime plants ; and from the 
ocean-depths there are often cast upon the beach many 
beautiful sea- weeds, corallines, and other marine productions. 
At the small fishing-village of Auchmithie, three miles east 
from Arbroath, there are rocks where, at low water, various 
algae and zoophytes may be picked in the living state, as 
Himantholia lorea, Gigartina plicata, Chylocladia kalifor- 
mis, Ptilota plumosa j3., Chondrus mammillosus, Sertularia 
operculata, Corallina officinalis, and many others. 

Beyond Montrose another tract of sandy ground occurs, 
called the links, which extends to the mouth of the North 
Esk, and produces Silene conica, Botrychium Lunaria, and 
other good plants. 

From the coast to the Sidlaw Hills the ground is undu- 
lating, mostly cultivated, and beautifully diversified with 
wood and water, being traversed by the Dighty, Feithy, Bro- 
thock, and various smaller streams. 

The Sidlaw Hills, form the southern boundary of Strath- 
more, or the " Great Valley," and their two highest summits, 
are Craig Owl and the White Hill of Auchterhouse, the for- 
mer 1700 feet, and the latter 1400 feet, above the sea- level. 
Near the pass or " glack" of Newtyle, a few miles west from 
the White Hill, there is a lower hill, named Kinpurny, on 
which a square tower was erected for an observatory ; but 
never being applied to the purpose intended, has been de- 



Xli INTRODUCTION. 

signated by the peasantry " Castle Folly." From this tower 
most extensive and interesting prospects of the snrrourjding 
scenery are to be obtained, and the muscologist will find on 
the ascent to it from the east Diphyscium foliosum. The 
whole range of the Sidlaw Hills is rich in cryptogamic 
plants, and the little glens and dells through which streams 
descend into Strathmore, have each their floral treasures. 

Strathmore is a magnificent valley, and, in an agricultural 
point of view, is the pride of Scotland. That part of it within 
the county, called the How (or hollow) of Angus, is about 
33 miles in length, by from 4 to 6 miles in breadth ; and is 
watered by the Esk, Isla, and Dean, with their numerous 
tributaries. In the fields, meadows, and woods of this vast 
vale the botanist will of course find an exuberance of plants 
common to such situations ; but on the banks of the streams 
that descend into it from the Sidlaws on the south, and the 
Grampians on the north, he will reap the richest harvest. 

That portion of the Grampian range of mountains bound- 
ing Strathmore, and extending to the northern confines of 
the county, was formerly known as the Benchinnin Hills, and 
more recently as the Clova and Glen Isla mountains. Their 
average height is about 3000 feet, and they are intersected 
by several valleys, as Glen Clova, Glen Prosen, Glen Isla, 
&c^ 

These mountains have been rendered almost classic ground 
by the researches of Mr G. Don, and the numerous eminent 
botanists who have subsequently explored them. Mr Don, 
we are informed, was a very athletic man, and possessed 
of such a constitution that neither fatigue nor privation 
could easily break it down ; and these qualities, combined 
with perseverance, and an ardent enthusiasm for his favour- 
ite study, rendered him peculiarly adapted for a good field- 
naturalist ; and such by the result of his researches he proved 
himself to be. 

In Forfar he served an apprenticeship to a watchmaker, 
and after that was out, in order probably to acquire more 
knowledge of his trade, removed to Glasgow. While in this 



INTRODUCTION. X1I1 

city his unbounded love for botanical pursuits began to show 
itself so prominently, that, he obtained the situation of assist- 
ant to the Professor of Botany in the University, and this no 
doubt afforded many facilities for increasing his information 
and improving his taste. After remaining for some time in 
this place, he went to Edinburgh, where he soon became 
acquainted with the Messrs Dicksons, and these gentlemen 
introduced him to the notice of other votaries of the science, 
both Scotch and English, more particularly to Sir J. E. 
Smith, the President of the Linnrean Society, who took a 
great interest in him, and warmly patronised his efforts to 
extend the knowledge of British Botan}'. On his return to 
his native town, Forfar, he obtained a piece of ground, and 
established a small botanic garden, to which he gave the 
name of " Dove- hill," where he cultivated many rare plants, 
especially those indigenous to Scotland. To procure these 
he made many excursions among the mountains, and as the 
ground had been hitherto almost unexplored, he could not 
have failed to make numerous and important discoveries. 
The roots and seeds he collected were propagated in the 
garden, and plants sent out to various parts of the united 
kingdom ; and the specimens dried and distributed in like 
manner. Frequently, it is. said, he would spend weeks in 
these mountain explorations; and there being then no com- 
fortable inns to bivouack in after the fatiguing labours of the 
day, he had just to munch his cheese and bread for supper, 
and lay himself down under the shelter of a rock for the 
night, with his knapsack and wallets as companions. Com- 
forts and luxuries were sacrificed to a zeal for the love of 
Flora, and a desire to make her beauties known to those of 
kindred spirit, who lacked the opportunity to seek for them 
in these wild solitudes. Perhaps his last thoughts before 
laying down his head upon the moss-covered stony pillow, 
might be thus expressed — 

" Blessed be God for flowers ! 
For the bright, gentle, holy thoughts 
That breathe 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

From out their odorous beauty, 

Like a wreath 
Of sunshine on life's hours." 

And on awakening in the morning, he might, in the spirit of 
Nicoll, have said, — 

" I saw the hills living in sunshine. 
And the things that there, free and unfetter'd, 
Had made their mountain-homes of beauty rare, 
Where Peace seem'd laid to sleep 'mid mountain -flowers, 
While Joy reclined beside the blooming couch !"' 

And perhaps added in the same spirit, though the words of 
the gifted poet were then unknown, — 

" The nameless flowers that budded up — 

Each beauteous desert child — 
The heather's crimson blossom spread 

O'er many a lonely wild : 
The lambkins sporting in the glens — 

The mountains old and bare — 
Seem'd worshipping ; and there with them 

I breathed my morning prayer." 

How Mr Don managed to dry his specimens during these 
excursions, and keep them in a good condition under such 
circumstances, is matter of surprise; especially as he must 
frequently have heen overloaded with his collections of living 
plants. On these points we have no specific information, and 
must content ourselves with the fact that such collections of 
living and dried plants were made, and contributed much to 
extend the knowledge of our native vegetation. 

Several plants have heen named in compliment to him, as 
Salix Doniana, Jungermannia Doniana, Grimmia Doniana, 
Gt/mnostomnm JDonianum, &c., and these will serve to per- 
petuate his memory better than the finest sculptured marble. 

As these mountains are annually visited by many from a 
distance, on account of their botanical riches, and the gran- 
deur of the scenery, a few remarks on the different localities 
most frequented may not be deemed out of place in a book 
like this. Tourists from the south arriving either at Dun- 
dee or Arbroath, may proceed by Forfar to Kirriemuir, five 



INTRODUCTION. N V 

miles beyond which, at the village of Cortachy. is the en- 
trance to Glen Clova. 

Glen Clova is a beautiful pastoral valley, about 15 miles 
in length, with the South Esk winding through it. Both 
sides of the river are cultivated, and its banks are studded 
with numerous farms and cottages. The mountains that 
form its boundary gradually increase in altitude, and in the 
upper part few of the summits are below 3000 feet. The 
little hamlet named the Kirktown or Milltown of Clova, is ten 
miles above Cortachy and five below Acharne, and consists of 
a few cottages, a church, a mill, and a small inn. That little 
inn has, however, sheltered many a botanist, and no doubt 
many an eye has been gladdened by its sight after a lon°- 
fatiguing ramble among the mountains. 

Almost opposite to the Kirktown, on the west side of the 
Glen, rises the mountain of Carlowie, and farther up forming 
a part of the same range, the Bassies and the Scorie. Lon«- 
ridges or "shanks" extend from these into Glen Prosen,* 
with intervening streams, whose rich verdant banks pasture 
many flocks. The summits are adorned with the beautiful 
Azalea procumbens, Cetraria nivalis, and other botanical 
rarities, and the rivulets descending their rocky fronts in 
numerous little waterfalls, are prolific in objects of interest 
to the enquiring mind. 

Three streams descend from the mountain above the Kirk- 
town of Clova, and unite before reaching the hamlet. The 
centre one is called the " Deaf-burn," on account of its 
channel being deepened towards the top, and choked up 
with vegetation. It has its source among some sjnings be-: 
low Loch Brandy. The stream on the left is designated the 
" Corrie-burn," because it leaps over the rocks into the 
Corrie from the table-lands above; and that on the right is 

* Glen Prosen is a lovely Highland glen, but its mountains beino- Jess 
steep and rocky than those of Clova, are consequently not so rich in the 
rarer alpine plants ; the mountain at the head of the glen, called the Man- 
is, however, apparently deserving of a better investigation than it has yet 
received. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

named the " Loch- burn," as it issues directly from Loch 
Brandy. This interesting mountain lake is surrounded with 
wild and picturesque rocks, the accessible parts of which, as 
well as the streams descending from it, are rich in alpine 
vegetation. At its south-west corner there is a smaller lake 
where the Isoetes lacustris and Lobelia Dortmanna are found 
in profusion ; and among the rocks where the Loch-burn 
leaves its parent-lake, the ffypnum Silesianum and other 
cryptogamic rarities are to be met with. 

Rather more than a mile to the south-east of Loch Brandy, 
there is another mountain-lake called Loch Wharral. The 
rocks surrounding it are less wild, but on the left-hand side 
a stream dashes down over steep ledges where the rare 
Alopecurus alpinus was first detected in this county. 

If a visit to the solitary Loch Lee is contemplated from 
Clova, the best way is to ascend the Greenhill on the right- 
hand side of Loch Brandy, and proceed along the crests or 
mountain-ri^'/is, with a shepherd-guide if possible, who may 
save some extra walking, to the head of Inchmagrundle, 
where a fine view of the lake is obtained, with the ruins of 
Invermark Castle in the distance. Here also are the Craigs 
of Maskeldie, and a wild gorge through which the Eanach 
comes down to the lake. 

" Rocks rise on rocks, and fountains gush between," — 

and probably a more careful exploration of them than can be 
made in a passing visit would well repay the trouble. It is 
in such a wild, yet to the naturalist inviting place as this, 
that one is tempted to exclaim with the Sherardian professor 
Dillenius, " Oh that some rich botanist, that has no relations 
or children, would build a house there ! " The long walk 
leaves much too little time for investigation, and in returning, 

" When breezy evening broods the listening vale," 

it is far from pleasant to be caught in the dense mist that so 
frequently invests these mountain-summits after sunset; nor 
will twilight be found a very safe guide through the scattered 



INTRODUCTION. XV11 

rocks and boulders, and still more treacherous morasses that 
are so prevalent. During the day the mountain-rambler can 
see about him, and with the exception of fatigue, and hunger 
if he does not provide himself against it, has no discomfort 
to dread save a Highland shower, but this is sometimes no 
trifle. All of a sudden, without giving any prelusive warning 
drops, a cloud above him, dark and menacing, bursts at once, 
and a perfect deluge comes down roaring and raging like a 
mountain torrent, and in a few moments he is drenched to 
the skin. Sometimes, too, vivid lightnings flash athwart the 
gloom, and crashing thunder-peals are reverberated from 
mountain to mountain in fearful magnificence. Frequently 
the scene is as suddenly changed. The clouds are parted, 
and the sunbeams, with all their burning impetuosity, rush 
through the openings, impatient to revel amid the freshness 
and beauty of the earth. The effect is magical ! The bright- 
est sunlight and the darkest gloom seem contending for the 
mastery, but the latter soon gives way, leaving the former to 
drink the fragrance of the freshened heath, and to brighten 
the path and cheer the heart of the drenched flower-hunter. 

Ben Red is the most conspicuous mountain to the west of 
Loch Brandy, and on its summit may be gathered Azalea 
procumbens and other plants of interest. Between this and 
the next summit, White Bent, there is the corrie of Ben 
Hard, into which a stream pours its fertilizing waters, and 
among its rocks many interesting plants may be found. At 
the back of the White Bent, between Bousties and Cairn 
Derg, the elegant Splachnum vasculosum grows in greater 
perfection than in any other station in Clova. A little be- 
yond White Bent, is the Red Craig, with the farm of Bra- 
dooney at its base, and from thence there is a path up Glen 
Bradooney, and across the Capel Mount, to Deeside, pass- 
ing the famed Lochnagar; and another path leading up 
Glen Bradooney to Bachnagairn and Loch Esk. Nearly 
opposite to the farm of Bradooney the Esk is joined by the 
Dole. The Esk is crossed by a wooden bridge,, and passing 
the uppermost farm of Clova, Acharne, you enter the famed 



XVIll INTRODUCTION. 

Glen Dole. The front of the mountain facing you above 
Acharne is called Craig Mellon, and is conspicuous from the 
hamlet of Clova, in the mornings generally wearing a misty 
coronal, and in the evenings often surrounded with the un- 
describable glory of an alpine sunset. The path winds round 
the base of Craig Mellon, and about a mile and a-half above 
Acharne, the Phee falls into the Dole. Glen Phee is on the 
left, and at its head are waterfalls that attract the eye soon 
after leaving Acharne. The Garryburn rocks bound it on 
the south, and Craig Rennet on the north, both of which are 
rich in alpine plants. The principal front of Craig Rennet, 
however, looks into the upper part of Glen Dole, and far- 
ther up, on the same side of the glen, rises the bold rocky 
summit of Craig Maid. At the foot of this mountain, through 
a deep narrow gorge, the White Water pours down from the 
table-lands above, forming, in its descent, several beautiful 
waterfalls, which, though not of great magnitude, are ren- 
dered very picturesque from the romantic character of the 
scenery around. The vastness and grandeur of the rocky 
steeps above them diminish their effect upon the eye ; and 
even the fall of Feula, which comes down dashing and foam- 
ing from the western shoulder of the mountain, looks at a 
distance like a silver thread suspended among the verdant 
and flower-garnished cliffs. 

The rocks of Craig Rennet and Craig Maid, with the ra- 
vine of the White Water, and the table-lands above, form a 
paradise to the lover of alpine botany, as well as mountain 
scenery, — not a rocky shell* but displays some floral treasure, 
nor a glance on either side but imparts lofty and ennobling 
thoughts. In these mountain -solitudes one feels, as it were, 
in the immediate presence of his Maker, and this feeling, 
while it enhances the pleasure of such a pursuit, gives to it 
an importance which can only be appreciated by those minds 
that are accustomed to trace the wisdom and goodness of the 
Creator in His works. 

The lower parts of these mountains are composed of de- 
bris caused by the numerous descending streams and the 



INTUODUCTION. XIX 

winter frosts. Every spring, when the snows hegin to melt, 
wast masses of rock become detached from the heights above, 
and roll down their sides with a noise, the shepberds say, 
like thai of the loudest thunder. The base of Craig Maid is 
strewed with multitudes of such rocky masses, which are now 
covered with mosses and herbage, and the intervening cavi- 
ties they form often afford a secure shelter to prowling Rey- 
nard. To the prowling botanist they are even more attrac- 
tive, presenting him with the beautiful Linnepa borealis, the 
rare Hypnum Crista-castrensis, Jungermannia setiformis, 
Taylori, and concinnata, Dicranum polycarpon, and nume- 
rous other rarities. A number of old-fashioned birch trees, 
that have seen " the light of other days," are scattered about, 
and their trunks are invested with many mosses, lichens, and 
Hepaticee. Among them may be noticed Orthoirichum 
Drummondii, Sticta pulmonaria, and Jungermannia ciliaris 
in fructification. Towards the foot of the cliffs the Lyco- 
podium annotinum is plentiful, and in rocky crevices the 
elegant Polystichum Lonchitis spreads out its circle of rigid 
fronds. Higher on the cliffs hosts of rare things court the 
attention, as Pyrola rotundifolia, and secunda, Veronica 
scexatilis, and alpina, Erigeron alpinus, Saussurea alpina 
Sonchus alpinus, Potentilla alpestris, with numerous Carices, 
Grasses, Salices, Hieracia, &c, and many rare cryptogamic 
plants. 

The White Water and the Dole unite a little below a 
rocky abutment of Cairn Lunkar, and on the right hand side 
of this a steep rugged path called " Jock's Road," leads to 
the shieling of Lunkar. From this small domicile, where 
the botanist will find a hearty welcome to such shelter as it 
affords, excursions may be made to various interesting loca- 
lities. The original station for Carex rariflora is in the 
immediate vicinity; and the Little Culrannoch, on which 
the Lychnis alpina grows, is little more than a mile to the 
south-west, and may be reached most easily by following the 
Feula Burn (where Carex aquatilis, Phleum alpinum, and 
Splachnum vasculosum may be gathered) for a mile or so, 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

then turning to the right after passing its junction with the 
Culrannoch Burn. 

If it is intended to proceed to Canlochen after leaving the 
Culrannoch, hold right west, and cross the Red Burn and 
theGlashie Burn, hoth of which fall into Glen Caness, and 
if time permits, walk along the banks of the latter stream, 
and enter Glen Canlochen at its head by one or other of the 
numerous streams that pour their genial currents into that 
beautiful sequestered valley. The rocks about the head of 
the glen, and those on the south-west side, are richest in bo- 
tanical rarities. Most of the Glen Dole plants are found 
there, with the addition of the exquisite Gentiana nivalis and 
other interesting treasures. The Car ex atrata and capil- 
laris are peculiarly abundant there; and on the banks of the 
streams a profusion of Alopecurus alpinus, Phleum alpinum, 
Veronica alpina, and Epilobium alsinifolium, &c. find homes. 

About two miles from the head of the glen, at the foot of 
the mountain called the Learner, and opposite to another 
named Monega, not far from the confluence of the two 
streams that form the Isla, there is a shieling where the 
weary botanist is never denied a night's shelter. Although 
Canlochen be a deer-forest, and these beautiful animals 
abundant, they do not seem to be in the least afraid of flower- 
hunters, as they continue to graze in the utmost confidence, 
though passed within a few yards. Part of Caness and Can- 
lochen have been planted with larches as a cover for the deer ; 
and in the woodland glades the verdure is enamelled with 
numerous varieties of the Viola lutea, and various interesting 
Equisettr and Carices. 

The sloping declivity of the White Craig on the east side 
of Canlochen, is called the " Ewe howes," and pastures a 
considerable herd of cattle. The Sibbaldia procumbens, 
Viola lutea, Veronica alpina, and several other choice plants, 
are here in profusion ; and on the banks of a stream that 
divides it from Cairn Curr, Salix avenaria is quite at home. 
In returning to Clova, the route may be varied by ascend- 
ing the last mentioned stream, and proceeding by the head 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

of Glen Culh', where Don found the rare Hierochloe borea- 
lis, to Glen Phee, and thence into Glen Clova. If it is not 
intended to return to Clova, a footpath leads from the head 
of Canloehen into Glen Callater, and from the foot of the 
loch, there is a cart road to the Castleton of Braemar. Strath- 
more may he reached by descending Canloehen into Glen 
Isla, at the foot of which, five miles below the Kirktown, is the 
beautiful waterfall called the Reeky Linn, at the head of the 
Den of Airlie, three miles distant from Alyth, and nine from 
the railway station at Newtyle ; the walk or ride across the 
richly cultured vale or How of Strathmore affording a plea- 
sant contrast to the wild grandeur of the rugged mountain 
scenery left behind. 



( xxiii ) 



TABLE 



PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL WEEDS OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Ranunculus acris 
xepens 
bulbosus 
Papaver Rhoeas 
Fumaria officinalis 
Capsella Bursa-Pustoris 
Camelina sativa 
Cardamine pratensis 
Sinapis arvensis 
Rapbamis Raphauistiuin 
Viola tricolor 
Agrostemma Gitliiigo 
Spergula arvensis 
S tell aria media 
Geranium molle 

dissection 
Ononis arvensis 
Medicago lapulina 
Trifolium arvense 

procumbens 
Ervum birsutum 
Sclerantlms annuns 
.Ethusa Cynapium 
Scandix Pecten 
Sherardia arvensis 
Fedia olitoria 
Knautia ai'vensis 
Soncbus arvensis 
Lapsana communis 
Leoutodon Taraxacum 
Cnicus arvensis 
Centaurea Cyanus 

Scabiosa 



Artemisia vulgaris 
Tussilago Farfara 
Senecio vulgaris 

Jacobaea 

aquaticus 
Bellis perennis 
Chrysanthemum Leucantbenmm 

segetum 
Convolvulus arvensis 
Litbospermum arvense 
Lycopsis ai'vensis 
Myosotis arvensis 
Veronica serpyllifolia 

bederifolia 

agrestis 

arvensis 
Bartsia Odontites 
Rbinantbus major 
Mentha arvensis 
Galeopsis Tetrahit 
versicolor 
Lamium amplexicaule 
Stacbys arvensis 
Anagallis arvensis 
Plantago lanceolata 
Atriplex patula 
Polygonum aviculare 

Convolvulus 
Persicaria 
Rumex Acetosa 

Acetosella 
Euphorbia helioscopia 
Peplus 



The genera and species of plants contained in the above 
table, though interesting to the botanist, are generally an- 
noying to the farmer, and such of them as are proved to be 
injurious to his crops should be diminished by every possible 
means. With this view the following queries are put to the 



XXIV TABLE OF AGRICULTURAL WEEDS. 

farmers of Forfarshire, and it may be to their advantage 
carefully to attend to them. 

On what soils do the plants in the above table generally 
grow ? On wet or dry, rich or poor, clay, sand, alluvium, &c, 
and what kind of rocks does the soil rest upon? 

What effect does draining, subsoil ploughing, rich manur- 
ing, &c, have upon the diminishing of such weeds ; and how 
are they affected by the different kinds of soil and locality, 
the nature of the seasons, and the various modes of culture 
adopted ? 

Answers to these queries from the various cultivators of 
land in the county, might lead to some beneficial results, 
and if such are sent to the author, he will lodge them in the 
proper quarter. 

To prevent mistakes, it might be as well to communicate 
specimens of the plants so commented on, and these will be 
preserved for future reference. Specimens also of the differ- 
ent kinds of blight, or Eungi, affecting various species of 
grain, with their comparative prevalence in different places 
and seasons, in connection with answers to the above queries, 
might be of importance to those who make the improvement 
of land their study. 



FLOEA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Class I.— DICOTYLEDONES. 

Sub-Class I.— THALAMIFLOR^. 

Ord. I.— RANUNCULACE^E, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 15. F. 6. Sp. and v. Br. 42, F. 20. 

Thalictrum, L. Meadow-Rue. 

Br. sp. and v. L F. 2, 

T. alpinum, L. Alpine Meadow- Rue. H. 2, B. 3. — 
F. July. P. 

Marshy banks, sides of streams, and wet rocks, among 
the Clova Mountains, not uncommon, and reaching to their 
summits, upwards of 3000 feet. 

Found not only on the tops of the mountains, but in the 
alpine valleys. I have not seen it, however, descending into 
the plains, like many of our alpine plants, as Oxyria ren- 
formis and Alchemilla alpina. Rev. J. S. Barty. 

In Inverness-shire, Mr Croall has found it among the 
chingle of the sea-beach, associated with the Steenhammera 
maritima and other maritime plants. 

T. minus, L. Lesser Meadow-Rue. H. 2, B. 3. — F. June 
August. P. 

Sandy sea shores in various places, as Lunan Bay, and on 
the sandy beach to the west of Arbroath. 

Sands of Barrie, Rev. J. S. Barty. Montrose Links, 



2 FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 

Messrs Croall and Kerr. "• In sandy, stony high lands, and 
by the sea side." Mr G. Don. He does not say in what 
part of the "high lands" it has been found, and, from my 
own experience, I cannot view it otherwise than as a coast 
plant. The T. majus of Jacquin, which is considered a var. 
of this, I have, however, gathered on the banks of Loch Tay, 
above Kenmore, Perthshire, but have not observed it in this 
county. 

Anemone, L. Anemony, or Wind-flower. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 1. 

A. nemorosa, L. Wood Anemony. H. 3, B. 4. — F. Apr. 
May. P. 

Abundant in the woods, and on the hills and mountains, 
and often beautifully tinged with blue and crimson. Though 
loving the shady charms of the woodland, this elegant flower 
seems more partial to the open heath, where it can more 
easily hold communion with the flaunting breezes, and enjoy 
the genial sunshine. 

I have often gathered it with flowers deeply purple. Rev. 
J. S. Barty. 

When May's soft breezes fan the woods, 

And waft from May-flowers fragrance sweet, 
With what delight, thou lovely gem, 

Do we thy open blossoms greet ! 
They speak of Friendship warm, sincere, 

Of Love that cannot prove untrue ; 
Then oh ! how beautiful, how dear, 

Thy white flowers, crimson-tinged and blue ! 

In woodland fresh, where warbling voice 

Of small birds charms the wanderer's ear, 
And green trees, waving in the wind, 

Make music, to his heart as dear ; 
Thy lovely blossoms from the glade 

Look up towards the sunny sky ; 
Then earthward turn their modest glance, 

As if afraid to look too high. 

Their graceful forms, so bright, so fair, 

Arrest the wanderer's curious eye ; 
Who cannot fail to learn from them 

The virtue of Humility. 
It is not, merely then, sweet flower, 

Thy only mission to impart 
Beauty and grace to heath and bower, 

But to instruct the human heart ! 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 3 

Ranunculus, L. Crowfoot, or Spearwort. 

Br. sp. and v. 20. F. 13. 

R. aquatilis, L. Water Crowfoot. H. 4, B. 5. — F. May, 
June. P. 

In pools, ditches, and streams, frequent. 

R. hederaceus, L. Ivy Crowfoot. H. 4, B. 5. — F. Sum- 
mer. P. . 

In ditches, rather common. 

R. lingua, L. Great Spear-wort. H. 4, B. 6. — F. 

July, August. P. 

Not common, but met with on the margins of the Lakes 
of Rescobie, Balgavies, Lundie, &c. 

East end of Forfar Loch, Mr G. Don. I have also met 
with it there. Loch of Balshandy, Lundie, about 200 yards 
east from the turnpike-road. Rev. J. S. Barty. 

R. Jlammula, L. Lesser Spear-wort. II. 4, B. 6 — F. 
July, August. P. 

Common in watery and marshy places, from the sea-coast 
to the mountains. 

Var. /3. reptans, R. reptans, Lightf. 

Frequent by the sides of alpine streams and alpine lakes, 
as Loch Brandy, Clova, &c. 

R. Ficaria, L. Pilewort Crowfoot, or Lesser Celandine. 
H. 5, B. 6. — F. March, May, P. — (Ficaria ranunculoides, 
DC.) 

Wet and shady places, not uncommon. Sometimes the 
petals are white on the upper surface, except at the base 
(with no appearance of decay), the under surface retaining 
its usual dull-greenish hue. 

R. alpestris, L. Alpine White Crowfoot. H. 5, B. 5. — 
F. May. P. 

This beautiful plant was found, it is stated, " by sides of 
rills on the Clova mountains," by Don ; but no particular 
station is specified, and it is doubtful whether any other 
botanical explorer has met with it. Indeed, its flowering in 



4 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

May, when generally these mountains have not doffed their 
wintry garb of snow, may have operated in preventing its re- 
discovery, as it is usually in July and August that the lovers 
of Flora delight themselves with the pleasures, and encounter 
the fatigues of rambling amid these mountain solitudes. 

R. auricomus, L. Wood Crowfoot. H. 5, B. 7. — F. 
April, May. P. 

Frequent in Woods. Side of the Isla, at Reeky Linn. 
Ruthven and Airlie Castle, also about Kettins, Rev. J. S. 
Barty. Kinnordy Woods, Mr J. Donald. 

R. sceleratus, L. Celery-leaved Crowfoot. H. 5, B. 7. — 
F. June, July. P. 

Occasionally in wet places. Banks of the Lakes of Forfar 
and Lundie, and side of a rill at Restenet. It was formerly 
found in the old quarry at Magdalen-yard green, Dundee, 
and in the old Meadows, but improvement has driven it from 
these stations. 

Near the Lunatic Asylum, Montrose, and abundant on the 
west side of the Montrose Basin, &c, Mr A. Croall. 

R. acris, L. Upright Meadow Crowfoot. H. 5, B. 7- — 
F. June, July. P. 

The common buttercups of our meadows, and designated 
in this county " yellow gowans," probably because they are 
as abundant as their associates the daisies, Bellis perennis, 
which are popularly known by the name of " gowans." It 
occasionally occurs with full flowers. 

R. repens, L. Creeping Crowfoot. H. 5, B. 7. — F. 
June, August. P. 

Too common about the margins of fields. 

R. bulbosus, L. Bulbous Crowfoot. H. 6, B. 7. — F. 
May, June, P. 

Not uncommon, as on the Magdalen-yard green, Dundee, 
Lawhill, Balgay, Mains, Hare Craigs, near Arbroath, &c, 
Usan, Mr A. Croall. With full flowers on the south bank 
of the Lake of Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

R. hirsutus, Curt. Pale Hairy Crowfoot. H. 6, B. 7- — 
F. June to Oct. A. — {R. Pkilonotis, Ehrh.) 



FLORA. OF FORFARSHIRE. 5 

On an embankment on the Forfar road, a little east from 
Rossie Toll, Mr A. Croall. 

Caltha, L. Marsh Marigold. 
Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

C. palustris, L. Common Marsh Marigold. H. 6. B. 8. 
— F. April, June. P. 

Common in marshy ground, and by the sides of streams, 
ornamenting the places of its abode with its abundance of ele- 
gant yellow blossoms and beautiful leaves. It occurs from 
the coast to half-way up the mountains, and in specimens 
gathered in Glen Dole, on the mountain Craig Maid, the 
leaves are acutely crenated. {Var. 0. minor, Bab.) 

Mr Croall has found it with full flowers. 

Var. /3. radicans, Hook. (C. radicans, Forst.) 

" In a ditch that runs from the farm-house called Haltoun, 
on the estate of C. Gray, Esq., of Carse, Forfarshire, 1790," 
Mr Geo. Don. No other botanist has, I believe, found this 
plant, but if the station is not destroyed, future research may 
determine whether it is not identical with C. palustre, 0. 
minor, the alpine state of the common plant. 

Trollius, L. Globe-flower. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. Europasus, L. Mountain Globe-flower, or " Lucken- 
Gowans." H. 7, B. 8.— F. June, July. P. 

On a moist bank in Baldovan Woods, but not plentiful. 
Balkemnock Woods, rather abundant. Margin of a small 
loch on the west side of the White Hill, Sidlaw, and on the 
banks of a rill descending from the east side of the White 
Hill into a peat-bog, associated with Galium boreaJe. It was 
formerly abundant in Meiic-moor Wood (now cut down), on 
the estate of Camperdown. 

Fir-woods near Forfar, Mr G. Don. Banks of the Lochs 
of Rescobie and Balgavies, and at Restenet, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. Banks of the N. and S. Esk, frequent, Messrs A. 
Croall and G. M'Farlane. Den of Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. 
" I have picked this plant on the Forfarshire mountains at 



6 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

the height of 3000 feet, but it seems a native of the plains, 
and is abundant on the streams coming from the Sidlaws, 
probably not above 100 feet higher than the sea-level. It is 
plentiful on the Isla, Esk, &c, but these rivers having alpine 
sources, the stations there would not prove the plant to be 
truly a lowland one," Rev. J. S. Barty. 

I have frequently met with the elegant Globe-flower 
among the mountains in the counties of Forfar, Perth, and 
Aberdeen, but from its stunted appearance, could not look 
upon it otherwise than as an adventurer among these alpine 
rocks, its true home being apparently the moistest parts of 
shady woods. 

Sometimes petalloid leaves occur on the stem a little be- 
low the flower. 

Aquilegia, L. Columbine. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. vulgaris, L. Common Columbine. H. 8, B. 9. — F. 
June. P. 

Mr G. Don enumerates this in his list, but gives no station 
for it. It occurs in Balgay Wood, near Dundee, but has 
there been planted, as well as Saxifraga umbrosa, &c. 

On the banks of the N. Esk, on the Kincardine side, on 
the farm of Capa, opposite Strickathro, and in the Den of 
Morphie, the plant has been found by Messrs Cruickshank 
and Croall. In the Den of Morphie it appears to be indi- 
genous, covering some acres of a steep brae never cultivated, 
and at a considerable distance from houses, and where I do 
not think it likely that any have ever been, Mr A. Croall. 
In one or two places on the Moor of Craigo, Mr A. Kerr. 

Ord. II.— BERBERIDE^E Vent. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 1. Sp.Br.2. F.\. 

Berberis, L. Barberry. 

Br. Sp. 1. F. 1. 

B. vulgaris, L. Common Barberry. H. 9, B. 10. — F. 
June. S. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. / 

Hedges and shrubberies, as at the Burn, Kinnaird, Guth- 
rie, &c. Mr A. Croall. Likely in all cases planted. 

Ord. III.— NYMPH^EACEiE, DC. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. Br. 3. F. 2, 

Nymph^ea, L. White Water-Lily. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

N. alba, L. Great White Water-Lily. H. 10, B. 10.— 
F. June, July. P. 

In the lochs of Rescobie, Balgavies, Pitlyall, &c. 
The water-lily loves best the quiet lake, 

" Crowning the depths as with the light serene 
Of a pure heart" — 

Yet it is occasionally found in running waters. 

" Mark where transparent waters glide, 
Soft flowing o'er their tranquil bed — 
There, cradled in the dimpling tide, 
Nymphffia rests her lovely head. 

But, conscious of the earliest beam, 

She rises from her humid nest, 
And sees, reflected from the stream, 

The virgin whiteness of her breast. 

Till the bright day-star to the west 

Declines, in ocean's surge to lave, 
Then, folded in her modest vest, 

She slumbers on the rocking wave." 

Nuphar, Sm. Yellow Water-lily. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

N. lutea, Sm. Common Yellow Water-Lily. H. 10. B. 
11. — F. June, July. P. (Nymphaa L.) 

In the lochs of Rescobie and Balgavies, frequent. 
Pools above the Bridge of Dun, Mr A. Croall. 



H FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Ord. IV.— PAPAVERACE.&, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 4. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 13. F. 4. 

Papaver, L. Poppy. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 3. 

P. Argemone, L. Long Prickly-headed Poppy. H. 11. 
B. 11.— F. May, June. A. 

Occurred at the west end of Will's Braes in 1841, on a 
bank which is now (1846) destroyed by the operations on the 
Perth railway. 

Fields, rather common, Mr A. Croall. 

P. Rhwas, L. Common Red Poppy. H. 12, B. 12.— F. 
June, Oct. A. Very abundant in the corn-fields, its bril- 
liant scarlet corollas contrasting finely with the green corn ; 
a contrast which, however, has no charms to the eye of the 
farmer. 

P. dubium, L. Long smooth-headed Poppy. H. 11, 
B. 12. — F. July. A. Common in fields and waste places, 
but evanescent in its appearance, Mr A. Croall. 

(Chelidonium majus, L. Common Celandine, is men- 
tioned in the New Stat. Account of For/., as occurring in 
several parishes, but most likely in all cases garden escapes.) 

Ord. V.— FUMARIACEJE, DC. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 9. F. 5. 

Fumaria, L. Fumitory. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 4. 

F. capreolata, L. Ramping Fumitory. H. 13, B. 13. 
— F. May, August. A. 

Near the Hare Craigs, Broughty Ferry, &c, but not 
common. 

F. officinalis, L. Common Fumitory. H. 14, B. 14. — 
F. throughout the summer. A. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 9 

Plentiful in fields, and by way-sides. Var. /3. (F. media, 
DC.) is frequently met with in similar situations. 

F. micrantha, Lag. Small-flowered Fumitory. H. 14, 
B. 14. — Summer. A. 

Airlie, Dr Walker Arnott. 

Corydalis, DC. Corydalis. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 1. 

C. claviculata, DC. White Climbing Corydalis. H. 15, 
B. 13. — F. June, July. A. (Fumaria claviculata, L.) 

This is given in Don's list, but without any locality being 
specified. It is frequent in Perthshire. 



Ord. VI.— CRUCIFER^E, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 31. F. 22. Sp. and v. Br. 82. F. 33. 

Cakile G^rt. Sea Rocket. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

C. maritima, Willd. Purple Sea Rocket. H. 16, B. 30. 
— F. June, Sept. A. 

Plentiful on the sandy sea-shores, the flowers generally 
more or less tinged with purple, though frequently white. 

Thlaspi, L. Penny-cress. 

't 

Br. sp. 3. F. 2. 

T. arvense, L. Mithridate Mustard, or Penny-cress, 
H. 18, B. 28.— F. June, July. A, 

Tn corn-fields, but rare, as near Brechin and Arbroath, 
Mr G. Don. 

T. alpestre, L. Alpine Penny-cress. H. 18, B. 28. — F. 
June, July. P. 

Rocks of Canlochen, Prof. Graham. I have also found 
it there, but sparingly. 

a 2 



10 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Capsella, DC. Shepherd's Purse. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. Bursa-pastoris, DC. Common Shepherd's Purse. 
H. 19, B. 29.— F. the whole Summer. A. {Thlaspi, L.) 
Abundant by way-sides and on waste ground. 

Teesdalia, Br. Teesdalia. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. nudicaulis Br. Naked-stalked Teesdalia. H. 19, 
B. 28.— F. April, July. A. (Iberis, E. Bot.) 

Plentiful on some parts of the sands of Barrie, particularly 
near the east end, and also a little to the eastward of Moni- 
fieth, varying much in size, and with the stems from simple 
to much branched. Hare Craigs, near Broughty Ferry, 
where I have seen its little buds opening in March. 

On the estate of Pitruchie, about one mile south from 
Forfar, Mr G. Bon. Montrose Links, Mr G. Macfarlane. 
Sandy ground a little to the north of Montrose, Mr A. 
Bowie. In a field near Charlton Wood, plentiful, Mr A. 
Kerr. Banks of the South Esk, near Kinnaird, Mr John 
Laing. 

Lepidium, L. Pepperwort. 
Br. sp. 5. F. 2. 

L. campestre, Br. Common Mithridate Pepperwort. H. 
20, B. 29.— F. May. August. A. 

Sides of fields, about Ninewells, Invergowrie Bay. 

L. Smithii, Hook. Smooth Field Pepperwort. H. 20, 
B. 29.— F. June, July. P.? 

Foot of the Balbeuchly incline, Newtyle Railway, spar- 
ingly- 

Banks of the South Esk, at Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 
Bridge of Dun, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

Cochlearia, L. Scurvy-grass. 
Br. sp. 5. F. 2. 

C. officinalis, L. Common Scurvy-grass. H. 21, B. 26. 
— F. May, August. A. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 11 

On the coast, in moist places among the rocks and braes, 
and on the beach, not uncommon, especially between Ar- 
broath and Montrose. 

C. Groenlandica, L. Greenland Scurvy-grass. H. 21, 
B. 27. — F. June, July. A. (C. officinalis, var. Hook. 
Scot. C. of. /3. alpina, Bab.) 

On the banks of Carnoustie Burn, near its confluence with 
the sea, growing in low, scattered tufts, and conspicuous on 
the saline sward from its profusion of flowers. In wet places, 
at the west end of the Hare Craigs, it was met with some 
years ago, but is not now to be seen there. Frequent by the 
sides of streams, among the higher mountains, and generally 
of greater size than on the coast. On the summit of the 
Little Culrannoch, Clova, 3200 feet above the sea-level, it 
grows, associated with the rare Lychnis alpina. 

Sides of Montrose Basin, Mr A. Croall. 

SlTBTJLARIA, L. Awl-WOrt. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. aquatica, L. Awl-wort. H. 22, B. 30. — F. July, 
August. P. 

In the little loch at the south-west corner of Loch Brandy, 
Clova, where the Isoetes grows. It may likely occur in some 
of the other alpine lakes, but has not, that I am aware, been 
observed. 

Draba, X. Whitlow-grass. 
Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 3. 

D. mrna, L. Common Whitlow-grass. H. 22, B. 26. — 
F. Feb. May. A. (Erophila verna, DC.) 

Abundant on walls, banks, sandy pastures, &c, varying 
from a quarter of an inch to three or four inches in height. 
Except in early seasons, its flowers do not expand till March, 
and it continues blossoming till the end of May. 

D. incana, L. Twisted-podded W r hitlow-grass. H. 23, 
B. 26.— F. June, July. B. 

Mountain rocks of Clova and Canlochen, frequent. Spe- 



12 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

ciraens gathered in the corrie of Ben-Hard were a foot high, 
branched from the root, and throwing out a few flowering 
branches from the summit. 

In a rocky ravine on the Capel Mount, not far from Bra- 
dooney, Clova, Mr A. Croall. 

Mr G. Don mentions a var. /3. found among rocks on the 
Clova Mountains, which is probably the branched state of the 
plant. 

(D. rupestris, frequent on the Breadalbane range, has not, 
I believe, been found in the Forfarshire mountains, but 
should be carefully searched for among the highest rocky 
summits.) 

D. muralis, L. Speedwell-leaved Whitlow-grass. H. 23, 
B. 26 .— F. May. A. 

About Forfar. Hook. Br. Ft. 

Camelina, Crantz. Gold of Pleasure. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. sativa, Crantz. Common Gold of Pleasure. H. 23, B. 
27. — F. June, July. A. (Myagrum, L. Alyssum, E. 
Bot.) 

Among rubbish near the gas-work, Montrose, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. When a boy I noticed this plant very com- 
mon among flax, along with the cultivation of which it has 
now almost disappeared from the district, Mr A. Croall. 

Though occasionally naturalized, it has no claim to be con- 
sidered indigenous. 

Alyssum, L. Alyssum. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

A. calycinum, L. H. 24, B. 25. — F. May, June. A. 

Links of Arbroath, Miss E. Carnegie. Field near a small 
farm-house about two miles east from Montrose, on the south 
side of the new road to Aberdeen, and nearly opposite the 
gate of Charlton, Dr William Beid. Also in a field directly 
south from the above station, on the south side of a road run- 
ning parallel, and about half-way between it and the sea. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 13 

The field had been for some years in grass, and was then 
( 1839) covered with broom. The Alyssum was growing in a 
spot extending over about twenty yards, but most plentifully 
by the side of a large bush of broom. Half of the specimens 
were left, and next year, 1840, I returned to the spot with 
the hope of benefitting from my lenity in the previous sea- 
son ; but after carefully searching the field on three differ- 
ent occasions, not a single plant could be found. In Dr 
Reid's locality I could never find it, but that field was more 
regularly cultivated than the other, and, though both sandy, 
the former is less elevated. Mr A. Croall. 

Cardamine, L. Bitter-cress. 

Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 3. 

C. amara, L. Large-flowered Bitter-cress. H. 24, B. 
22.— F. April, June. P. 

Side of a rivulet, Kinaber, near Montrose, Mr G. M' Far- 
lane. Ditch a little to the south of the " old kirk of Logie," 
Mr A. Croall. Den of Airlie, left bank, below the Castle. 
Rev. J. S. Barty. 

C. pratensis, L. Common Bitter-cress. H. 25, B. 21. — 
F. May, June. P. 

Plentiful in wet meadows, by the sides of streams, and as- 
cending to a great elevation on the mountains. The flowers 
vary from white to lilac, and are occasionally full. 

A curious monstrosity of this species was found on the Sid- 
law Hills by Mr G. Lawson, which is fully described in the 
Phytologist, v. ii., p. 579. 

C. kirsuta, L. Hairy Bitter-cress. H. 25, B. 21. — F. 
April, July. A. 

(C. flexuosa, "With. C. sylvatica, Link.) Mr Babington 
considers C. sylvatica a good species, and G.Jlexuosa a syno- 
myme of it. 

Wet banks, Ninewells. Ditch-banks, Auchterhouse. 
Ditches, Belmont, near Meigle. Reeky Linn. Sides of 
streams and moist places among the Clova Mountains. 

Marten's Den, and the Dens of Fullerton, Dun, Middle- 
ton, &c, Mr A. Croall. 



14 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Arabis, L. Rock-cress. 

Br.sp.5. F.2. 

A. ciliata, Br. Fringed Rock-cress. H. 26, B. 20.— F. 
July. B. (Turritis alpina, L.) 

On rocks in Glen Esk, near Lochlee. 1801, Mr G. Don. 

This rare rock-cress Mr Don considered to be a new spe- 
cies at the time of its discovery, but Mr Mackay, on a visit to 
him at Forfar in 1811, identified it as the same he had ga- 
thered in Ireland ; and Sir J. E. Smith pointed out its sy- 
nonyme. 

A. hirsuta, Br. Hairy Rock-cress. H. 26, B. 20. — F. 

May, July. B. {Turritis hirsuta, L.) 

Not common, but widely distributed over the county. 
Wayside between Carnoustie and West Haven. Will's Braes, 
near Dundee. Lundie Craigs. Reeky Linn, north side. 
Rocks of Canlochen, flowering in July 1843, and in fruit July 
1846, from five to sixteen inches high. 

Rocks at Dysart, and near Ethie, Mr A. Croall. Banks 
of the South Esk, and pastures about Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 
Den of Airlie, left bank, below the Castle, Rev. J. S. Barty. 
Capel Mount, Clova, Mr A. Kerr. 

It is worthy of remark, that, for some years past, this 
plant has been rather scarce in the Will's Braes station, but 
since the rocks have been cut for the Perth Railway, in some 
places along the cutting, numerous young vigorous seedlings 
were coming up in January 1847. 

Turritis, L. Tower Mustard. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. glabra, L. Long-podded Tower Mustard. H. 26, B. 
20.— F. May, June. A. 

Near Kinnaird, Mr G. Don. 

Barbarea, Br. Winter-cress. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 2. 

B. vulgaris, Br. Bitter Winter-cress, or Yellow Rocket. 
H. 26, B. 19.— F. May, August. (B ? or P.) • 

Frequent in waste places and sides of fields. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 15 

B. arcuata, Reich. Curved-podded Winter-cress. H. 
(Intr. p. 37.) B. 19.— F. June. 

Tn marshy ground about the old Priory of Restenet. 

Nasturtium, Br. Cress. 

Br.sp.b. F.2. 

N. officinale, Br. Water-Cress. H. 27, B. 18.— F. June, 
July. P. (Sisymbrium nasturtium, L.) 

Plentiful in ditches and wet places from the sea-shore to 
the mountain valleys. 

N. terrestre, Br. Marsh-cress. H. 27, B. 19. — F. June, 
Sept. A. (N. palustre, DC. Sisymbrium, Willd. and E. 
Bot. S. amphibium, var. L.) 

Near Forfar, on the Brechin road, but rare. 
Loch of Forfar, Mr G. M'Farlane. Montrose Links, 
about the Lunatic Asylum, Mr A. Croall. 

Sisymbrium, L. Hedge Mustard. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 3. 

S. officinale, L. Common Hedge Mustard. H. 28, B. 
22.— F. June, July. A. 

Abundant by almost every wayside . 

S. Sophia, L. Fine-leaved Hedge Mustard, or Flaxweed. 
H. 28, B. 23.— F. June, August. A. 

West end of Monifieth, in June 1831, but not since ob- 
served there. 

Near the confines of Angusshire on the Perth road, Mr G. 
Don. I have searched for it in vain there, but some plants, 
especially annuals, are very inconstant in their appearance, 
even where neither alteration nor improvement lends their 
aid to eradicate them. Behind a garden west from the toll- 
bar, Montrose Links, Mr A. Croall. 

S. thalianum, Hook. Common Thale-cress. H. 28, B. 
23. — F. during the summer. (Arabis, L. Conringia tha- 
liana, B,.) 

Abundant on dry rocky banks in many places; on the 



16 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

coast, and at Will's Braes, as well as inland, about the Reeky 
Linn, &c. 

Erysimum, L. Treacle Mustard. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

E. miliaria, L. Garlic Treacle Mustard, Jack-by-the- 
Hedge, or Sauce-alone. H. 29, B. 23.— F. May, June. B. 
(Alliaria officinalis, DC. Sisymbrium Alliaria, Koch.) 

On the wayside between Montrose and Brechin. 
Wayside east from the gate of Dun, and woods at Kin- 
naird, abundant, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

Cheiranthus, L. Wall-flower. 

Br. sp. 1- F. 1. 

0. Cheiri, L. Common Wall-flower. H. 29, B. 18.— F. 
April, August. S. (C. fruticulosus, L.) 

Adorns the ruins of the Abbey of Arbroatb, and one near 
the Baikie ; also on rocks by the sea-shore, Mr G. Don. On 
the venerable and magnificent ruin first mentioned, I picked 
it both in flower and fruit in August 1839. On the grey 
walls of Airlie Castle, where it finds a secure abode in their 
crevices, and, in recompense for the shelter they afford it, 
sheds around them its beauty and perfume, Rev. J. S. Barty. 
Upper North Water Bridge, near Tnglismaldie, Mr A. 
Croall. 

The Wall-flower's associations are beautifully expressed in 
the following anonymous sonnet : — 

THE WALL-FLOWEE. 

" Cheerful 'midst desolation's sadness — thou — 

Fair flower, art wont to grace the mouldering pile, 

And brightly bloom o'er ruin, like a smile 
Eeposing calm on Age's furrowed brow. — 

Sweet monitor ! an emblem sure I see 

Of virtue, and of virtue's power, in thee. 
For though thou cheerest the dull ruin's gloom, 

Still when thou'rt found upon the gay parterre, 

There thou art meetest — fairest of the fair ; — 
So virtue, while it robs of dread the tomb, 

Shines in the crown that youth and beauty wear, 

Being best of all the gems that glitter there." 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 17 

Hesperis, L. Dame's Violet. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1 

H. matronalis, L. Common Dame's Violet. H. 30, B. 
22.— F. May, June. P. 

In a field near the village of Ninewells, June 1833, but 
probably not indigenous. 

On banks near Airlie Castle, Mr G. Don. 

Brassica, L. Cabbage. 

Br. sp. 6. F. 1. 

B. campestris, L. Common Wild Navew. H. 31, B. 
24.— F. June, July. A. 

Corn-fields near Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

Sinapis, L. Mustard. 

Br. sp. 5. F. 1. 

S. arvensis, L. Wild Mustard, or Charlock. H. 31, B 
24.— F. May, August. A. 

Too common in corn-fields in early summer often render- 
ing their whole surface quite yellow. The flowers are known 
in this county by the name of " scalies." Oat-crops are 
most infested with it. 

Raphanus, L. Radish. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

R. Baphanistrum, L. Wild Radish, or Jointed Charlock. 
H. 32, B. 31.— F. June, July. A. 

Fields, not uncommon. 

Oed. VII.— "RESEDACE^E, DC. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 3. F. 2. 

Reseda, L. Rocket. 

Br.sp. 3. F.2. 

R. Luteola, L. Dyer's Rocket, Yellow-weed, or Weld. 
H. 33, B. 32.— F. July, August. A. 



18 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Frequent along the coast. Particularly abundant on the 
porphyretic and sandstone rocks to the east and west of Dun- 
dee. 

R. lutea, L. Base Rocket, or "Wild Mignonette. H. 33, 
B. 31.— F. July, August. 

Rocks between Arbroath and Montrose, Mr G. Don. 



Ord. VIII.-CISTINE^E, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 6. F. 1. 

Helianthemum, Toum. Rock-Rose. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 1. 

H. vulgare, Gaert. Common Rock-Rose. H. 34, B. 33. 
— F. July, Sept. P. (Cistus Helianthemum, L. C. tomen- 
tosus, E. Bot.) 

Frequent along the coast, and extending to a considerable 
elevation on the mountains. One of the most beautiful of our 
rock-plants, and its racemes of delicate yellow flowers, are 
pleasantly fragrant. The leaves vary in breadth and pubes- 
cence. The filaments of the stamens, in the warm sunshine 
at least, are peculiarly irritable. If touched by a pin or the 
foot or proboscis of an insect on the inner side, they rapidly 
approach towards the pistil ; if on the outer side, they again 
recede from it. 

Ord. IX.— VIOLACE^;, DC. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 14. F. 8. 

Viola, L. Violet. 

Br. sp. and v. 14. F. 8. 

V. hirta, L. Hairy Violet. H. 36, B. 34.— F. April, 
May. P. 

Rather rare. Rocky bank, east end of Will's Braes, where 
it is associated with the cowslip, both generally in prime in 
April. It occurred in another spot farther west, but which 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 19 

is now destroyed by the railway operations. Craigs of Lun- 
die. Den of Balruddery, Dr Addison. 

V. odorata, L. Sweet Violet. H. 36, B. 34.— F. March, 
April. P. 

Den of Mains, but likely introduced there, though now 
quite naturalised. 

In a hedge below Gayfield House, near Montrose, Mr J. 
Cruickskank. Hillside, Montrose, and near the cottage at 
Upper Mills, Kinaber, Mr J. Croall. 

It is doubtful whether this lovely and fragrant blossom be 
truly indigenous in any of the stations indicated, but having 
been accustomed for a number of years to meet with it in 
"Main's flowery Den," when vernal airs mingled its odours 
with those of the primrose, it became a special favourite, as 
it generally is, and the following lines were elicited in conse- 
quence : — 

THE SWEET PUEPLE VIOLET. 

No flower of the forest, though ever so hright, 
Nor tropical bloom, though it dazzle the sight, 
Hath charms that are half so endearing to me, 
As the little lone violet beneath the hedge-tree. 

Sweet gem of the spring-time ! though lowly its mein, 

As it timidly peeps from its covert of green, 

Yet Beauty delights in its blossom to dwell, 

And its sweetness, what bee or what zephyr can tell ? 

The bee knows the bank where the violet is found, 
And tbe zephyr so softly comes sighing around : 
Its nectar the bee sips — the zephyr doth share 
Its fragrance, and still it hath sweetness to spare ; — 

For the pale artizan, when he wanders abroad, 
Seeking truth in the bright living volume of God, 
Inhales its perfume as a balm to his heart, 
Which the cold selfish world hath refused to impart. 

And to him, in its beautiful eye, there appears 
The fresh dews of morning, like Sympathy's tears; 
And he blesses the hand that created the flower, 
And decreed such pure beauty and sweetness its dower. 

The violet, so long as it brightens the ground, 
Pours out its rich odours unceasing around; 
Yet its treasure decays not, till death nips its bloom, 
And its last fading beauties are hid in the tomb. 



20 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Would but man take the lesson thus sweetly conveyed, 
What a heaven of pure joy could this sad world be made ! 
No longer would Poverty cloud the pale brow, 
Nor Want, unrestrained, slay its thousands as now ! 

But that Plenty, which God hath to man kindly given, 
Would circle as free as the breezes of heaven ! 
Diffusing its blessings on each and on all, 
Like the violet's perfume, ere its sweet blossoms fall. 

V. palustris, L. Marsh Violet. H. 36, B. 33.— F. 
April, July. P. 

In marshy places occasionally. Marshy banks of Rescobie 
Loch. Sidlaw Hills in various places, as at foot of Craig Owl 
and Lundie Craigs, and on the marshy banks of small lakes 
on the west side of White Hill, &c. Glen Isla, and in boggy 
places among the mountains, frequent. 

Restenet, and in Charlton Woods near the sea, Mr A. 
CroalL Wood of Kinaber, and Langley Park, Mr G. 
M'Farlane. On Catlaw at about 1500 feet above the sea- 
level. Rev. J. 0. Haldane. 

V. canina, L. Dog Violet. H. 36, B. 34.— F. April, 
June. P. 

A very common and beautiful ornament of our hedge- 
banks, woods, and hills. Under hedges it appears in full 
luxuriance, with large uniformly bright blue flowers ; in the 
woods the plant is smaller, and the flowers more mixed with 
a lilac tint ; and on the Sidlaw Hills the corolla varies from 
nearly white to the deepest tint of blue, and occasionally it 
is chequered with blue and white. 

/2, minor, Hook. ( V. Jlavicornis, Sm. V. canina y. 
pusilla, Bab.) 

Sands of Barrie, particularly near the mouth of the Bud- 
don Burn, in sandy pastures, varying much in luxuriance, 
some plants producing only a single flower, others five or six. 
The roots are generally long, and the spurs of the corolla 
deep yellow. It flowers commonly in May. 

V. tricolor, L. Pansy Violet, or Heart's-Ease. H. 37, 
B. 35. — F. during the summer. A. ? 

Very common in fields and in waste places. The fields 
are often quite covered with it ; and it is a delightful treat to 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 21 

the eye that loves the beautiful, to see, in some summers, 
both on the coast and in Strathmore, the glorious luxuriance 
of this elegant Violet, that invests the fields and meadows, 
though, perhaps, to the eye of the farmer, it may look rather 
blue. 

/3. Hook. (V. arvensis, Murr. V. tricolor, /8. arvensis, 
Bab.) 

Common in corn-fields and in shady woods, having 
flowers always smaller and paler than in V. tricolor. 

V. lutea, Huds. Yellow Mountain Violet, or Yellow 
Pansy. H. 37, B. 34.— F. May, July. P. 

(V. grandiflora, Huds. (not L. ?) V. Sudetica, Willd.) 

On the wooded Hill of Laws, near Drumsturdymoor. 
Lumley Woods. On several parts of the Sidlaw Hills, as 
near the foot of Craig Owl, south side, Lundie Craigs, Black- 
law Hill, &c. Near the Mill of Craig, Glenisla, and about 
Lintrathen. Glen Clova, extending all the way from Cor- 
tachy to the head of the glen at Acharne. 

Near Guthrie, Mr G. M'Farlane. Hill of Dunbarrow, 
Dr M'Nab. 

/3. — V. amcena, Sym. Lawhill, Dundee, and grassy 
glades in the deer-forest of Canlochem The various inter- 
mediate states of colouring of the corolla, from the palest 
yellow to the deepest purple, (see Botanical Rambles in 
Braemar, p. 18,) forming the transition from lutea to amm- 
na, are found in both these localities. 

In no place have I been more delighted to find the Yel- 
low Mountain Violet, than in a small birch wood on the 
banks of the Esk, a little below the hamlet of Clova. Here 
it was flowering in great beauty, (July, 1846,) surrounded 
with everything that was pleasant. Indeed, each blossom 
seemed a spell that bound the spirit to the loveliness of that 
delicious spot ; and no one visiting Clova should fail to spend 
an hour in this fragrant copse of birch. Some of the associ- 
ations, linked with such a scene, are very pleasantly described 
in the following lines by a fellow-townsman, Mr J. Sime : — 

" Above my head the green trees wave their boughs, 
A mossy carpet spreads beneath my feet; — 



22 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Here Nature's purest worship sweetly flows, 

And Meditation finds a calm retreat. 
Within these shades, Oh! how divinely sweet 

To roam, when morn has chased away night's gloom, 
And hear the woodland song, and the soft bleat 

Of sheep, borne on the breeze, that wafts perfume 
From mountain, grove, and lawn, where all is bliss and bloom. 

A joyance seems to flood both earth and sky : 

Upon the boughs a thousand minstrels sing; 
Like raptured spirits chaunting far on high, 

Larks with loud praises make heaven's portals ring: 
Gay insects flitting round me on gilt wing, 

Disport their rainbow hues in solar beam: 
From rock to rock the spirit-echoes spring, — 

Dew-drops, like angel's tears, on rose-leaves gleam — 
And underneath the shade glides slow a glassy stream." 



Ord. X.— DROSERACEJE, DC. 
Gen, Br. I. F. 1. Sp. Br. 3. F. 1. 

Drosera, L. Sun-dew. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 1. 

D. rotundifolia, L. Round-leaved Sun-dew. H. 38, B. 
35.— F. July, August. P. 

In marshy places abundant among the Clova mountains, 
and not uncommon among the Sidlaw Hills, as well as on the 
marshy banks of the Lakes, as Rescobie, Balgavies, Forfar, 
Lundie, &c. 

This curious little plant is an object of great interest to the 
careful observer of Flora's beauties. Its round concave leaves 
have their upper surface covered with a profusion of scarlet 
hairs, each terminated by an oblong gland of the same colour, 
from which exudes a transparent and very glutinous juice, 
which is not evaporated in the warmest sunshine. It re- 
sembles a drop of dew, hence the plant derived the name of 
Ros Solis or Sun-dew. The hairs lengthen towards the 
margin of the leaf, and are more or less curved inwards. 
When an insect has the misfortune to alight upon a leaf it is 
held fast by the viscid fluid, and the hairs fold over it like 
the tentacula of a polypus. This irritability of the hairs has 
(in Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. iv. p. 135, v. 26, 491, 755-7, and 
vi. 177-8) been controverted, some denying and others affirm- 
ing it. I have witnessed the fact, but their motions are slow 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 23 

compared to those of the stamens of the barberry and rock- 
rose. What benefit, if any, the plant derives from the de- 
composition of the insects thus captured, is a question that 
has sometimes been asked, but so far as I am aware, not yet 
satisfactorily answered. 

Ord. XL— POLYGALE^E, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 1. F . 1. Sp. and v. Br. 3. F. 1. 

Polygala, L. Milkwort. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F.l. 

P. vulgaris, L. Common Milkwort. H. 39, B. 36. — 
F. May, July. P. 

(P. amara, Don., P. calcarea, Schultz, and P. oxyptera, 
Beichenbach, are reduced by Hooker to P. vulgaris. Bab- 
ington considers P. amara, Don., to be the P. calcarea, Sch., 
and P. oxyptera to be only a var. of P. vulgaris.) 

Abundant in heathy places and pastures throughout the 
county, and varying much in size, the breadth of its leaves, 
and colour of its flowers. On the Sidlaw Hills I have picked 
it with white, pale blue, deep blue, rose-coloured, and deep 
red flowers. On the sands of Barrie a state or variety is 
found, which I have also gathered on the Braemar mountains, 
having the wings of the calyx pale- coloured, with green anas- 
tomosing veins, and the flowers blue, with occasionally a blue 
or pink tinge on the calycine wings also. 

THE MILKWOET. Polygala vulgaris. 

"Tis not alone in regal halls, 

And mansions where "with noble pride 
Art lavishes her wondrous power, 

That Beauty doth reside. 
But oft upon the mountain's side, 

Her lovely handiwork is seen, 
On flower-enamelled heaths, where foot 

Of man hath seldom been. 

The Milkwort's little humble flowers, 

Of red, and white, and blue, 
With green moss intermixed, oft meet 

The lonely wanderer's view. 



24 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

And he, to Nature's dictates true, 
Admires the bright embroider'd sod, 

And all his soul in raptured joy, 
Breathes praises to his God ! 



Ord. XIV.— CARYOPHYLLEJE, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 14. F. 10. Sp. and v. Br. 83. F. 47. 

Dianthus, L. Pink. 

Br. sp, and v. 7. F. 3. 

D. Armeria, L. Deptford Pink. H. 42, B. 40.— F. 
July, August. A. 

In fields near the estate of Charles Grey, Esq. of Carse ; 
the only place I have seen it in Scotland, Mr G. Don. Ro- 
man Camp, near Forfar, 1840, Dr W. Reid. 

D. deltoides, L. Maiden Pink. H. 43, B. 41.— F. 
June, August. P. 

On rocky banks along the coast from Arbroath to Montrose, 
not unfrequent. At the east end of Hare Craigs a tuft or two 
was observed for several successive years, but has now disap- 
peared. 

On the north bank of the Loch of Forfar, as also on dry 
ground near the north-west corner of the Loch, Mr G. Don. 

It grows plentifully upon the summit of the Red Head, 
and while gathering it there, and considering the graceful- 
ness and delicacy of its form, in connection with the name 
that has been so appropriately bestowed upon it, could not 
resist making comparisons, and even attempting to express 
these in verse, as a humble tribute to the pretty flower, and 
as affording us a useful moral. 

THE MAIDEN PINK. Dianthus deltoides. 

Upon the Red-Head's dizzy brink 

The Maiden Pink doth take her stand, 
Like some fair nymph, whose ardent eye 

Looks forth upon the ocean bland. 

'Tis summer, and the gentle waves 

Flow smoothly on towards the shore; 
And that fond maiden looks, and hopes, 

And sighs, for him she doth adore. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 25 

Yet, though so near his native land, 

And she he loves within his view, 
A storm may hurst, and, in the deep, 

Engulf the ship and all its crew ! 

Then, Maiden Pink, thou teachest us, 

That joys in prospect may deceive us; 
Till Time his passport hath bestowed, 

To that bright land where nought shall grieve us. 

The Red-Head is a stupendous promontory on the coast to 
the west of Lunan Bay, and rises perpendicularly from the 
beach to the height, of about 250 feet. It is composed of the 
old red sandstone, being the eastern termination of an im- 
mense bed of that rock traversing the whole valley of Strath- 
more, and forms a prominent land-mark to mariners ap- 
proaching the coast. To the botanist it offers many interest- 
ing coast plants, and the ornithologist will find ample scope 
for observation among the vast number of sea-birds that fre- 
quent it, breaking, with their continued clamours, the still 
monotony of the scene. 

The view from the summit of this frightful precipice ocean- 
wards is grand, but on looking over its brink to the beach 
below, one feels a thrill of terror running, like an electric 
shock, through every nerve. The little fishing-village of 
Torrens-haven nestles at the foot of the rocks between this 
and Lunan Bay ; and at the mouth of the Lunan, on a small 
insular hill, stands the venerable ruins of Bed Castle, an 
edifice consisting of a large massy quadrangular tower, with 
remains of extensive outbuildings, supposed to have been 
built under the auspices of William-the-Lion. 

D. Caryophyllus, L. Clove Pink, Carnation, or Clove 
Gillyflower. H. 42, B. 41.— F. July. P. 

On a dry stony bank about a mile above the Bridge of 
Dun, rather plentiful, and did not appear as if it had been 
cultivated, 1840, Mr A. Croall. It had probably been 
naturalised. 

Silene, L. Catchfly. 

Br. sp. and v. 14. F. 9. 

S. acaulis, L. Moss Campion. H. 44, B. 43. — F. June 
to August, but in early seasons (as 1846) out of flower early 
in July. P. 

B 



26 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

On the higher mountains growing in dense masses, and 
covered with an exuberance of beautiful rosy flowex's, but 
humble in its growth, scarcely rising above the soil. 

S. inflata, Sm. Bladder Campion. H. 44, B. 33. — F. 
June, August. P. (Cucubalus Behen, E. Bot.) 

Waysides and waste ground, plentiful. 

/3. Mrsuta, Leight. Not unfrequent. In June 1837 
specimens were gathered on Powrie Brae, three miles north 
from Dundee on the Forfar road, forming a link betwixt a. 
and /3 , the calyx and upper leaves being glabrous, while the 
lower leaves and branches only are pubescent. In the same 
place in June 1843 the normal form was flowering, the var. 
being only in bud. 

S. maritima, With. Sea Campion. H. 44, B. 43. — F. 
June, August. P. (8. inflata, (Z. Hook. Scot.) 

Abundant on the rocky coast from Arbroath to Montrose, 
growing in dense tufts, and ornamenting the rocks and braes 
with its profusion of large white flowers. I have not yet 
met with it among the Forfarshire mountains, but have re- 
ceived specimens from Glen Tilt in Perthshire, exactly like 
our coast plant. No intermediate states between it and S. 
inflata occur. 

S. Anglica, L. English Catchfly. H. 44, B. 42.— F. 
June, August. A. 

Links near Arbroath, August 1838, W. F. L. Carnegie, 
Esq. Links is a term applied in Scotland to those tracts of 
sandy downs that stretch along the sea-shore, and are more 
or less covered with a maritime pasturage. 

S. nutans, L. Nottingham Catchfly. H. 45, B. 42. — 
F. June, July. P. 

Rocks to the eastward of Red-head, plentiful. 

Boddin, Mr G. M'Farlane. Duninald, Mr A. Croall. 
Between St Skae and the Den of Duninald, frequent, Mr A. 
Kerr. Rocky coast, Dysart, Mr A. Bousie. 

Its flowers, like those of S. noctiflora, Lychnis vespertina, 
&c, exhale their fragrance more freely after sunset.; 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 27 

S. conica, L. Striated Corn Catchfly. H. 45, B. 43. 
— F. June. A. 

Sandy pastures, Montrose Links, Messrs M'Farlane, 
Croall, Kerr, &c. Plentiful in some seasons, in others 
scarce. 

S. noctijtora, L. Night-flowering Catchfly. H. 46, B. 
43.— F. July, August. A. 

Occasionally along the coast in corn-fields. 

Sandy corn-fields near the Havens or Havens by the sea- 
side, Mr G. Don. Sides of fields near East Haven, Mr A. 
CroalL Near Arbroath, W. F. L. Carnegie, Esq. Mon- 
trose Links, rare, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

S. alpestris, Jacq. Austrian Catchfly. 

" A specimen of this plant, gathered by Mr G. Don ' on 
a rock on a mountain to the east of Clova, Angus-shire,' is 
in Mr Borrer's herbarium." — Babington. 

Lychnis, L. Campion. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F, 6. 

L. Flos-Cuculi, L. Meadow Lychnis, or Ragged Robin. 
H. 46, B. 44.— F. May, July. P. 

Abundant in marshy ground, by the sides of streams, and 
in ditches, from the coast to the mountain valleys. 

L. Viscaria, L. Red German Catchfly. H. 46, B. 43. 
— F. May, June. P. 

Rocks on the banks of the Melgum, in great abundance, 
Rev. J. 0. Haldane. Den of Airlie, on the left bank, below 
the Castle, Rev. J. S. Barty. With white flowers, on dry 
banks, near Airlie Castle, Mr G. Don. 

It occurs sparingly in the Den of Foulis, a beautiful wooded 
ravine, six-miles north-west from Dundee, on the confines 
of the neighbouring county of Perth. 

L. alpina, L. Red Alpine Campion. H. 46, B. 44. — 
F. June, July. P. 

On the summit of the Little Culrannoch, a mountain 3200 
feet high, situated between the head of Glendole, Clova, and 



28 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

the head of Caness, Glenisla. It grows scattered over a 
limited tract of wet stony ground, associated with Armeria 
maritima, /3., and Cocklearia Grcenlandica. In July 1843 
it was abundant, and I had the pleasure of gathering it in 
fine condition amidst a terrific hail storm. In July 1846 it 
was rather scanty, but most of it past flowering, and many 
young plants just coming up. The long tract of dry weather 
had probably deprived the ground of that degree of moisture 
necessary to give efficient sustenance to the plants. 

This interesting plant was first discovered on the above 
mountain by the indefatigable Mr G. Don, and has since 
been gathered there by Sir John Ogilvy, Bart., Mr M' 'Nab, 
and tne late Prof. Graham. Prof. Balfour, and many other 
botanists, have visited the spot, and found it more or less 
plentiful according to the nature of the season. 

L. dioica, L. Red or White Campion. H. 47, B. 44. 
a. L. diurna. Sibth. Red Campion. F. May, July. P. 

In various places from the coast to nearly the summits of 
the mountains. Seaton Den near Auchmithie. Banks of 
Feithy, north from Claypots Castle. Woods near Baldovie. 
Dens of Mains, Foulis, Glammis, Airlie, and other moist and 
shady situations ; and its bright red masses of flowers are 
conspicuous high on the rocks of Canlochen, and several of 
the Clova mountains. 

£. L. vespertina, Sibth. White Campion. F. May, Sept. 
P. 

Banks of the Tay in various places from Invergowrie to 
Arbroath, chiefly about the borders of corn-fields. Powrie 
Brae, and other places inland. 

Near Usan, and Dens of Bonnington and Duninald, Mr 
A. Croall. Its fragrance is very pleasant, and seems to be 
given out much more copiously when 

" Meek Evening wakes her temperate breeze, 

And moon-beams glimmer through the trembling trees." 

y. intermedia. With rose-coloured flowers, and occasion- 
ally hermaphrodite, the pistilla however being small. In- 
vergowrie Bay, June 1834. L. diurna is not found in that 
vicinity, though common on the opposite side of the Tay, in 
Fifeshire : L. vespertina is plentiful. In July the same 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 29 

year, on the height a little to the north of Baldovan Woods, 
on the old Glammis road, I observed L. diurna, vespertina, 
and the intermediate var., all growing within the circle of a 
yard, and in flower, but have not noticed either of them in 
the spot since. They were growing among furze and broom, 
and it is possible may have been rooted out with some of 
these. In this instance the idea of hybridity would naturally 
suggest itself, but I rather incline to agree with Babington, 
that variations in colour are common to both species. 

Agrostemma, L. Cockle. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

A. Gitliago, L. Corn Cockle. H. 47, B. 44. — F. June, 
August. P. (Lychnis Githago, Lam. Bab.) 

Very plentiful in wheat-fields, but seldom seen among 
other cereal crops. 

Sagina, L. Pearl -wort. 

Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 3. 

S. procumbens, L. Procumbent Pearl-wort. H. 48, B. 
45.— F. May, Sept. P. 

Plentiful from the coast to the summits of the mountains. 

S. maritima, Don. Sea Pearl-wort. H. 48, B. 45. — 
F. May, Sept. A. (S. stricta, Fries.) 

Sands of Barrie, in wet places near the sea, frequent. 
Montrose Links, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

S. apetala, L. Annual Small-flowered Pearl-wort. H. 48, 
B. 45.— F. May, Sept. A. (S. ciliata, Fries.) 

In waste places, and on the coast. Bare, Mr G. Don. 

Spergula, L. Spurrey. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 4. 

S. arvensis, L. Corn Spurrey. H. 49, B. 46. — F.June, 
August. A. (S. pentandra, E. Bot. S. satwa, Boeningh.) 

Plentiful in corn-fields, as well as among turnips and 
other crops. 



30 FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 

S. nodosa, L. Knotted Spurrey. H. 49, B. 46. — F. 
July, Sept. P. 

Abundant on the coast, in moist places, as at Ninewells, 
Sands of Barrie, Montrose, &c. and extending inland as far 
as the highland valleys. Plentiful on the margins of the 
Lakes of Rescobie, Forfar, &c. 

Banks of the N. and S. Esk, Mr A. Croall. 

S. subulata, Sw. Awl-shaped Spurrey. H. 50, B. 46. 
— F. July, August. P. (S. saginoides, Curt. S. laricina, 
Lightf. Sagina procumbens, /3. L.) 

Frequent on dry ground on the Clova Mountains, as about 
Loch Brandy, &c. 

Monroman Moor, Mr A. Croall. Hare Craigs near 
Broughty, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

S. saginoides, L. Pearl-wort Spurrey. H. 50, B. 46. — 
F. July, August. P. 

On the Clova Mountains occasionally. 

Mr G. Don, in his list, mentions, as a new species, S. 
maxima, which is not noticed in Hooker nor Babington, but 
may probably be S. macrocarpa of Reichenbach. 

The Spurries have been highly spoken of as nutritious food 
for cattle, sheep, and poultry. The agriculturist should 
attend to this, and if true, not treat them as unprofitable 
weeds, but adopt means for the improvement of their culture. 

Stellaria, L. Stitchwort. 

Br. sp. and v. 11. F. 6. 

S. nemorum, L. Wood Stitchwort. H. 50, B. 47. — 
F. May, June. P. 

Rare. By the side of a mountain stream above Drum- 
tochty Castle, Mr A. Croall. 

S. media, With. Common Chickweed. H. 50, B. 47. — 
F. the whole year. A. (Alsine media, L.) 

Very common in fields and waste places, and in woods, 
varying much in size, generally procumbent, but more or less 
ascending,, and the stems frequently reddish. It is popularly 



FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 31 

known in this county by the name of " Chickenwort" and is 
extensively used to vary the food of small birds in cages. 

/3. major, Koch. (Bab. 47) distinguished by its larger size, 
broader and more flaccid leaves, is common in woods. 

S. holostea, L. Greater Stitchwort. H. 51, B. 48. — 
F. May, June. P. 

On the banks of streams, and in woods and dens, in many 
places. Abundant in the dens of Mains, Glammis, Airlie, 
&c, and on the banks of the Dighty, Feithy, isla, and Esk. 

Rossie Mills, Mr A. Croall. 

S. graminea, L. Lesser Stitchwort. H. 51, B. 48. — 
F. May, Nov. P. 

Rather common on ditch banks, and in woody places. 

S. uliginosa Murr. Bog Stitchwort. H. 51, B. 49. — 
F. May, July. A. (S. graminea, /3. L. Larbroea aqua- 
tica, St Hill.) 

Abundant in ditches, marshes, and bogs, from the coast to 
the summits of the Clova Mountains. It varies in height 
from 16 or 18 inches on the coast, to less than 2 on the 
mountain summits. 

Arenaria, L. Sandwort. 
Br. sp. and v. 14. F. 6. 

A. peploides, L. Sea-side Sandwort. H. 52, B. 50. — 
F. July, August. P. (Alsine peploides, Wahl. Adena- 
rium, Rafus. Honclcenya, R. ) 

On the sandy sea-shore, in various places, from Invergow- 
rie Bay to the mouth of the North Esk, rather plentiful 
where it does occur ; the principal stations observed being a 
little to the east of the ruins of Invergowi'ie Church, to the 
east of Monifieth, and at Carnoustie; also on Montrose links. 

Basin of Montrose, and near Usan, Mr A. Kerr. 

A. trinervis L. Three-nerved Sandwort. H. 52, B. 50. 
— F. May, June. A. [Mcehringia trinervis, Clairv.) 

Den of Airlie, on the left bank, below the castle, Rev. J. 
S. Barty. Near Reeky Linn, but not in flower, May 1846. 



32 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

A. serpyllifolia, L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort. H. 52, 
B. 49.— F. May, June. A. 

On old walls and banks frequent. 

A. fastigiata, Sm. Level-topped Sandwort. H. 54, B. 
51. — F.June. A. (Alsine fastigiata, Bab. A. fasciculata, 
Jacq. (not Gouan). Minuartia, B.) 

Clova Mountains, Mr G. Don. 

A. rubra L. Purple Sandwort, H. 54, B. 50. — F. 
June, July. A. (Alsina rubra, Wahl.) 

About waysides frequent. Powrie Brae, and between 
Dundee and Broughty Ferry, &c, plentiful. 

Near Guthrie, and Marten's Den, Mr A. Croall. 

A. marina, (Eder. Sea-side Spurrey Sandwort. H. 54, 
B. 50. — F. June, August. A. or B. (Alsine marina, M. 
and K. Arenaria rubra, /3. L.) 

In various places along the coast, from Invergowrie to the 
Basin of Montrose. 

Cerastium, L. Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

Br. sp. and v. 12. F. 9. 

C. vulgatum, L. Broad-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed. 
H. 55, B. 52. — F. April, September. A. (C. viscosum, 
Huds. C. glomeratum, Thuil. Bab.) 

Plentiful in fields, on ditch banks, &c. 

C. viscosum, L. Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear Chickweed. 
H. 55, B. 52. — F. June, September. P. (C. trivial^ 
Link. C. vulgatum, Huds. and Fries.) 

Not uncommon along the coast, as at Will's Braes, and in 
various places between that and Auchmithie. 

"West side of the Inch, &c, Montrose, Mr A. Croall. 

C. semidecandrum, L. Little Mouse- ear Chickweed. H. 
55, B. 52.— F. April, May ; in fruit, June. A. 

Abundant on the Sands of Barrie, &c, and varying from 
half-an-inch to 4 or 5 inches in height. C. pumilum, Curt., 
given as a synonyme by Hooker, Babington considers a good 
species. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 33 

C. tetrandrum, Curt. Four-cleft Mouse-ear duckweed. 
H. 55, B. 53. — F. May, August. A. [Sagina cerastoides, 
E. Bot.) 

Near the mouth of the North Esk. 

Rocks by the sea between Montrose and Usan, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. 

On roofs of houses in Forfar, and common on the sea- 
coast, Mr G. Don. 

C. an-ense, L. Field Chickweed. H. 56, B. 54.— F. 
June, July. P. 

Abundant on the embankment of the Arbroath and For- 
far Railway, near the Clocksbriggs station. 

About half-way on the Loandykes road near Montrose, 
near Charlton on the Aberdeen road, and by the railway 
near Easthaven, Mr A. Groall. Near Charlton and New- 
bigging, Mr J. Cruickshank. Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. 
Ruthven, Rev. P. Barty. Pretty common on gravelly soil 
in the parish of Kingoldrum, Rev. J. 0. Haldane. 

C. alpinum, L. Hairy Alpine Chickweed. H. 57, B. 
53. — F. June, August. P. (C. latifolium, Lightf.) 

Not uncommon among the Clova and Canlochen moun- 
tains. 

C. latifolium, L. Broad-leaved Alpine Chickweed. PI. 
57, B. 54.— F. July, August. P. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. Less frequent than C. 
alpinum. 

C. atrovirens, Bab. Dark-green Mouse-ear Chickweed. 
H. 56 (foot-note), B. 52.— F. May, June. A. 

Banks of the Tay at Will's Braes. Sea- coast east from 
Arbroath, and other places. 

C. aquaticum, L. Water Chickweed. H. 57, B. 49. — 
F. July, August, P. (Malachium aquaticum, Fries. Bab. 
Stellar ia, Ed. Cat. Larbra^a, Ser.) 

Near Dundee, but rare, Mr G. Don. This I have not 
yet found. 

b2 



84 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Cherleria, L. Cyphel. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. sedoides, L. Mossy Cyphel. H. 57, B. 54. — F. June, 
August. P. 

Canlochen, Prof. Balfour. This, though seemingly rare 
on the Forfarshire and Aberdeenshire mountains, is very 
abundant on the Breadalbane range in Perthshire. 

Ord. XV.-LINE2E, 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 6. F. 3. 

Linum, L. Flax. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 2. 

L. usitatissimum, L. Common Flax. H. 58, B. 63. — 
F. July. A. 

In fields occasionally, but certainly not indigenous. 

It was formerly much cultivated in the county, and 
scarcely a farmer or cottar was without his field or patch of 
Lint ; but most of the remaining Lint-ponds one meets with 
now are covered with Ducksmeat and Water-crowfoot. 

L. catharticum, L. Purging Flax. H. 59, B. 64. — F. 
June, August. A. 

Pastures and heaths abundant, from the sea-shore to the 
summits of the mountains. 

A very graceful little plant, and an excellent laxative, de- 
serving more attention than is bestowed upon it. 

Kadiola, Gmel. Flax-seed. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1 

R. Millegrana, Sm. Thyme-leaved Flax-seed. H. 59, 
B. 64. — F. July, August. A. [Linum jRadiola, L. Ra- 
diola linoides, Gmel. DC, &c.) 

Abundant on the road-side between Forfar and Brechin, 
and between the former place and Montrose, and also fre- 
quent on moors between Montrose and Guthrie, and in simi- 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 35 

lar situations between Brechin and Slateford, Prof. Balfour. 
Monroman and Guthrie moors frequent, Mr A. Croall. Pa- 
rish of Kirkden, Rev. D. Carrulhers. 

Ord. XVI.— MALVACEAE. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 1 . Sp. and v. Br. 7.F.3. 

Malva, L. Mallow. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 3. 

M. sylvestris, L. Common Mallow. H. 60, B. 55.— F. 
June, September. P. 

Frequent about the coast, and on the banks of the New- 
tyle Railway, &c. 

Near Arbroath, Redcastle, and Edzell Castle, Mr A. 
Croall. 

M. rotundifolia, L. Dwarf Mallow. H. 60, B. 55.— F. 
June, September. P. (M. vulgaris, Fries.) 

Plentiful about Broughty- Ferry, Monifieth, and other 
places along the coast. 

About the Lunatic Asylum, Montrose, Mr A. Croall. 

M. moschata, L. Musk Mallow. H. 60, B. 54.— F, 
July, August. P. 

Ninewells, and banks of Bullion Burn, both above and 
below the bridge at the toll-bar of Invergowrie ; plentiful in 
former years, but in August, 1846, scarcely any of it to be 
seen. Probably most of the plants have been grubbed up by 
herbalists. Side of the Arbroath road, several miles from 
Dundee, 1829, and near Carnoustie. 

Wayside west from Guthrie, Mr A. Croall. 

Ord. XVII.— TILIACE2E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 3. F. 1. 

Tilia, L. Lime. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

T. Europasa, L. Common Lime or Linden Tree* H, 
61, B. 56.— F. July. T. (T. intermedia, DC.) 

Not uncommon, but probably in all cases planted. 



36 



FLORA OP FORFAR&HIRE. 



Ord. xviil— hypericineje. 

Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. % Br. U. F. 6. 

(Parnassia is placed in this order by Hook., but in Drose- 
racece By Bab.) 

Hypericum Z. St John's Wort. 

.Br. sj>. 13. F. 5. 

H. quadrangulum, L. Square-stalked St John's Wort. 
H. 62, B. 57.— F. July. P. (H. tetrapterum, Fries, &c.) 

Banks of a stream north side of Sidlaw Hills crossed by 
the new Glammis road. 

Banks of the North and South Esk, not rare, Mr J. 
Cruickskank. Marshes about Rescobie, Mr A. Croall. 

H. perforatum, L. Common Perforated St John's Wort. 
H. 63, B. 58.— F. June, August. P. 

Plentiful along the coast, particularly about Ninewells and 
Will's Braes. Mains, but introduced. 

Moor above the Bridge of Dun, Mr A. Croall. 

H. humifusum, L. Trailing St John's Wort. H. 63, 
B. 58.— F. June, August. P. 

In various places throughout the county, though not very 
constant in its appearance, caused, no doubt, in some instances, 
by the more aspiring growth of other plants preventing its 
vegetation. Hedgebank, " Forfar Loan" a road leading 
from Stobswell to Trottick, by Mains Castle. Ditch banks 
near Gray, not far from the gardener's house. In both these 
stations I have found it more or less plentifully, but in 1846 
failed to meet with it in either of them. By the wayside be- 
tween Brechin and Finhaven. Near Auchmithie, in the vi- 
cinity of the " Gaylet Pot." The place thus named is a vast 
hollow in a field adjoining the rocky shore, and into the bot- 
tom of which the foamy ocean surges through a magnificent 
subterraneous passage which it has cut for itself through the 
sandstone rock. 

Ditch-banks about a mile south-east from " Dun's Dish," 
ditch-banks about Guthrie, and one mile east from Guthrie 
Castle, and there plentifully, the only locality in which I 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 37 

have never failed to find it so, Mr A. Croall. " Dun's Dish," 
a little to the west of Balnillo Wood, in the parish of Dun, is 
a lake covering about forty acres of ground, the water of 
which is collected from the adjoining fields and springs for 
the use of mills. Parish of Kingoldrum, Rev. J. 0. Hal- 
dane. Kettins, Mr James Gibb. 

The sepals, though not invariably so, are generally fringed 
with black glands. 

H. hirsutum, L. Hairy St John's Wort. H. 64, B. 58. 
— F. July, August. P. 

On Will's Braes plentiful, but the station now destroyed 
by the railway. It occurs, though sparingly, in other places 
along the coast. 

Boddin, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

H. pulchrum, L. Small Upright St John's Wort. H. 
64, B. 59.— F. June, July. P. 

Not uncommon on heaths, and in woods, on the coast, as 
well as on the hills, and even ascending to a considerable ele- 
vation on the higher mountains. It is a beautiful little 
flower, and awakens many pleasant thoughts, some of which 
are feebly expressed in the following lines : — 

THE SMALL UPEIGHT ST JOHN'S-WOET. Hypericum pulchrum. 

When summer-morning's earliest beams 
Come dancing o'er the dimpled streams, 
And seek the fragrant woodland bowers, 
To dally with the wakening flowers; 
Or through the clustering green leases creep. 
And kiss the ring-dove in its sleep ; 
Or stray through broomy, ferny dell, 
Where many a wild-flower loves to dwell ; 
Or laughing scorn - the mountain side, 
'Midst blooming heather, Scotland's pride ! — 
How many charms these beams disclose! — 
What beauties, scarcely known to those 
Who seldom from their smoky home, 
Can with the morning sunbeams roam. 
Yet oh ! how sweet at morning-tide, 
To climb the heathy mountain's side, 
And breathe the fresh and healthful air, 
That ever circles freely there ; 
And mark the blooms of varied hue, 
Where sunlight seeks the balmy dew. 
The daisy, on whose honied breast, 
The wild-bee fondly takes its rest; 



3 8 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

The rose all scent, the heather bell, 
And creeping yellow pimpernel ; 
Trollius, with swelling orbs of gold, — 
And many a blossom here untold, 
Attracts the eye and warms the soul 
With love to Him who formed the whole. 

Yet one among this beauteous throng 
Has oft been overlooked in song, 
Though bright as sunlight in the sky, 
When dipt in morning's orient dye. 

What time the lark on buoyant wing 
Mounts the clear heavens its joy to sing, 
And from tree-top the mellow thrush, 
And linnet gay from flowering bush, 
Pour out their soul in music sweet, 
The cheering smiles of morn to greet: — 
If thou perchance in rambling mood, 
May pierce the mazes of the wood, 
Or quaff the air that purer breathes 
Upon tbe open upland heaths, — 
The small St John's Wort's bud and bloom, 
Tbough gifted not with sweet perfume, 
Will glad thy eye with many a gem, 
That decks its little upright stem. 
Its polished heart-shaped leaves, with grace 
Fondly the upright stem embrace ; — 
So may thy heart with fondness cling 
To uprightness in every thing. 
Its crimsoned buds, its golden flowers, 
Mock the most skilful artist's powers : 
No eastern prince did e'er possess 
Such beauty in his costliest dress. 
Though Art with Natoe may contest, 
Yet is the hand of God confest 
In humblest bloom that paints the heath, 
Or lurks the woodland shades beneath. 
If Beauty, then, can charm thy heart, 
And high and holy thoughts impart, — 
'Tis not in vain that heath and bower 
Display the small St John's- Wort's flower. 



Parnassia, L. Grass of Parnassus. 

Br. sp. 1. F . 1. 

P. palustris, L. Common Grass of Parnassus. H. 64, 
B. 36.— F. July, Oct., P. 

Plentiful in moist and marshy places throughout the coun- 
ty, varying from one to twelve inches in height, but gene- 
rally five or six. On the sands of Barrie it is very abundant, 
many of the plants not reaching an inch in height, and often 
bearing a single flower, from the fourth of an inch to more 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



39 



than an inch in diameter. I have noticed it frequently in 
the lower woods, among the Sidlaw Hills, and on the Clova 
and Canlochen Mountains, at a great elevation. 

This curious and beautiful plant has been arranged under 
Droseraccce by Babington, and Saxifragcce by Lindley ; but 
with neither of these, nor the present order, does it seem to 
have a perfect affinity. By its four stigmata being sessile, 
and the want of circinate vernation, it differs from Drosera ; 
its four-celled capsule, and want of styles, keep it apart from 
Saxifraga ; and while, in Hypericum, the stamens are nume- 
rous and generally polyadelphous, or united into bundles, the 
Parnassia has only five. In some of its characters it agrees 
with each of these orders, yet differs from them all, and more 
especially in the remarkable form of its glandular nectaries. 

Okd. XIX.— ACERINE^E. 
Gen. Br. l.F.i. Sp. Br. 2. F. 2. 

Acer, L. Maple. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

A. Pseudo-platanus, L. Greater Maple, or Sycamore. 
H. 65, B. 59.— F. May, June. T. 

Not uncommon ; but probably neither this nor the follow- 
ing have any claim to rank as natives. 

In former times, the poor in this vicinity (Montrose) made 
a wine from the sap of this species, which flows very copi- 
ously in the spring. Mr. A. Croall. 

A. campestris, L. Common Maple. H. 65, B. 59. — F. 

May, June. T. 

Wood at Mains of Halkerton, Mr. J. Cruickshank. 

Ord. XX.— GERANIACE^. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 18, F. 11. 

Geranium, L. Crane's-bill. 

Br. sp. and v. 15. F. 10. 

G. sanguineum, L. Bloody Crane's-bill, or Crimson- 
flowered Geranium. H. 66, B. 61. — F. May, July. P. 



40 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Frequent along the coast from Will's Braes to Montrose. 
Near Kettins, Mr James Gibb. 

The most handsome of our native species, and, when cul- 
tivated in circular clumps, forms an elegant border ornament 
in gardens. 

G. pheeum, L. Dusky or Brown-flowered Crane's-bill. H. 
66, B. 60.— F. May, July. P. 

Very plentiful in the Den of Mains, but probably intro- 
duced at some remote period as well as the Doronicum, 
which grows along with it. I have found there a white- 
flowered var., and it is likely that the plant mentioned in the 
Brit. Flora, as being found on the Sands of Barrie, had 
been from this station, as the latter is not the kind of place 
for such a plant to grow in, and I never observed it in that 
vicinity. 

To some of my southern readers the term Den may re- 
quire explanation. In the east of Scotland it is applied to 
deep hollows or ravines formed by streams, and the rocky 
banks of which are very generally planted with trees. The 
shade afforded by these is conducive to vegetation, and we 
consequently find in such places a great exuberance of 
flowers, as well as ferns, mosses, and other cryptogamic 
plants. 

The Den of Mains (or Mains of Claverhonse) is a small 
ravine formed by a stream that falls into the Dighty, a little 
to the west of the toll-bar on the Forfar road. On the south 
side of it stands the old Castle of Mains, said by some to 
have been built in the twelfth, and by others in the six- 
teenth century. The old oaks, and other trees around the 
Castle, indicate considerable antiquity ; and pai'ticularly a 
magnificent beech on the south side,, which is of great dimen- 
sions, and is popularly known as " The muckle Tree o' the 
Mains." The old church-yard of Mains or Strathdighty 
occupies the bank on the north side, conjointly with the 
garden of the schoolmaster, and the stream is crossed by an 
old one-arched bridge, which connects the two banks of the 
ravine. At the base of the rocks beneath the Castle there 
issues a clear spring of delicious water, surrounded with 
golden saxifrages. It is called Sinavey, and is said formerly 
to have been so overshadowed with trees and shrubs, that 
the sun never shone on it. A little below the Castle, the 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 41 

stream falls over a sloping ledge of rocks, forming a small but 
very picturesque cascade, and in which the Hi/pnum ruscifo- 
lium grows profusely, and produces abundance of capsules, 
even amid the continual turmoil of the foamy waters. In 
this little dell, under the shade of its trees, the Geranium 
phceum and Doronicum Pardalianches flourish beautifully ; 
but though appearing perfectly at home, there is a suspicion 
that they may have been introduced by some of the early 
inhabitants of the Castle, as such plants grow only in the 
vicinity of these old buildings. The Dighty flows at the foot 
of the Den, and on its opposite bank a busy meal-mill adds 
to the picturesqueness of the scene. 

In a soft spring morning, when the dew is on the prim- 
roses and violets, and the small birds all in song ; or in a 
warm summer evening, when the golden sunset pours its 
scattered glories through the green foliage of the embower- 
ing trees, it is pleasant to loiter in this delightful spot, 
reclining on its flowery banks, or wandering by its lucid 
stream, and, eschewing the cares of the world for a time, give 
the rein to sweet meditation. Childhood seems to have come 
from the past, lured back by the flowers and the birds ; but 
the birds and the flowers of the present awake loftier thoughts 
and deeper feelings, while the crumbling ruins, and the repo- 
sitory of the dead, speak of the future in a language not to 
be misunderstood, that all things on earth are mutable. 

G. sylvatieum, L. Wood Crane's-bill. H. 66, B. 60. — 

F. June, July. P. 

Banks of the Isla and South Esk, frequently. Very 
plentiful in Glen Clova, about the banks of the Esk and 
the streams falling into it. 

Banks of the North and South Esk, from [near?] their 
sources to the sea, Mr A. Croall. With white flowers, Mr 

G. Don. 



G. pratense, L. Blue Meadow Crane's-bill. H. 67, B. 
B. 60.— F. June, July. P. 

Frequent on the Sidlaw Hills, in the Dens of Airlie, 
Glammis, &c. In the latter place, with pale pink flowers. 
Den of Fullerton, Mr J. Cruickshank. 



42 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



G. lucidum, L. Shining Crane's-bill. H. 67, B. 62. — 
F. Apr. July. A. 

Not common. Den of Airlie, in various places. Den of 
Mains, sparingly, and likely introduced. Old walls near 
Foulis. Bullion Burn, near Invergowrie. Rocky banks of 
a rill near Kinnordy, south side. 

Den of Balgavies, near the bridge, Mr A. Croall. 

G. Robertianum, L. Stinking Crane's-bill, or Herb- 
Robert. H. 67, B. 62. — F. during the summer months. A. 

Not unfrequent in waste places, from the coast to the 
mountain- valleys. 

G. molle, L. Dove's-foot Crane's-bill. H. 67, B. 62.— 
F. Apr. Augt. A. 

Abundant by waysides, in meadows, and on the hills. 
Very variable in size. With white flowers on the banks of 
the Tay, at Ninewells. 

With white flowers on a loose sandy bank at the Stanner- 
gate, two miles east from Dundee, Messrs G. Law son and D. 
Jackson. 

G. dissectum, L. Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill. H. 68, B. 
61.— F. May, July. A. 

On ditch-banks, and by waysides frequent. 

G. columbinum, L. Long-stalked Crane's-bill. H. 68, 
B. 61.— F. June, July. A. 

On the beach to the westward of Hare Craigs, and among 
rocks on Balgay Hill, but in small quantity in both places. 

G. pusillum L. Small-flowered Crane's-bill. H. 68, B. 
61.— F. June, Sept. A. 

Links of Montrose, not common, Mr. J. Cruickshank. 
Forfar road, near Rossie Mill, Mr G. 3£' Farlane. 

Erodium, L'Herit. Stork's-bill. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 1. 

E. cicutarium, Sm. Hemlock Stork's-bill. H. 68, B. 62. 
— F. summer months. A. [Geranium, L.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 43 

Plentiful in sandy places along the coast, occasionally with 
white flowers. On the 30th October 1846, observed it still 
flowering at the east end of B rough ty Ferry. 

Ord. XXI.— BALSAMINE^E. 
Gen, Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 2. F. 1. 

Impatiens, L. Balsam. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

I. Noli-me-tangere, L. Yellow Balsam, or Touch-me- 
not. H. 69, B. 64.— F. July, Augt. A. 

Den of Dun, plentiful, but naturalized, Mr A. Croall. 

Okd. XXII.— OXALIDE^E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F . 1. Sp. Br. 3. F . 1. 

Oxalis, L. Wood-sorrel. 

Br. Sp. 3. F. 1. 

O. Acetosella, L. Common Wood- sorrel. H. 70, B. 
65. — F, May, June, and till Augt. on the mountains. 

In the woods and shady dens, as well as on the hills, and 
the Clova and Glen Isla mountains. In the lower districts 
it is generally in fruit in July. 

Sub-Class II.— CALYCIFLOR^E. 

Okd. XXV.— LEGUMINOS^E. 
Gen. Br. 19. F. 16. Sp. and v. Br. 90. F. 42. 

Ulex, L. Furze. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 2. 

U. Europceus, L. Common Furze, Whin, or Gorse. H. 
73, B. 68.— F. throughout the year. S. 

The glory of our moors and lower hills, though rarely as- 
cending high on the mountains. In May and June it is in 



44 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

greatest perfection, when its spiny branches are perfectly 
loaded with blossoms ; but it flowers at all seasons, and it is 
not uncommon to see its cheerful bloom peeping from the 
deep snow of mid-winter. 

It is plentiful on the Sands of Barrie, and in early sum- 
mer the sheep and cattle eat the young shoots, and trim 
the plants into beautifully rounded forms, as if they had been 
prepared by the hands of a Dutch gardener, to ornament his 
geometrical parterre. 

M. nanus, Forst. Dwarf Furze. H. 74, B. 69. — F. 
Autumn, S. 

Forfarshire, Mr G. Don ; but no station is given. 

Genista, L. Green-weed. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 1. 

G. Anglica, L. Needle Green-weed, or Petty Whin. H. 
74, B. 70.— F. May, June. S, 

Frequent on heaths throughout the county. 
Cytisus, L. Broom. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. scoparius, DC. Common Broom. F. 75, B. 69. — 
F. Mar. June. S. [Spartiwm, L. Genista, Lam. Saro- 
thamnus, Wimm.) 

Abundant on the lower hills, in woods, on moors, and on 
the sea-coast. 

There are many pleasing associations that the " lang yel- 
low broom" awakens in the mind ; but to the lover of Flora, 
perhaps one of the dearest is the remembrance that the gor- 
geous luxuriance of its golden blossoms so enraptured the 
illustrious Linnseus, when he first beheld it in profusion, on 
his visit to England, that he fell down upon his knees in an 
ecstasy of pleasure, to enjoy such a glorious sight. And as 
the mind of that eminent, naturalist was endued with a deep 
sense of the goodness of his Creator, we cannot doubt but 
that he then breathed a prayer of gratitude to the benevo- 
lent Being who had furnished him with the gratifying spec- 
tacle. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 45 

Ononis, L. Rest-harrow. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. .F. 1. 

0. arvensis, L. Common Rest-harrow. H. 75, B. 70. 
— F. June, Augt. P. 

Corn-fields frequent, generally without spines, procum- 
bent, ascending, or upright. With spines, and occasionally 
with white flowers, on the Sands of Barrie. 

Though sometimes scentless, it generally has a rank, dis- 
agreeable smell. The flowers are so handsome, that you are 
tempted to cull them for your nosegay ; but when their nau- 
seating odour comes in contact with the olfactory nerves, you 
discard it with a sigh, regretting that so much beauty should 
be coupled with so noxious a quality. But this, too, reads us 
a lesson. 

Anthyllis, L. Kidney-vetch. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

A. Vulneraria, L. Common Kidney-vetch, or Lady's 
Fingers. H. 76, B. 70.— F. June, Augt. P. 

Plentiful throughout the county, but more prevalent to- 
wards the coast. 

Lady's Fingers are generally prone to do good and kind 
actions, so that this plant has not been inappropriately 
named, the application of its leaves to a fresh wound instantly 
checking the haemorrhage. 

Medicago, L. Medick. 

Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 2. 

M. sativa, L. Purple Medick, or Lucerne. H. 76. B 
71.— F. June, July. P. 

On the Links between Arbroath and East Haven. Near 
Dundee, Mr G. Don. I have never seen it in this vicinity, 
Dysart, Mr J. Cruickshank. Bushy places west from the 
Den of Fullerton, Mr A. Croall. Bonnington, near Montrose, 
Mr G. M' Far lane. Carnoustie, Rev. J. 0. Haldane and 
Rev. J. S. Barty. 



46 FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 

M. lupulina, L." Black Medick, or Nonsuch. H. 77, B. 
71.— F. May, Augt. A. 

Common on banks, and in waste places. 

Melilotus Tonrn. Melilot. 

Br. sj). 2. F . 2. 

M. officinalis, Lam. Common Yellow Melilot. H. 78, 
B . 72.— F. June, July. A ? {Trifolium Melilotus, L .) 

In cultivated fields occasionally. North from Mains, &c. 
Near Kinblethmont, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

■ M. leucantha, Koch. White Melilot. H. 78, B. 72.— 
F. July, August. P. (M. vulgaris, Wild. Trifolium offi- 
cinale, fi. L. 

By the wayside, Baldovan Woods, some years ago, but not 
observed since. 

On loose earth excavated from the railway, Easthaven, 
Mr A. Croall. Both species have probably been introduced. 

Trifolium, L. Trefoil. 

Br. sp. and v. 25. F. 9. 

T. ornithopodioides L. Bird's-foot Trefoil. H. 78, B. 
75.— F. June. A. {Trigonella, DC.) 

Between the Sands of Barrie and Broughty Ferry, Mr G. 
Don. The exact station has not been pointed out. 

T. repens, L. White Trefoil, or Dutch Clover. H. 79, 
B. 75- — F. during the summer months. P. 

T. pratense, L. Common Purple Trefoil. H. 79, B. 72. 
— F. during the summer months. P. 

The red and white clover are both extensively cultivated 
in our meadows and fields, but probably neither of them 
really indigenous. 

T. medium, L. Zigzag Trefoil. H. 79, B. 72.— F. June, 

September. P. 

Not uncommon in the woods, and on the hills and moun- 
tains, and seems to be truly a native. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 47 

T. arvcnsc, L. Hare's-foot Trefoil. H. 80, B. 73.— F. 
June, September. A. 

Plentiful along the coast on dry sandy banks, as well as in 
upland pastures. Abundant on the Sands of Barrie, varying 
much in size. 

Plentiful on Montrose Links, Mr A. Croall. 

T. scabrum, L. Rough rigid Trefoil. H. 80, B. 74.— 
F. May, July. A. 

Redhead, Rev. J. 0. Haldane and Rev. J. S. Barty. Sea- 
coast at Dysart, Mr A. Bousie. Montrose Links, Mr G. 
M'Farlane. 

T. striatum, L. Soft-knotted Trefoil. H. 81, B. 73.— 
F. June. A. 

On rocky banks on the coast, from Invergowrie to Mon- 
trose, frequent. 

T. procumbwriSi L. Hop trefoil. H. 81, B. 76. — F, 

June, August. A. 

Frequent on banks and in fields, but always where there 
is or has been cultivation. 

T. filiforme, L. Lesser Yellow Trefoil. H. 82, B. 76. 
— F. May, July. A. 

On banks frequent. 

Lotus, L. Bird's-foot Trefoil. 

Br. sp. and v. 9. F. 2. 

L. corniculatus L. Common Bird's-foot Trefoil. H. 82, 
B. 76.— F. July, August. P. 

Abundant throughout the county, from the sea-shore to 
the mountains. It loves particularly to adorn the maritime 
rocks, and its flowers often assume a deep orange, or red 
colour, though generally yellow, with a slight dash of orange 
when young. The orange tint frequently turns green in dry- 
ing. 

L. major. Scop. Narrow-leaved Bird's-foot Trefoil. H. 



48 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

83, B. 77-— F. July, August. P. (L. corniculatus, y. Fl. 
Br.) 

Not uncommon on ditch banks. 

Oxytropis, DC. Oxytropis. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

(Astragalus, L.) 

0. Uralensis, DC. Hairy Mountain Oxytropis. H. 84, 
B. 77.— F. July. P. 

Montrose, Hook. Br. Fl. Duninald and Usan, Rev. J. 
Brewster. 

0. campestris, DC. Yellowish Mountain Oxytropis. H. 

84, B. 77.— F. July, August. P. 

Near Bradooney, Clova, on rocks with a southern expo- 
sure, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drummond, Brand, Bal- 
four, Sj-c. 

Astragalus, L. Milk Vetch. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

A. glycyphyllus, L. Sweet Milk-vetch. H. 84, B. 78.— 
F. June, July, P. 

On rocky banks along the coast, frequent, from Will's 
Braes to Montrose. 

Between Usan and Duninald, Mr G. M-Farlane. Dy- 
sart, Mr John Laing. Den of Balruddery, Dr Addison. 
Banks of the Melgum, and on the Isla about a mile above 
the Castle ; also at the mill of Quiech, below the Den of 
Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

A. hypoglottis, L. Purple Mountain Milk-vetch. H. 85, 
B. 78.— F. May, Augt. P. 

Frequent along the coast, as well as on the Sidlaw Hills 
and Clova Mountains, varying much in size. It is particu- 
larly plentiful on the Sands of Barrie and Links of Mon- 
trose. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 49 

Dry pastures, north from Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 
On the rocks to the east of Arbroath, a state with very 
pale flowers occurs. 

A. alpimis, L. Alpine Milk-vetch. H. 85, B. 78.— F. 
July. P. (Phaca astragalina, DC.) 

On the 30th of July 1831, this beautiful little plant, new 
to the British Flora, was discovered on a cliff near the head 
of Glen Dole, Clova, by Prof. Graham, Dr Greville, and 
Mr Brand. It was subsequently found in abundance by 
Dr Barry, and has since been noticed by various other 
botanists visiting these mountains. In the station discovered 
on Little Craigindal, Braemar, by Prof. Balfour, however, 
it is in greater profusion, forming a turf over many yards of 
the mountain summit. 

Ornithopus, L. Bird's-Foot. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

0. perpusillics, L. Common Bird's-Foot. H. 85, B. 83. 
— F. June. A. 

Near Newtyle, but rare, Mr G. Don. 



Vicia, L. Vetch. 
Br. sp. and v. 13. F. 7. 

V. sylvatica, L. Wood Vetch. H. 87, B. 79.— F. July, 
Augt. 'P. 

Abundant on the rocks about the Red-Head, and other 
places along the coast. 

On rocks between Usan and Lunan Bay, Mr A. Croall. 
Between Boddin and the Den of Duninald, Mr G. M'Far- 
lane. Den of Airlie, abundant on the right bank (which is 
not visited by mere tourists and admirers of scenery), and 
absolutely covers large portions of the rugged steeps with its 
trailing festoons of beautifully pencilled flowers, Rev. J. S. 
Party. 

I have also observed it near the Slugs of Auchrannie, re- 
markable waterfalls about half-way down Airlie Den. There 
are several of them, but the most interesting is the upper 

c 



50 FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 

one, which is thus described : — " Here the river is suddenly 
contracted by stupendous cliffs into a space scarcely exceed- 
ing three yards in breadth. Through this frightful chasm 
the deep boiling flood forces itself with tremendous power, 
and, in curling wreaths of foam, thunders down a steep bro- 
ken channel, of considerable length, into a gloomy but spa- 
cious ravine, walled by rocks quite perpendicular, and of 
great altitude. These are surmounted by a profusion of 
trees, exceedingly rich and varied in their foliage, which the 
hand of man never planted." 

V. Cracca, L. Tufted, or Hedge- Vetch. H. 87, B. 79. 

— F. June, Augt. P. 

Abundant in hedges, thickets, and on ditch banks. In 
hedges it often climbs to the height of five or six feet, ming- 
ling its bright blue flowers with the green foliage and fragrant 
cluttering blossoms of the hawthorn. 

V. sativa, L. Common Vetch. H. 87, B. 81.— F. May, 
June. A. 

In fields frequent. 

V. angustifolia, Sibth. Narrow-leaved Crimson Vetch. 
H. 87, B. 81. — F. May, June. A. (V. sativa fi. and y. 
Fl. Brit. V. Bobartii, Forst.) 

Banks Ninewells, Balgay, Lawhill, &c. 

The Lawhill rises immediately behind Dundee, to the 
height of 550 feet. Much of it is cultivated, but the upper 
portion is covered with verdure, and is a delightful resort of 
the inhabitants for air and exercise, as well as the enjoyment 
of the extensive and highly diversified prospect it commands. 
Its botanical productions are rather numerous, and some of 
them interesting ; as the Viola lutea, with its varieties, 
Gentiana eampestris, Lecanora glaucoma, &c. 

V. lathyroides, L. Spring Vetch. H. 87, B. 81.— F. 
Apr. June. A. 

Sands of Barrie, most plentiful about the east end, scat- 
tered over the sandy hillocks, and its procumbent stems 
varying from two to six inches in length. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 51 

Montrose Links, Mr A. Croall. Near Forfar, Mr G. 
Don. 

V. lutea, L. Rough-podded Yellow Vetch. H. 88, B. 
80.— F. June, July. P. 

Between Boddin and Den of Duninald, Mr G. M L Far- 
lane. Probably the same station in which Don found it. 

V. sepium, L. Bush Vetch. H. 88, B. 80.— F. June, 
Augt. P. 

Not uncommon about hedge-banks, in woods, &c. 
With white flowers a little to the eastward of the head of 
Fullerton Den, Mr A. Croall. 



Ervum, L. Tare. 

Br. sp. and vA . F. 2. 

E. hirsutum, L. (Vicia, Koch., Bab.) Hairy Tare H 
88, B. 78.— F. June, July. A. 

Plentiful in corn-fields. 

E. tetraspermum, L. Smooth Tare. H. 89, B. 78. 

F. June, July. A. 

Rare, found on the coast to the eastward of Arbroath, by 
Dr G. Macnab. 

Lathyrus, L. Vetchling, and Everlasting Pea. 

Br. sp. and v. 9. F. 2. 

L. pratensis, L. Meadow Vetchlino-. H. 89 B 82 

F.July. Augt. P. 

Common on ditch-banks, and in meadows, and frequently 
associated in hedges with the Vicia Cracca, Its clusters of 
handsome yellow flowers are agreeably fraarant. 

L. sylvestris, L. Narrow-leaved Everlasting Pea H QO 
B. 82.— F. July, Augt. P. & ' ' 

This truly elegant plant is rather rare on the coast, but 
adorns some of the rocks about the Red- Head. It has 'been 



52 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

gathered there by Mr G. Don, Mr J. Cruickshank, and 
others. 

Orobus, L. Bitter- Vetch. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 4. 

0. tuberosus, L. Tuberous Bitter-vetch, or Heath Pea, 
H. 91, B. 82.— F. June, July. P. 

Plentiful on heaths, and in woods, from the coast to nearly 
the summits of the mountains. 

/3. 0. tenuifolius, Roth. Near Kinnaird, Mr G. Don. In 
June 1831, I gathered it sparingly on a wooded hill south 
from Brechin. 

O. niger, L. Black Bitter-vetch. H. 91, B. 83— F. 
June, July. P. 

This rare and very curious plant is said to have been 
originally discovered in the Den of Airlie by Mr Drummond, 
but its station was lost sight of, till re-discovered in 1844 by 
the Rev. J. S. Barty. He remarks that the station is about 
300 yards from the foot of the den on the left bank of the 
Isla, and six yards from the margin of the river, the situation 
somewhat rocky, but very accessible. 

Mr Barty very judiciously adds, that " the patch is not 
large; and if botanists do not use their trowels tenderly, it 
runs the risk of being exterminated." This is a most impor- 
tant circumstance to be borne in mind, especially by young 
botanists, who, in their enthusiasm, are sometimes tempted 
to impoverish the locality of a rare plant, for the mere sake 
of filling their vasculums with rarities, though these may 
probably never be turned to any good account. With collec- 
tors of plants, it should be a stern and fixed principle to 
endanger no locality of a rare plant, by culling too freely 
where the supply is scanty ; and what is gathered over sup- 
plying one's own herbarium, should be made available to 
others whose opportunities do not admit of their collecting 
such themselves. 

0. sylvaticus, L. Wood Bitter-vetch. H. 91, B. 79. — 
F. June. P. (Vicia Orobus, DC, Bab.) 



FLORA. OF FORFARSHIRE. 53 

Reeky Linn, on the northern bank, rather plentiful, but 
not extending over a large space. 

Near the Sloughs (or Slugs) of Auchrannie, also on the 
right bank of the Isla, where the river debouches from the 
ravine, and near the Kaims of Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. In 
the New Statistical Account of Forfarshire, it is mentioned 
as occurring in the parishes of Glammis and Kirkden, but 
no stations are given. 

The Den of Airlie is not only interesting on account of its 
diversified and romantic scenery, and the historical associa- 
tions connected with its venerable castle, but to the botanist 
is a perfect treasury, from the profusion of rare and beautiful 
plants it contains. And while he threads the mazes of its 
leafy shades, or scrambles among its rocky banks and braes, 
he feels an additional charm from the recollection that it has 
been the nursery of botanical enthusiasm, for there Don 
made some of his earliest discoveries, and Drummond, with 
his keen, cryptogamic eye, explored its nooks and crannies, 
and brought to light many hidden beauties. 

The Den is a deep winding ravine, about four miles in 
length, through which the Isla descends from Glenisla into 
Strathmore. Most of it is richly wooded, and the rocks in 
many places rise to a great height, and, from their inaccessi- 
bility, afford safe nestling places to various hawks and other 
birds of prey. 

The Melgum, rich in cascade-scenery, desends from Lin- 
trathen through a smaller ravine, and joins the Isla at the 
base of the bold promontory on which the castle stands. 
Below this, as well as at the head of the Den, many beauti- 
ful walks have been formed among the woods, from which 
the most interesting features of the scenery can be viewed to 
advantage. 

The Isla forms, in its course through this gorge, a number 
of waterfalls, the most considerable of which is the Reeky 
Linn at the top of the Den, near to which the Orobus sylva- 
ticus grows. In this noble fall, the whole waters of the Isla 
are precipitated into the Den in three magnificent leaps. 
" The noise of the falling torrent is heard at some distance, 
and a misty vapour continually arises, like a smoke (Scottice, 
reek), hence the name, caused by a jutting rock, at the base 
of the cliffs, obstructing the force of the waters ere they have 
finally reached the bottom of the dark abyss below. The 
rocky steeps around are bright with a gay garniture of ver- 



54 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

dure and flowers, and crowned with overshadowing trees, 
through which the sun's beams come wandering in search of 
hidden beauties. Fine walks are laid out on the southern 
bank, from which various views of the fall and adjacent 
scenery are obtained ; but it is seen to most advantage from 
a projecting cliff a little way down the northern bank, where 
the eye at a glance embraces not only the whole majesty of 
the foaming cataract, with its surrounding rocks and woods, 
but also the Bridge of Craig, and the distant hills of Glen 
Isla, which form an appropriate background to the picture."* 

The vicinity of the Linn is extremely rich in vegetation, 
and, to the cryptogamic botanist especially, affords much 
gratification. Mosses, lichens, and hepaticee, are abundant, 
and many species of each may be gathered in an hour's ex- 
ploration. I have there found, among other rarities, the 
curious Jungermannia Blasia in fructification, which is very 
seldom found in that state, and the true Stereocaulon 
nanum, a lichen new to the British Flora. Indeed, the 
Den, besides its rarer phamogamic plants, such as the 
two Orobi above mentioned, Convallaria verticillata, 
Lychnis Viscaria, Melican utans, Chrysosplenium alterni- 
folium, and others that will be noticed in their proper places, 
and a great exuberance of more common flowers, displays 
through its whole extent an ample and varied cryptogamic 
vegetation. 

The Reeky Linn is distant from Newtyle about nine 
miles, the road leading to it passing through Meigle and 
Alyth. 



Okd. XXVL— ROSACEA. 
Gen. Br. 19. F. 15. Sp. and v. Br. 116. F. 55. 

Prunus. L. * Plum and Cherry. 

Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 5. 

P. domestica, L. Wild Plum-tree. H. 92, B. 86.— F. 
Apr. May. T. 

In hedges, Mr G. Don. Probably in most cases planted. 

* Botanical Rambles in 1844. 




- 



'" " 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 55 

P. spinosa, L. Black-thorn, or Sloe. H. 92, B. 86. — 
F. Apr. May. S. 

Abundant along the river side, from Dundee to Inver- 
gowrie, generally covered with flowers in April, before many 
of the leaves appear. I have never seen the fruit (termed 
the Slue) ripen in this county. 

P. Padus, L. Bird-Cherry. H. 92, B. 86'.— F. May. T. 
(Cerasus, DC.) 

Balgay Wood, but undoubtedly planted. Around Glam- 
mis Castle, and in various woods, but perhaps in most cases 
introduced by the agency of man. 

P. Cerasus, L. Wild Cherry. H. 92, B. 86.— F. May, 
T. [Cerasus avium, Mcench. Primus avium, L.) 

On the banks of the Tay at Ninewells, and other places on 
the coast. Woods of Balgay, Invergowrie, Baldovan, Glam- 
mis, &c, as well as in the Den of Airlie, and other similar 
inland situations. 

P. insititia, L. Wild Bullace-tree. H. 92, B. 86.— F. 
May. S. 

Found in the county by Mr G. Don, but it is questionable 
whether really indigenous. 

SpirvEa, L. Dropwort, or Meadow-sweet. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

S. salicifolia, L. Willow-leaved Spirsea. H. 93, B. 87- 
— F. July. S. 

Mr. G. Don gives this in his list, but without indicating 
any station. Near Kinaber, on the side of the Mill-lead, 
between the Mills and Marten's Den, Mr A. Kerr. In 
plantations, but not wild, Mr A. Croall. 

S. Filipendida, L. Common Dropwort. H. 93, B. 87- 
— F. June, July. P. 

On Will's Braes, and Hare Craigs, frequent. 
Sea-coast at Dysart, Mr A. Bousie. Between Usan and 
the Den of Duninald, rare, Mr A. Kerr. 



56 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

S. Ulmaria, L. Meadow-sweet, or Queen of the Mea- 
dows. H. 93, B. 87.— F. June, Augt. P. 

Abundant by the sides of streams, in ditches, marshes, and 
wet meadows, from the sea-shore to the alpine valleys. The 
flowers exhale a sweet but very powerful odour. 

Dryas, L. Mountain Avens. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F.l. 

D. octopetala, L. White-flowered Mountain Avens. H. 
94, B. 87.— F. June, July. P. 

Craig Maid, Glen Dole, and plentiful on the rocks of Can- 
lochen. 

Its large white blossoms form an elegant ornament of the 
rocks, but are very fragile, and like those of the little Rock- 
Speedwell, soon fall after being gathered. To preserve good 
specimens, the collector would require to be provided with a 
field-book, and lay them out in paper on the spot, or the 
likelihood is, that on returning to his inn or shieling, he will 
find all the petals of his Dryas scattered among the other 
contents of his vasculum. 

Getjm, L. Avens. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

G. urbanum, L. Common Avens, or Herb Bennet. H. 
94, B. 88.— F. June, August. P. 

Waysides, hedge-banks, and in woods, plentiful. 
With semi-double flowers in the Den of Glammis, Mr G. 
Lawson. 

G. rivale, L. Water Avens. H. 94, B. 88.— F. May, 
July. P. 

Banks of streams and wet places abundant in the lower 
part of the county, and ascending the mountains to between 
2000 and 3000 feet, where it becomes scarcer, and more 
stunted. It frequently occurs with semi-double flowers. 

.An intermediate variety, or possibly a hybrid between this 
and G. urbanum, which may be G. intermedium, Ehrh. 
(Bab. 88), is of frequent occurrence on the banks of Feithy- 
water and elsewhere. In G. rivale the petals are purplish, 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 57 

broadly obcordate, emarginate, or deeply notched ; in G. inter* 
medium they are yellow, mostly rounded at the apex, and with 
a shorter claw. The flowers are generally rather smaller 
and less drooping than in G. rivale, but much larger than in 
G. urbanum. After the examination of numerous specimens, 
I find the comparative lengths of the upper and lower joints 
of the awn, as well as of their glabrous points, variable. In 
this, as well as in G. rivale and urbanum, the cauline leaves 
are either ternate or three-lobed. These observations, of 
course, apply solely to the plants as seen in this county. 

Rubus L. Bramble. 

Br. sp. and v. (18 Hook. 32 Bab.) F. 6. 

(Neither the brambles nor the roses of Forfarshire have 
been well investigated, and the county lists of these may 
therefore be far from complete. Both genera require long 
and patient examination in the growing state, and that at 
different stages of their growth, and under various conditions ; 
and even alter many years close observation, botanists are 
found to differ widely as to their specific distinctions.) 

R. idams, L. Raspberry. H. 95, B. 92.— F. May, June ; 
and in July on the mountains. S. 

Plentiful in woods, and by waysides, and ascending more 
than half-way up the Ciova mountains. The fruit ripens in 
July and August, and in shady woods is occasionally white, 
and of large size. 

R. suberectus, And. Upright Bramble. H. 95, B. 92. 
— F. June, August. S. 

Near the Kirkton of Clova, and in other places in the 
valleys and on the mountains. 

R. fruticosus, L. Common Bramble. H. 96, B. 94. — 
F. July, August. S. 

Abundant on the banks of the Tay, and in woods, thickets, 
and by waysides. The flowers are generally pure white, but 
occasionally more or less tinted with rose-colour, and on a 
bush or two at Dudhope, Dundee, I have seen the petals 
almost red. 

Though puzzling to botanists from the variableness of its 
c2 



58 



FLORA OF FORFARS\HIRE. 



form, and little cared for by the passing observer, from its 
being so common and so humble, the bramble is nevertheless 
a favourite with some minds, and the following beautiful lines 
by Elliot will invest this shrub with a deeper interest than 
any that science could confer upon it : — 

" TO THE BRAMBLE FLOWER. 

Tliy fruit full well the school-boy knows, 

Wild bramble of the brake ! 
Go put thou forth thy small white rose : 

I love it for his sake. 

Though woodbines flaunt, and roses glow 

O'er all the fragrant bowers, 
Thou need'st not be ashamed to show 

Thy satin-threaded flowers ; 

For dull the eye, the heart is dull 

That cannot feel how fair, 
Amid all beauty beautiful, 

Thy tender blossoms are ! 

How delicate thy gaudy frill ! 

How rich thy branchy stem ! 
How soft thy voice when woods are still,. 

And thou sing'st hymns to them ! 

While silent flowers are falling slow, 

And, 'mid the general hush, 
A sweet air lifts the little bough, 

Lone whispering through the bush ! 

The primrose to the grave is gone ; 

The hawthorn flower is dead ; 
The violet by the mossed grey stone 

Hath laid her weary head ! 

But thou, wild bramble ! back dost bring, 

In all their beauteous power, 
The fresh green days of life's fair spring, 

And boyhood's blossoming hour. 

Scorned bramble of the brake ! once more 

Thou bidd'st me be a boy, 
To gad with thee the woodlands o'er, 

In freedom and in joy." 

E.. corylifolius, Sm. Hazel-leaved Bramble. H. 97 r 
B. 95.— F. July, August. S. 
Hedges and woods, frequent. 

K. saxatilis, L. Stone Bramble. H. 97, B. 97- — F. 
June, July. P. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. Oy 

Hocks of Glen Dole and Canlochen, frequent. 

Den of Airlie, on the left bank, below the Castle, Rev. J. 
S. Barty. Bum, and old Castle of Edzell, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. Banks of the West Water opposite Edzell Castle, 
Mr A. Croall. 

R. Chamcemorus, L. Cloudberry. H. 97, B. 98.' — F. 
June, July. P, 

Rather plentiful on boggy heaths on all the higher moun- 
tains, and generally ripening its fruit in July and August. 
In early seasons none of the flowers remain in July, but much 
of the fruit comes to maturity. The berries are called by the 
shepherds Avrons ; at first they are red, but, when fully ripe, 
of a yellowish colour, large, juicy, and nutritious. 

Fragaria, L. Strawberry. 

Br.sp.% F.2. 

F. vesca, L. Wood Strawberry. H. 98, B. 92.— F. 
May, June, and in July on the mountains. P. 

Common in woods, on banks, occasionally by the sides 
of streams, and on rocks high among the mountains, as 
on Craig Maid, Glen Dole. The flowers are often more or 
less tinged with rose-colour. 

F. elatior, Ehrh. Hautboy Strawberry. H. 98, B. 92. 
— F. June. P. (F. moschata, Duchesne, Lindl.) 

Side of a rill a little to the north of Baldovie Toll-bar. 
Balgay Wood. Near a bridge, about half-way up the Bal- 
beuchly Incline, on the Newtyle Railway. Into all these 
stations the plant may have been introduced, but is now at 
least thoroughly naturalized. 

Comarum, L. Marsh Cinque-foil. 

Br.sp.l, F.l. 

C. palustre, L. Purple Marsh Cinque-foil. H. 98. B. 
92. — F. July. P. {Potentilla Comarum, Nest.) 

Very abundant in marshes aud ditches throughout the 
county. 



60 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Potentilla, L. Cinque-foil. 
Br. sp. and v. 14. F. 10. 

P. anserina, L. Silver-weed. H. 98, B. 90. — F. May, 
July. P. 

The common form, with the leaves green above and silky 
beneath, is very abundant by waysides, and along the coast, 
often adorning the arid sands with its elegant pinnated leaves 
and bright yellow flowers, that are delicately fragrant. 

/3. sericea, Koch. This variety, having the leaves clothed 
on both sides with a silvery pubescence, is frequent along the 
coast, and I have picked it in various places from Ninewells 
to Auchmithie. 

P. argentea, L. Hoary Cinque-foil. H. 99, B. 90. — F. 
June. P. 

On rocks not far from the Loups of Kenny, rare ; but 
common on rocks on Sidlaw Hills, Mr G. Don. On some 
particular part of these hills Don must have met with this 
plant rather abundantly, but I have not yet detected it in 
my perambulations. 

The Loups of Kenny are a series of very beautiful water- 
falls on the Melgum between Lintrathen and Airlie, and the 
rocky banks being richly wooded, tend much to increase their 
picturesque effect. 

P. verna, L. Spring Cinque-foil. H. 99, B. 91. — F. 
April, May. P. 

Hare Craigs near Broughty Ferry. Craigie Braes east 
from Dundee. On a sloping grassy bank at Will's Braes 
west from Dundee, but the station now nearly destroyed by 
the cutting of the rocks for the Dundee and Perth railway. 

P. alpestris, Hall. fil. Orange Alpine Cinque-foil. H. 
99, B. 91.— F. July. P. (P. aurea, E. Bot. (not L.) P. 
Salisburgensis, Jacq , Heenke, &c. P. verna, var. Wahl.) 

Frequent on the mountain rocks of Glen Dole, and Can- 
lochen. 

P. opaca, L. Saw-leaved Hairy Cinque-foil. H. 99, B. 
90. — F. June. P. (P. intermedia, Nestl.) 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 61 

P. rep tans, L. Common Creeping Cinque-foil. H. 100, 
B. 91.— F. June, August. P. 

Plentiful on the banks of the Tay, as at Ninewells, Will's 
Braes, and west end of the Magdalen-yard Green, and in 
many places along the coast. 

Near Arbroath, Mr G. Don. Between Montrose and 
Usan, Messrs Croall, Cruicks/iank, M'Farlane, and Kerr. 

/3. sericea, Bab. Usan, Mr Lindsay Carnegie. 

P. tridentata, Soland. Three-toothed Cinque-foil. H. 
100, B. 91.— F. May, June. P. 

On Werron Hill, Clova, Mr G. Don. This hill has since 
been searched by Mr Kerr and a party from Montrose, but 
without success. It may, however, have occurred only in one 
spot, and such a spot may elude again and again the keenest 
researches of the mountain rambler. An authentic speci- 
men, gathered by Don, is in Mr Kerr's herbarium ; and 
there is also a specimen among the remains of an herbarium 
formed by Mr Douglas Gardiner in 1813, which had likely 
been given to him by Don, as they were intimate friends. 
Chcerophyllum aureum, and other of Don's discoveries, are 
in the same collection, but none of them localized. 

P. Fragariastrum, Ehrh. Strawberry-leaved Cinque- 
foil. H. 100, B. 92.— F. April, May. P. (P. Fragaria, 
Poir. Fragaria sterilis, L.) 

Bocky banks of streams, Sidlaw Hills, and in the Dens of 
Airlie, Glammis, Hatton, Foulis, &c, abundant. 

Marten's Den, Mr A. Croall. Banks between Marten's 
Den and Kinaber Mills, plentifully, Mr A. Kerr. 

The place called Marten's Den, a favourite haunt of the 
Montrose botanists, and the lovers of rural scenery in that 
quarter, is thus described by Mr Croall : — " This beautiful 
and secluded spot is situated at the southern extremity of the 
reservoir, or mill-dam, which confines the waters of the North 
Esk for the use of the mills of Morphie and Kinaber, and is 
about four miles north from Montrose. About half-way up 
the ravine a stream issues from a spring called the " boiling 
well," and flows towards the Esk, forming the boundary-line 
between the Rosemount and Craigo estates. The Den is 
richly wooded, and its bowery shades afford a cool retreat 
from the hot beams of a summer day, while the profusion of 



62 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

flowers with which it is filled, many of them loading the air 
with their fragrance, furnish the lover of Flora with abund- 
ant occupation. Among the rarer of its productions may be 
mentioned Carex dioica, riparia, and acuta, Cardamine 
amara, Lemna trisulca, Geranium sylvaticum, Mykrris 
odorata, Listera cordata, Scirpus sylvaticus, &c." 

Tormentilla, L. Tormentil. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

T. officinalis, Sm. Common Tormentil. H. 100, B. 91. 
— F. June, July. P. (Potentilla Tormentilla, Sibth., 
'Nesl., Bab., &c.) 

Abundant in woods and on heaths in the low grounds and 
on the hills and mountains. In cases of dysentry I have 
known a decoction of the root used with great efficacy, but 
being a very powerful astringent, caution must be used in its 
administration. 

Sibbaldia, L. Sibbaldia. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. procumbens, L. Procumbent Sibbaldia. H. 101, B. 
90.— F. July. P. 

Plentiful on most of the Clova and Glen Isla mountains, 
on their summits, and rarely descending more than half-way 
down. It is found in finest condition a short distance below 
the summits, and this remark applies to many other mountain 
plants, as Carex rigida, Juncus trifidus, &c, which, though 
stunted and starved-like when exposed to the frequently re- 
curring storm, display a more thriving and luxuriant aspect 
under a moderate degree of shelter. 

Agrimonia, L. Agrimony. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. Eupatoria, L. Common Agrimony. H. 101, B. 89. 
— -F. June, August. P. 

Sparingly distributed along the coast from Invergowrie to 
Montrose, generally where it is rocky. In some of the places 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 63 

where it does occur it is rather plentiful, as at Ninewells, and 
on tho rocks to the east of Lunan Bay. 

Frequent near Montrose, Mr G. M'Farlane. Dysart 
rocks, Den of Morphie, &c, Mr A. Croall. Banks near 
Marten's Den, Mr A. Kerr. Parish of Kingoldrum, Rev. J. 
O. Haldane. Kingoldrum is about 24 miles from the coast. 

Alchemilla, L. Lady"s Mantle. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 6. 

A. vulgaris, L. Common Lady's Mantle. H. 102, B. 
89.— F. April, July. P. 

Abundant on ditch-banks, and by waysides, as well as in 
pastures, and ascending to the summits of the mountains, 
where it is more pubescent, and becomes the /3. minor, Hook. 
(A. hybricla, Pers., A. vulgaris, /3. subsericea, Koch.) 
Varies in height from two inches on the mountains, to nearly 
two feet on shady banks in the lowlands. 

A. alpina, L. Alpine Lady's Mantle. H. 102, B. 89. 
— F. June, August. P. 

This beautiful plant almost literally covers the higher 
mountains with a mantle of silvery foliage, and descends the 
valleys of the Isla and Esk to their entrance into Strathmore. 
It is in greatest perfection and luxuriance about those little 
waterfalls so prevalent on alpine streams ; and often amid 
these mountain solitudes, " afar from the busy haunts of men," 
it suggests many instructive and soul-humbling ideas. 

Where Alpine Lady's Mantle bends its stems, 
And throws the shadow of its silvery leaves 
O'er fresh green mosses, dwellers of the rock, 
That drink the tiny cascade's nurturing spray, 
And freely share it for the shelter given, — 
I love to sit, and hear the pleasing tones 
That come from falling waters, mountain birds, 
And bees in foxgloves' bells, all mingling sweet 
In one pure song of gladness and of peace : 
And there contrast the quiet and innocence, 
And healthful influence that fills the air, 
With city's sickening pestilential breath, 
And din, and turmoil, and unceasing strife 
For wealth and honour, that are in themselves 
Oft valueless. And then I wish that men, 
Bearing the image of the Mighty God, 
Would wisdom take from Nature's simplest things, 
That Nature's teachings might not be in vain. 



i 



64 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Abundant on the rocky banks of the North Esk at Gan- 
nachy Bridge, Messrs A. Kerr and A. Bousie. West Water, 
near Edzell, Mr A. Croall. Near Inglismaldie, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. On one of the Sidlaw Hills, NNE. from the 
White Hill of Auchterhouse. The station is, if I mistake 
not, under the lowest altitude where the plant has, by other 
observers, been seen to grow in situations not in the vicinage 
of alpine districts. It was first found in this station in a 
lonely ramble in 1844, Mr G. Laivson. 

A. conjuncta Bab. United-leaved Alpine Lady's Man- 
tle. H. 102, B. 89.— F. June, July. P. (A. argentea, 
G. Don's MBS.) 

Clova Mountains, Mr G. Don. A specimen is in Mr 
Borrer's herbarium, but I have never been able to recog- 
nise it among the hundreds of specimens of A. alpina ex- 
amined for that purpose. 

A. arvensis, Sm. Field Lady's Mantle, or Parsley Piert. 
H. 102, B. 90.— F. May, July. A. (A. Aphanes, Willd. 
Aphanes arvensis, L.) 

Wall-tops and in dry fields, not uncommon. 
Sanguisorba, L. Burnet. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

S. officinalis, L. Great Burnet. /3. media, Sm. H. 102, 
B. 89.— F. August. P. 

Naturalized in the Den of Mains. 

Rosa, L. Rose. 

Br. sp. and v. 34. F. 12. 

(Br. sp. and v. 26, Bab.— Hook. Fl. Scot. 15.) 

R. spinosissima, L. Burnet-leaved Rose. H. 104, B. 
99. — F. May, June. S. (R. pimpinellifolia, L.) 

Plentiful along the coast, and extewing to a good eleva- 
tion on the mountains. 

The juice of the ripe fruit diluted with water dyes silk and 
muslin of a peach colour ; and, with the addition of alum, of 
a deep violet, Douglas Gardiner. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 65 

R. Sabini, Woods. Sabine's Rose. H. 105, B. 99.— F. 
June, July. S. 

This, with the var. /3. doniana, Woods, is frequent in the 
mountain valleys. 

R. villosa, L. Villous Rose. H. 105, B. 99.— F. June, 
July. S. (R. mollis, E. Bot., Lindl. R. mollissima, 
Willd. R. hetcrophylla and ■puhhella ? Woods.) 

Occasionally along the coast, and extending far up the 
Highland valleys. 

R. tomentosa, Sm. Downy-leaved Rose. H. 185, B. 99. 
— F. June, July. S. 

Frequent throughout the county. 

R. tomentosa and /3 scabriuscida are enumerated as indi- 
genous to the county by Mr G. Don, but he specifies no lo- 
calities. 

R. rubiginosa, L. Sweet-briar, or Eglantine. H. 106, 
B. 100. — F. June, July. S. (R. eglanteria, Woods. R. 
suavifolia, Lightf.) 

Not common, but occurs in various places rather plenti- 
fully, as on the beach at Ninewells, Invergowrie Bay, where 
its fragrant bushes grow in profusion, intermingled with R. 
canina, villosa, tomentosa, spinosissima, wild-cherry, haw- 
thorn, sloe, &c, and a great luxuriance of flowers, forming a 
little bloomy wilderness, through whose balmy mazes a sum- 
mer morning or evening walk, by the town-recreant or bota- 
nical student, is fraught with pleasure and interest. Spot 
after spot, however, of this kind, is rapidly disappearing 
from the vicinity of large towns, and this will likely soon 
share the same fate. 

It is frequent in the hedge-rows about Temple-lands, near 
Drumsturdy-moor, and in hedges in various other places, as 
Glammis, &c. On the Sands of Barrie, near Monifieth, it 
covers little sandy hillocks, and grows in clumps in several 
places among the arid sand, its roots, however, striking deep 
into the stiff clay beneath. 

Wayside, half a mile from the Upper Mills of Kinaber, 
and near Marten's Den, Mr A. Croall. 

It is plentiful on the borders of the neighbouring county 



66 .FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

of Perth, as between Meigle and Alyth, and in the Carse of 
Gowrie. 

A curious freak of nature, in a flower of the sweet-briar, 
was observed at Ninewells, in June 1829. In this instance 
the corolla was exterior to the calyx, and many of the sta- 
mens were petalloid, some of the filaments being surmounted 
by little rose-coloured petals, and others expanded into the 
form of petals, having their margins bordered with anthers. 

R. canina, L. Common Dog- Rose. H. 106, B. 100. — 
F. June, July. S. 

The most common species throughout the county, but very 
variable, and the varieties so difficult to define, that one 
would almost require to devote his attention to them exclu- 
sively, in the living state, for several seasons, and even then 
he might not be able to satisfy himself of their identity as 
distinct species, varieties, or forms, or whatever else he might 
choose to call them. The Roses are perhaps the most beau- 
tiful plants that exist in any clime, and are always pleasant 
to the eye that loves beauty, but to the botanist they often 
offer as many thorns as flowers. 

§ dumetorum (R. dumetorum, " Thuil." Woods.) In- 
vercarrity, G, Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. (Hook. Fl. Scot.) 

R. cwsia, Sm. Glaucous Dog-Rose. H. 107, B. 101. — 
F. June, July. S. 

R. systyla, Woods. (R. collina, E. Bot.) Close-styled 
Dog-Rose. H. 107, B. 101.— F. June, July. S. 

Both these species are given in Don's list, but without lo- 
calities. 

R. arvensis, Huds. Trailing Dog-Rose. H. 108, B. 
101.— F. June, July. S. 

Near Dun's Bridge, Mr A. Grodll. 

Crat^gus, L. Hawthorn. 
Br. sp. and y. 2. F. 2. 

C. Oxyacantka, L. Hawthorn, Whitethorn, or May. 
H. 109, B. 101. —{Mespilus, Gsert.) F. May and June, 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 67 

and the red mealy berries termed " Haws," ripen in Sep- 
tember and October. S. 

Abundant, and very generally planted for fences. The 
C. monogyua of Jacquin Mr Babington is disposed to think 
may be specifically distinct, but makes it in his var. /3. of 
Oxyacantha. 

Pyrus, L. Pear, Apple, and Service. 
Br. sp: and v. 9. F. 4. 

P. communis, L. Wild Pear-tree. H. 109, B. 102 — 

F. April, May. T. • 

Rocks of Craig Maid, Glen Dole, Clova, undoubtedly wild, 
August 1842, — out of flower. 

Hedges near Glammis, Mr G. Don. 

P. Malus, L. Crab-Apple. H. 110, B. 102.— F. May, 
June. T. 

Den of Glammis, Balgay Wood, &c, but probably intro- 
duced. 

Hedges near Glammis, Mr G> Don. 

P. aucvparia, Gsert. Rowan-tree, Mountain Ash, or 
Quicken-Tree. (Sorbus, E. Bot.) H. 110, B. 102.— F. 
May, June, fruit ripe in Autumn. T. 

Mountain rocks frequent, as those of Glen Dole, Canlochen, 
&c. In specimens gathered on these rocks, the leaflets are 
very slightly downy underneath, and chiefly along the mid- 
rib, with the branches of the corymbs tomentose. This tree 
is not uncommon in woods and thickets in the lower parts of 
the county, but cannot be considered truly indigenous, ex- 
cept upon the mountain rocks. 

It is called in this quarter Ban-tree (a corruption of 
Rowan), and the popular superstition connected with it is, 
that a twig of the tree twisted round with red thread, and 
carried about the person, prevents or counteracts the influ- 
ence of witchcraft ; hence the distich : — 

" Ran tree and red thread 
Gars the witches tak' their speed." 

Hooker says, " the tree is often planted near houses and 
villages in the Highlands, to protect them from evil spirits." 



68 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

It were to be wished that the Lowlanders were as wise ; for 
then those evil spirits of carbonic acid gas, miasmatic and sul- 
phuric vapours, &c, might, to some extent, be exorcised by 
the genial and life-giving spirit of oxygen, if vegetation was 
more prevalent in populous towns, and the health and com- 
fort of their denizens would be thereby promoted. It is 
strange, indeed, that our ancestors, with all their supersti- 
tions, should have been so far in advance of the promoters of 
improvement of the present day, in using precautionary mea- 
sures for the preservation of health ; but such was the case, 
from whatever motive it may have sprung. 

P. Aria, Sm. White Beam-tree. H. 110, B. 102.— F. 
May, June. T. (Crataegus, L.) 

Strathmartin Woods, and other places, but likely planted. 

Okd. XXVIL— ONAGRARIJE. 

Gen. Br. 4. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br, 17. F. 12. 

Epilobium, L. Willow-herb. 

Br. sp. and v. 14. F. 10. 

E. angusti folium, L. Rose-bay Willow-herb, or Jacob's 
Ladder. H. Ill, B. 104.— F. July, August. P. 

Among the mossy rocks at the foot of Craig Maid, Glen 
Dole. Banks of a stream leading from Craig Owl into Glen 
Ogilvy. 

Banks of the North Esk about Gannachy Bridge, Mr A. 
Bousie. 

At the junction of the Melgum with the Isla, abundant on 
the right bank of the Isla at Ruthven,and in other places on 
the banks of the Isla, Rev. J. S. Barty. Parish of Kingol- 
drum, Rev. J. 0. Haldane. 

E. hirsutum, L. Great Hairy Willow-herb. H. Ill, 
B. 105.— F. July, Sept. P. 

In various places, though not common. Ninewells. Den 
of Linlathen. Banks of Bullion Burn, Feithy Water, and a 
stream below Balluderon, on the old Glammis road. 

At Usan and Boddin, Mr G. M'Farlane. Below the 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 69 

Mains of Dun, Marten's Den, Den of Dnninald, &c. Mr A. 
CroalL 

E. parvijlomm, Schreb. Small-flowered Hairy Willow- 
herb. H. Ill, B. 105.— F. July. P. 

Near the beach, between Roodyards and Stannergate, east 
from Dundee. Banks of the Dighty, opposite the flower- 
mills on the old Glammis road. 

Coast between Boddin and Duninald, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

E. montanum, L. Broad Smooth-leaved Willow-herb. 
H. Ill, B. 105.— F. July. P. 

Frequent throughout the county. 

E. roseum, Schreb. Pale Smooth-leaved Willow-herb. 
H. 112, B. 106.— F. July. P. 

Waste ground about Kinnaird, Messrs A. Bousie and 
John Laing. 

These enterprising young votaries of the science, during 
two years' location at Kinnaird Castle (between Montrose and 
Brechin), as gardeners, exerted themselves to investigate the 
botany of the neighbourhood, and their researches were amply 
rewarded. In that period they collected upwards of 500 spe- 
cies of phamogamic and cryptogamic plants, independant of 
others in the adjoining counties, and including the rare JEpi- 
lobium above-named, Galium erectum, Corallorhiza innata, 
Phascitm alternifolium, Anthoceros punciatus, and many 
other interesting plants. When it is considered that these 
explorations were made chiefly when the day's labours were 
over, and that they often walked seven or eight miles after 
six o'clock in the evening, botanizing till twilight departed, 
and returning home with their floral acquisitions under the 
shadow of night, their zeal in the prosecution of this study is 
most exemplary; and no one in their profession, it is be- 
lieved, ever regretted devoting some portion of leisure 
time to the study of botany. Indeed, every gardener ought 
to be, to some extent, a botanist ; and perhaps the day is not 
far distant when some knowledge of that subject will be 
deemed an essential item in the qualifications of a gar- 
dener. 

E. tetragonum L. Square-stalked Willow-herb. H. 112, 
B. 106.— F. July, August. P. 

In ditches and marshy places frequent. 



70 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

. E. palustre, L. Narrow-Leaved Marsh Willow-herb. 
H. 112, B. 105.— F. July, August. P. 

Plentiful in ditches and marshes, A slender state, from 
four inches to a foot high, is not unfrequent on the marshy 
banks of streams among the Clova mountains, associated with 
the alpine Epilobii. 

E. alsinifolium, Vill. Chick weed- leaved Willow-herb. 
H. 112, B. 106.— F. July, August. P. 

Frequent by the sides of streams, and on marshy banks 
among the Clova and Glen Isla mountains. Very abundant 
about Feula, and the streams descending from Loch Brandy 
and the Corrie of Clova, in flower and fruit, and much of it 
only in bud, July 1846. Varies in height from two 
inches to a foot, and in the breadth of its leaves : some of 
them are flat, others are more or less concave. Some of 
the smaller flat -leaved specimens approach so nearly to E. 
alpinum, that various bontanists have felt doubtful to which 
species they should be referred ; but, though closely allied, 
and their distinctive character difficult to express in words, 
there can be little doubt that both are good species. 

E. alpinum, L. Alpine Willow-herb. H. 112, B. 106. 
— F. June, July. P. 

In marshy places, and by the sides of nearly all the streams 
and rills among the Clova and Glen Isla mountains, more 
common than E. alsinifolium, but sometimes associated with 
it. 

Circ^ea, L. Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

C. Lutetiana, L. Common Enchanter's Nightshade. H. 
103, B. 107.— F. June, August. P. 

N#ir Finhaven, Mr G. Don. 

C. alpina L. Alpine Enchanter's Nightshade. H. 114, 
B. 107.— F. July, August. P. 

Bocky banks of streams above Drumtochty Castle in pro- 
fusion, Mr J. Cruickshank. Stony places by the side of 
LoclvLee, Prof. Balfour. {Mr G. Don mentions C. al- 
pina and var. /3. intermedia, but gives no stations.) 

Loch Lee is a solitary but beautiful lake among the moon- 



FLOV.A OF FORFARSHIRE". 71 

tains at the head of Glen Esk. The Craigs of Maskeldie at 
its head are wild and picturesque, and, to the botanist, might 
prove interesting, it' well examined, but being so far from the 
hamlet of Clova, little in this way could be done without 
gipseying it. At the foot of the lake stands the venerable 
ruins of Invermark Castle, and near it the humble cottage 
where, for many a year, lived " The Bard of Loch Lee," Mr 
Alexander Ross, the gifted schoolmaster of the parish, whose 
writings are well known to almost every lover of the Scottish 
muse. The lake, thus associated with the memory of the 
author of" The Fortunate Shepherdess," obtains an interest 
in the heart, apart from the admiration of its own beauty. 
With what a spirit of enchantment, as it were, has not the 
genius of Scott invested Loch Katrine, and that of Byron 
Lochnagar? And, though of a humbler cast, the genius of 
Bess will give to Loch Lee a deathless fame. 



Oed. XXVIIL— KALORAGE^. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 3. Sp. and v. Br. 9, F. 5. 

Hippuris, L. Mare's Tail. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

H. vulgaris, L. Common Mare's Tail. H. 114, B. 108. 
— F. June, August. P. 

Margins of the Lakes of Bescobie, Balgavies, and Forfar, 
plentiful; and in ditches and marshes near them. 

Pools near Guthrie, Prof. Balfour. Bestenet, Mr A. 
Croall. Mill-dam, Farnell, Dr White. Kingoldrum, Rev. 
J. 0. Halclane. 

Myriophyllum, L. Water-Milfoil. 

Br.sjj.S. F. 1. 

M. spicatum, L. Spiked Water-Milfoil. H. 114, B. 
108.— F. July, August. P. 

In pools frequent, as well as in streams. In the Esk at 
Milltown of Clova, in dense floating masses 2 or 3 feet loDg, 
jut without flowers, July, 1846. 



72 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Ord. xxix.— ceratophylle^. 

Gen. Br. l.F.l. Sp. Br. 2. F. 1. 
Ceratophyllum, L. Hornwort. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

C. demersum, L. Common Hornwort. H. 116, B. 104. 
— F. July. P. 

In the lakes of Bescobie and Balgavies, plentiful. 

Ord. XXX.— LYTHRARIE.3E. 

Gen. Br. 2. F 1. Sp. and v. 5. F. 1. 

Peplis, L. Water-Purslane. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

P. Portula, L. Water-Purslane. H. 117, B. 103.— F. 
June, Augt. A. 

The only station in which 1 have found this little plant is 
a small marsh in a fir- wood north-east from Forfar. 

Ord. XXXIIL— PORTULACE^E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 2. F. 2. 

Moxtia, L. Blinks. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 2. 

M. fontana, L. Water-Blinks, or Water Chickweed. 
H. 119, B. 110.— F. May, Augt. A. 

Abundant in wet and marshy places, from the sea-shore to 
the summits of the higher mountains, particularly loving to 
luxuriate about the boggy sources of alpine springs and rivu- 
lets. Such a spot is termed a " iueZZ-ee," and is generally 
filled with mosses and flowering plants peculiar to marshes. 

/3. major, Willd, is not unfrequent, and I gathered it in 
the old shieling at Loch Wharral in July 1846. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 73 

Ord. XXXIV.— PARONYCHIE.3E. 
Gen. Br. 5. F . 1. Sp. and v. 9. F. 2. 

Scleranthus, L. Knawel. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

S. annuus, L. Annual Knawel. H. 121, B. 112. — F. 
— June, July. A. 

Common in fields and on wall-tops. 

S. perennis, L. Perennial Knawel. H. 121, B. 112. — 
F. June, Oct. P. 
Near Forfar, Hook. Br. Fl. 

Ord. XXXV.— CRASSULACE^. 
Gen. Br. 5. F. 3. Sp. and v. Br. 17. F. 8. 

Sempervivum, L. House-leek. 

Br. Sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. tectorum, L. Common House-leek. H. 122, B. 114. 
— F. July. P. 

Frequent on the roofs of cottages, &c, but generally plant- 
ed. Known in this county under the name of " Foo's." 

Sedum, L. Orpine and Stone-crop. 
Br. sp. and v. 12. F. 6. 

S. Telephiiim, L. Orpine, or Live-long. H. 123, B. 
113.— F.June, July. P. 

Rather local. Side of a field Easter Clepington, near 
Dundee. Banks of Bullion Burn. Near the village of 
Mericmoor, Camperdown. Near the Bridge of Finhaven, 
in abundance, &o. 

Kinblethmont, W. F. L. Carnegie, Esq. Bridge of Dun, 
and in a wood three miles from Montrose on the south side 
of the Brechin road, Mr A. Kerr. 

S. Anglimm, Huds. English Stone-cress. H. 123, B. 
114.— F. June, August. A.'? 



74 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



On the Hare Craigs, near Broughty Ferry, abundant, the 
only spot where I have observed it in the county. The 
flowers have frequently a tinge of red. 

S. album, 1. White Stone-crop. H. 123, B. 113.— F. 
July, August. P. 

Roofs of houses in Forfar, Mr G. Don. Glammis, Mr 
Simpson. Brechin, W. F. L. Carnegie, Esq. 

S. villomm, L. Hairv Stone-crop. H. 123, B. 113. — 
F. June, July. P. 

Wet banks of the Dighty where it empties itself into the 
sea at the Milltown of Monifieth, and on marshy banks of a 
small stream between that and Broughty, in rather small 
quantity in both places. Clova mountains, not frequent. 

S. acre, L. Biting Stone-crop, or Wall Pepper. H. 124, 
D. 114.— F. June, July. P. 

On the sandy sea- shores, on walls, roofs of houses, and 
rocky banks, throughout the county, abundant. 

S. reflexum, L. Crooked Yellow Stone-crop. H. 124, 
B. 114.— F. July, August. P. 

On roofs of houses in Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

Rhodiola, L. Rose-root. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

R. rosea, L. Rose-root. H. 125, B. 113. — F. June, 
July. P. (Sedum Rhodiola, DC, Bab.) 

Plentiful among the Clova and Canlochen mountains, loving 
to grow in the moist shady crevices of rocks. The roots, 
especially when fresh, have a smell like that of roses. Like 
the Sedum Telephium, its leaves turn yellowish in drying, 
and readily drop off. 

Ord. XXXVI.— grossulace^;. 

Gen. Br. 1. FA. Sp. and v. Br. 6. F. 2. 

Ribes, L. Currant and Gooseberry. 
Br. sp. and v, 6. F. 2. 
R. rubrum, L. Common, or Red Currant. H. 125, B. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 75 

115. — F. May, June. S. fi. petrceum, Hook. (B. pet- 
rmum, Sm.) 

Mericmoor Wood, the station now destroyed. 

Woods near Airlie Castle, by the river side, Hook, Fl. 
Scot. It was originally discovered by Mr G. Don, and is to 
be found a little below the Low Garden, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

R. Grossularia, L. Common Gooseberry. H. 126, B. 
115.— F.April, May. S. 

Waysides, waste ground, and in woods, not unfrequent, in 
many places apparently quite indigenous. 

Ord. XXXVII. -SAXIFR AGE M. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. 32. F. 16. 

Saxifraga, L. Saxifrage. 

Br. sp.andv.30. FAL 

S. umbrosa, L. London Pride, None-so-Pretty, or St 
Patrick's Cabbage. H. 127, B. 116.— F. May, June. P. 

Balgay Wood, evidently either planted, or an escape from 
the garden. 

Den of Fullerton, Mr John Laing. Probably also intro- 
duced there. 

S. stellaris, L. f.tarry Saxifrage. H. 127, B. 117-— F. 
June, August. P. 

Marshy banks and sides of mountain streams very frequent. 
Generally from three to six inches high, but on the summits 
of the mountains, in merely moist spots, sometimes not ex- 
ceeding half-an-inch. The flowers are from one to six, and 
in ordinary seasons are in perfection in July. 

S. nivalis, L. Clustered Alpine Saxifrage. H. 128, B. 
119.— F. July. P. 

Bare. Corrie of Ben Hard, Clova. Bocky cave, head of 
Canlochen. 

Front of the Bassies, Mr A. Croall. 

S. oppositifolia, L. Purple Mountain Saxifrage. PI. 128, 
B. 119.— F. April, August, P. 



76 FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 

Plentiful on rocks among the Clova and Glen Isla moun- 
tains, adorning them with its wide spreading or trailing 
masses of ciliated foliage, its large crimson flowers being in 
perfection in early summer, though frequently met with 
sparingly in July and August. 

S. aizoides, L. Yellow Mountain Saxifrage. H. 128, B. 
117-— F- July, Sept. P. 

The most common of the mountain saxifrages, and de- 
scending lower than any of the others. Almost every stream 
and rill on the mountains and in the intervening valleys, is 
margined with the golden flowerage of this plant ; and in 
marshy places, and on the wet ledges of rocks, it is not un- 
common. In drains by the side of the Newtyle and Glam- 
mis railway, August 1842, the most southern station in the 
county where it has been observed. 

Frequent by the side of the North Esk near Gannachy 
Bridge, Mr A. Kerr. 

S. granulata, L. White Meadow Saxifrage. H. 128, 
B. 119.— F. May, June. P. 

Not uncommon on grassy banks, and on old walls in many 
places, as Will's Braes, Hare Craigs, near Montrose, Hun- 
ters' Hill near Glammis, Den of Airlie, &c. It varies in 
height from two to twelve inches. 

A var. with scarlet-tipt petals, and another with the petals 
very acute, were found at Hare Craigs, near Broughty, by 
Mr Douglas Gardiner, but no date nor specimens have been 
preserved. 

S. rivularis, L. Alpine Brook Saxifrage. H. 129, B. 
119— F. July, Sept. P. 

Clova mountains, July 1824, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, 
and Drummond. It has also been found on these mountains 
by Mr G. Don, no particular stations indicated. It grows 
in considerable abundance on the wet shelving rocks on the 
south side of Lochnagar, in the neighbouring county of 
Aberdeen. 

S. tridactylitcs, L. Rue-leaved Saxifrage. H. 129, B. 
119. — F. May, June. A. 

Not common. Hare Craigs. Den of Mains, probably in- 
troduced. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 77 

Tops of houses at Wormiehills, Mr G. Bon. Tops of 
thatched houses near Arbroath, Mr G. M'Farlane. Mr 
John Laing. 

S. hypnoides, L. Mossy Saxifrage. H. 129, B. 118. — 
F. May, July. P. 

Plentiful on rocks and by the sides of streams among the 
mountains. Near the Reeky Linn, Den of Airlie. Very 
variable ; several of its varieties have been considered by 
some, good species, while others doubt whether the different 
forms it assumes can be deemed either permanent species or 
varieties. 

/S. S. platypctala, Sm. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 

S. denudata, Don. 

S. Iwtevirens, Don. H. 130, B. 118. 

Both found on the Clova mountains by Mr G. Don. 

S. elongella, Sm. 

Upon a wall top under a hedge near Airlie, May 1845. 
Banks of a rivulet not far from Airlie Castle, Mr G. Don. 

S. pedatijlda, Ehrh. Pedatifid-leaved Saxifrage. H. 130. 
B. 118. -F.May. P. 

" Rocks near the head of Clova," Mr G. Don. 

Chrysosplenium, L. Golden- Saxifrage. 
Br.sp.2. F.2. 

C altemifolium, L. Alternate-leaved Golden- Saxifrage. 
H. 131, B. 120.— F. April. P. 

Marshy banks in various places, not common. Reeky Linn, 
and foot of the Den of Airlie, on the east bank of the Isla. 

Wood to the west of Kinnaird Mills, Mr A. Bousie. Den 
of Auldbar, Mr A. Croall. Den of Fullerton, Br Reid, and 
Messrs J. Cruickshank and A. Kerr. 

C. oppositifolium, L. Common Golden- Saxifrage. H. 
131, B. 120.— F. April, July. P. 



78 FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 

More abundant than the last, growing by the sides of 
streams, springs, and in moist shady dens, covering the wet 
rocks and banks with its luxuriance of leaves and curious 
flowers. I have found it on the sea-shore, and in springy 
places near the summits of the Clova mountains. 



Okd. XXXVIIL— UMBELLIFEB^E. 
Gen. Br. 42. F. 24. Sp. and v. Br. 71. F. 29. 

Hydrocotyle, L. White-rot. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

H. vulgaris, L. Common White-rot, or Marsh Penny- 
wort. H. 132, B. 125.— F. May, June. P. 

Plentiful in marshy places from the coast to nearly the 
summits of the mountains. 

Sanicula, L. Sanicle. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. Europosa, L. Wood Sanicle. H. 133, B. 125.— F. 
May, July. P. 

Gannachy Woods, Mr John Laing. Castle of Edzell, 
Mr J. Cruickshank. 

Eryngium, L. Eryngo. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

E. maritimum, L. Sea Eryngo, or Sea Holly. H. 133, 
B. 126.— F. July, Sept. P. 

Sands of Barrie, rare, occurring only in two or three spots 
on the sandy hillocks, near the beach, not far to the west- 
ward of the lighthouses. 

Sand-hills at the lighthouse, Montrose, very rare, Mr. J. 
Cruickshank. Montrose Links, rare, Mr G. M'Farlane. 
To the eastward of Arbroath, plentiful, Mr G. Don ; but he 
specifies no stations. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 79 

Conium, L. Hemlock. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. maculatum, L. Common Hemlock. H. 134, B. 137. 
— F. June, July. B. 

Frequent in waste ground, and by waysides. Abundant 
between Dundee and Broughty Ferry. Near Invergowrie, 
and many other places. 

Near Usan, and about the Montrose Lunatic Asylum, Mr 
A. Croall. 

This plant exhales a very nauseous odour, which becomes 
much more perceptible when the leaves are bruised or rubbed 
between the fingers. Its dark green leaves and spotted stems 
have a forbidding aspect, and speak to the observant eye of 
its possessing powerful and life- destroying qualities. In for- 
mer times it was associated with the ridiculous though tragical 
hallucination of witchcraft, for Shakspeare tells us that, 

" Roots of Hemlock, dug i' th' dark," 

were among the noxious ingredients of the mystic cauldron. 
Now that such a mischievous phantasy no longer disfigures 
the moral and intellectual features of our country, and pre- 
judice being discarded, the Hemlock is left to say that the 
wise Creator has made nothing in vain. Its application in 
medicine is highly esteemed by those who know how to ad- 
minister it properly. It is a powerful narcotic : its properties 
in this respect have long been known. A poultice formed of 
its leaves is a popular application to cancerous ulcerations, 
and rarely fails in giving temporary relief to the sufferer. 

There is one interesting though painful association linked 
with the Hemlock. In the earlier ages it was well known as 
a poison : Phocion, a virtuous Athenian governor and states- 
man, perished by its effects ; and it was the drinking of its 
juice that destroyed the famous heathen philosopher Socrates, 
who was condemned to that death by the corrupt Athenians, 
as a reward for his spotless virtue, and the exertion of his 
eminent talents in endeavouring to elevate the moral status 
of his country. Thus furnishing a melancholy proof — if such 
indeed was needed — that in all ages the evil passions of our 
nature have been intolerant of virtue, which alone can dig- 



80 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

nify it, and prepare us for properly contemplating the awful 
majesty of our Creator. 

Cicuta, L. Cowbane. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

C. virosa, L. Cowbane, or Water Hemlock. H. 135, B. 
126.— F. June, August. P. 

Margins of the Lakes of Rescobie, Balgavies, Forfar, &c, 
generally growing in the water. 

Restenet, Mr A. Croall. 

This very poisonous plant is appropriately named Coiv- 
bane, and Mr G. Don relates that " cattle, when allowed to 
browse by the sides of the lakes in the winter months, are 
sometimes deceived, by its smell being very weak at that 
season ; and when once they have eaten it, it generally proves 
fatal in two or three hours. The late Mr Dickson of Cloak 's- 
bridge lost three cows in one afternoon by this plant. When 
the summer is a little advanced, the odour of the plant warns 
the cattle, and then they carefully avoid it." Were farmers 
acquainted with this and such like plants, and making them 
known to their herd-boys, it might be much to their advan- 
tage. 

Helosciadium, Koch. Marsh-wort. 

Br. sp. S.F.I. 

H. inundatum, Koch. Least Marsh-wort. H. 137, B. 
127. — F. May, July. B. ? (Slum inundatum Wigg. Si- 
son inundatum, E. Bot.) 

In wet and marshy places occasionally. Marshy pool, 
Sands of Barrie. Small marsh a little to the north of the 
Lawhill, &c. 

In pools and ditches on Guthrie and Rossie moors, Mr A . 
Croall. Monroman moor, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

iEaopooiUM, L. Goutweed. 
Br. Sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. Podagraria, L. Goutweed. H. 138, B. 128.— F. 
May, July. P. 

1 'nder hedges, by waysides, and in waste places, abundant. 



FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 81 

CarUxM, L. Caraway. 

Br. sp. 3. F.\. 

C. Garui, L. Common Caraway. H. 138, B. 128.— F. 
June. B. 

Wayside between Strathmartin and Balluderon, in one 
spot, where probably the seeds had been dropped. Don 
mentions it as the most common umbelliierous plant in the 
vicinity of Arbroath ; I have never been able to detect it 
there, except cultivated about cottages ; and Mr Groall says, 
" 1 have examined almost every spot around Arbroath, many 
of them repeatedly, but never observed a single plant." Some 
plants are very ephemeral in their appearance, and it may 
have been that in Don's time the plant was common in that 
district. It is much cultivated for the sake of the seeds, 
which are used in the county to give a flavour to cheese and 
oaten cakes. 

Bunium, Koch. Earth-nut. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

B. Jiexuosum, With. Common Earth-nut. H. 139, B. 
128.— F. May, June. P. 

Very plentiful in meadows and on grassy banks. The 
tuberous roots have a flavour much akin to that of the hazel- 
nut, and are well known to school-boys and country urchins, 
being extensively dug up and eaten under the name of " Luci- 
earnuts." 

Pimpinella, L. Burnet Saxifrage. 
Br. sp. 2. F.l. 

P. Saxifraga, L. Common Burnet-Saxifrage. H. 139, 
B. 129.— F. July, Sept. P. 

Frequent from the coast to the highland valleys. 

Very variable in size, the stems and leaves more or less 
pubescent. The var. or state with pinnatifidly-cut radical 
leaves, occurs at Will's Braes, and Den of Bonnington, near 
Montrose, &c. 
a d 



82 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Sium, L. Water-Parsnep. 

Br. sj). 2. F. 1. 

S. angustifolium, L. Narrow-leaved Water-Parsnep. H. 
140, B. 129.— F. July, August. P. 

Rare. Ditch near Denmill, west from Lochee. 
East end of the Loch of Forfar, Mr A. Croall. Ditches 
and margins of the pond at Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

(Enanthe, L. Water-Diopwort. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 2. 

CE. fstulosa, L. Common Water-Dropwort. H. 141, 
B. 130.— F. July, Sept. P. 

" To the west of Dundee," Mr G. Don. I have not yet 
met with it. 

(E. crocata, L. Hemlock Water Dropwort. H. 142, 
B. 131.— F. July. P. (CE. apiifolia, Brot. ?) 

Wet places near Ninewells, at Will's Braes, and between 
Broughty and Monifieth. 

iETHUSA, L. Fool's -Parsley. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F . 1. 

M. Cynapium, L. Common Fool's-Parsley, or Lesser 
Hemlock. H. 143, B. 131.— F. July, August. A. 

Frequent in waste ground, and particularly in weedy gar- 
dens. It not uncommonly grows in cultivated beds of the 
common parsley, and, being very poisonous, no one would use 
it with the other, if he knew it. But how many consider it 
foolery to waste their time upon studying botany, although 
a little knowledge of it may often be the means of saving life, 
and we have many melancholy records of the want of such 
causing death. We daily see man punished for his ignorance 
of his Creator's works, and this is a powerfnl reason why we 
should bestir ourselves to become aquainted with them. Man 
is alike responsible for his ignorance as his knowledge, when 
that knowledge is within his reach. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 83 

Fo:niculum, Hoffm. Fennel. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

F. vulgarc, Gsert. Common Fennel. H. 143, B. 131. 
— F. July, August. P. 

" On rocks on the foreside of Sidlaw Hills, the only habi- 
tat I know for it in Scotland," Mr G. Don. 1 have failed to 
meet with it there, but that is no reason why it should not be 
re-found. 

Ligusticum, L. Lovage. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

L. Scoticum, L. Scottish Lovage. H. 144, B. 132. — 
F. July. P. 

On the sea-beach at Auchmithie, sparingly, and between 
that and Arbroath. 

Sea-shore, Dysart, and rocks in the sea near Duninald, 
Mr A. Croall. Rocks between Usan and Boddin, Mr G. 
M'Fai'lane. 

Meum, Tourn. Spignel. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

M. athamanticum, Jacq. Spignel, Mew, or Bald-Money. 
H. 145, B. 132. — F. June, July. P. (Ligusticum Meum 
Crantz Athamanta Meum L.) 

Glen Clova, and pastures in most of the Highland valleys ; 
called by the Highlanders " micken," and highly esteemed 
as a carminative, as well for its aromatic taste and smell. 

Banks of the Islay at Reeky Linn, likely brought down by 
the river from the higher grounds. 

Banks of the North Esk, in Glenesk, and moor above the 
Bridge of Dun, Mr A. Croall. 

Angelica, L. Angelica. 

Br.sj). % F.l. 

A. syhestris, L. Wild Angelica. H. 146, B. 133.— F. 
June, August. P. 



84 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Not uncommon in watery places, especially such as are 
shaded with trees. 



Heracleum, L. Cow-Parsnep. 

Br. sp.andv.2. F.2. 

H. Sphondylium, L. Common Cow-Parsnep, or Hog- 
weed. H. 147, B. 134.— F. June, Sept. B. 

Common by waysides, under hedges, in woods, and on rocky 
banks along the coast. 

/8. — H. angustifolium, Sm., is not uncommon ; there are 
intermediate states. 

If it is true that this plant affords " wholesome and nou- 
rishing food for cattle," it is worthy the attention of the far- 
mer, and might repay him for its cultivation in poor soils 
better than other crops. 

Daucus, L. Carrot. 
Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

D. Carota, L. Wild Carrot. H. 148, B. 134.— F. July, 
August. B. 

In fields and by waysides occasionally. This is the origin 
of our garden carrot, and is sometimes called Bir<Ts-nest, 
from its umbels being concave, especially when in fruit. 

Torilis, Adans. Hedge-Parsley. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 2. 

T. Anthriscus, Gsert. Upright Hedge- Parsley. H. 149, 
B. 135. — F. July, August. A. (Caucalis, Huds.) 

Waysides and ditch-banks frequent. 

T. nodosa, Gsert. Knotted Hedge-Parsley. H. 150, B. 
135.— F. May, July. A. 

Montrose Links, near the Lunatic Asylum, Mr A. Croall. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 85 

Scandix, L. Shepherd's Needle. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. Pecten, L. Shepherd's Needle, or Venus' Comb. H. 
150, B. 135.— F. June, Oct. A. 

Not uncommon in corn-fields and in waste places. 

Anthriscus, Pcrs. Beaked Parsley. 

Br.sp. 3. F. 2. 

A. sylvestris, Koch. Wild Beaked Parsley, or Wild 
Chervil. H. 151, B. 136.— F. April, June. P. (Charo- 
phyllum, L.) 

Abundant by tbe sides of fields, hedges, and in waste 
places. 

A. vulgaris, Pers. Common Beaked Parsley. H. 151, 
B. 136. — F. May, Oct. A. [Scandix Anthriscus, E. Bot.) 

By waysides along the coast frequent. Smell, when 
bruised, strong and disagreeable. 

Cilsrophyllum, L. Chervil.^ 

Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

C. temulentum, L. Rough Chervil. H. 151, B. 136. — 
F. June, July. P. (C. temulum, L. (Bab.) Myrrhis le- 
mulenta, E. Fl.) 

Mr G. Don says it is rare, but I have found it very fre- 
quently in ditches and wet places, especially towards the 



C. aureum, L. Tawny-seeded Chervil. H. 152, B. 136. 
— F. June. P. 

" I discovered this plant some years ago by the side of 
corn-fields between Arbroath and Montrose," Mr G. Don. 

C. aromaticum, L. Broad-leaved Chervil. H. 152, B. 
136.— F. June. P. 

" I discovered this in 1810, by the side of the river called 



86 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Lunan and Vennie, not far from Guthrie, in a truly wild 
state," Mr G. Don: 

Neither of these two plants have, I believe, been re-found. 

MyRrhis, Toum. Cicely. 

Br. sp.l. F.l. 

M. odorata, Scop. Sweet Cicely, or Myrrh. H. 152, B. 
137.— F.May. P. 

Den of Glammis, near the mill-dam. Side of the Dean at 
the bridge between Glammis and the railway station. Den 
of Foulis, &c. 

Den of Bonnington, Mr John Laing. Below Marten's 
Den, Mr A. Croall. 

The " sweet-smelling myrrh " is frequently planted about 
cottages, and in cottage-gardens, for the sake of its agreeable 
scent. 

Oft by the peasant's cot, the humble myrrh, 
| His meet companion, doth unfold its leaves 
Of pleasant green, and umbels of fair flowers, 
That through his casement, and around his door, 
Shed richest fragrance, sweetening those few hours 
That toil allows him home-born joys to share. 
And what it gives it grudgeth not, but, like 
The true and feeling heart, dispenseth still, 
So long as it hath aught that can convey 
Pleasure to temper care, or give to grief 
Sweet balm, or drooping sorrow cheer. 



Okd. XXXIX— ARALIACE.E. Juss. 
Gen. Br. 2.F2. Sp. Br. 2. F. 2. 

Adoxa, L. Moschatell. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. moschatellina, L. Tuberous Moschatell. H. 153, B. 
138.— F. April, May. P, 

In moist shady places, not common. Dens of Airlie, 
Glammis, and Mains. 

Den of Laurieston, plentiful, first found there by Dr White, 
Mr A. Croall. Den of Fullerton, Mr G. M'Farlane. 
Woods, Kinnaird Mill, Mr J. Laing. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 87 

Hedera L. Ivy. 

Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

H. Helix, L. Common Ivy. H. 154, B. 138.— F. Oct. 

Nov. S. 

In many places, investing rocks, old walls, and trees, with 
its beautiful garniture of shining leaves. Berries ripen in the 
spring. Most abundant along the coast, in dens and shady 
woods, and extending to a considerable elevation on the 
mountain rocks. 

ORD. XL— CORNER. D.C. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 2. F. 1. 

Cornus, L. Cornel. 

Br. sp. 2. F.l. 

C. suecica, L. Dwarf Cornel. H. 154, B. 139. — F. 
June, August. P. 

In bo;7gy and heathy hollows among the Clova mountains, 
frequent ; as near the shieling of Lunkar, head of Glen 
Dole, bog at the head of Caness, &c. Lochlee, Mr D. 
Lyall. 

To some of my southern readers, who have never been 
among the Highland mountains, but whose zeal for botaniz- 
ing may tempt them to contemplate such an excursion, a 
brief account of what a shieling is may not be uninteresting ; 
the more especially as such a habitation will require occasion- 
ally to be substituted for a comfortable inn. Botanizing 
among the mountains, like many other things viewed at a 
distance, seems all a matter of delight ; it is not unnecessary, 
however, to remind the young botanist, that he must make up 
his mind to sacrifice some comforts, to undergo much fatigue, 
and brave many dangers, in order to secure those bright 
prizes with which Flora will not fail to reward his exer- 
tions. 

A shieling, or shiel, is a small rude hut or cottage, con- 
structed for the accommodation of shepherds during the sum- 
mer months they reside among the mountains. It is built of 
turf or rough stones, and generally thatched with broom or 
straw. It has a door, and a small square opening closed by 



88 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

a board in place of a window. The interior displays the 
most brilliant ebony hue, and is painted by the hand of no 
common artist. A chimney and fire-place are luxuries un- 
thought of; the fire is lighted on the floor, and an opening 
in the roof, at one end of the dwelling, is deemed quite suffi- 
cient for the egress of the smoke. If all is quiet without, it 
generally finds its way ; but otherwise, it would be perhaps 
better to submit to the consequences of a heavy shower out- 
side, than run the risk of having the eyes irritated, and the 
breathing embarrassed, by the smoke within. 

In such a place luxury in furniture is not to be looked for, 
the principal items usually being a heather-bed, a small 
wooden form, a turf-built sofa by the fire, termed a sunk, a 
little meal-girnal, an iron pot, a tin flagon, one or more 
wooden dishes called caps, and several horn-spoons. 

The food generally used by the shepherds is what in Scot- 
land is known by the name of brose, which is made by 
pouring boiling water upon oatmeal, with a little salt, then 
gently stirring with a spoon, and qualifying with butter or 
milk, as either may be obtained. The fuel used for boiling 
the water is either peats or birns (the withered stems of 
heath), and the pot is suspended over the fire by a chain 
from an iron spike fixed in the wall. Cheese and bread are 
also partaken of, but chiefly during their long and fatiguing 
rambles round the mountain-W^ms. 

After a long day's scrambling among wild rocks, and wan- 
dering over trackless heaths, loaded with the treasures of 
Flora, when at evening's hour, 

" Keen blows the blast, and ceaseless rains descend," 

with what earnestness does the botanical rambler exclaim, 
with Bloomfield, — 

" ! for a Hovel, e'er so small or low," — 

and what soul-thrilling pleasure fills his breast, when, 

" No sooner thought, than see the structure rise, 
In some sequester' d nook, embank'd around, 
Sods for its walls, and straw in burdens bound." 

To that little domicile he is always welcomed in the spirit of 
genuine hospitality. Though the accommodation be rude, 
and the comforts at command scanty, yet the cheerful 
health-beaming smile of the hardy mountaineer, and his kind 
open-heartedness, make up for all such deficiencies. On his 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 89 

humble pallet of heather the wearied flower-hunter will here 
sometimes enjoy the refreshing influence of 

" Tired Nature's sweet restorer, 
Balmy sleep," 

with greater zest than ever he did on canopied bed of down ; 
and when 

" The Morning opes her golden gates, 
And takes her farewell of the glorious sun," 

he finds himself invigorated, and ready for the explorations of 
a new day, and feels, in accordance with the ideas of his 
simple host, that 

" From labour health, from health contentment springs : 
Contentment opes the source of every joy." 



Oed. XLL— LORANTHEJE, Juss, 
Gen. Br. 1. F 1. Sp. Br. 1. F. 1. 

Viscum, L. Mistletoe. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

V. album, L. Common Mistletoe, or Misseltoe. H. 155, 
B. 139.— Mar. May. P. 

Rare. Woods of Belmont, in the parish of Meigle. 

Ord. XLIL— CAPRIF0LIACE2E, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 4. F. 4. Sp. and v. Br. 9. F. 7. 

Sambucus, L. Elder. 
Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 2. 

S. Ebalus, L. Dwarf Elder, or Dane-wort. H. 156, 
B. 140.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Rare. About the old church of Invergowrie. The odour 
it emits is strong and nauseous, and its taste peculiarly acrid, 
evincing the potent poisonous qualities it possesses. It has 
been said, that, when planted around granaries, and other 
places frequented by rats and mice, its foetid smell was suf- 
ficient to drive away these vermin ; but experience only can 
test the truth of this assertion. The name Dane-wort, it is 



90 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

also said, was applied to the plant by our ancestors, from the 
foolish supposition that it sprung from the blood of their 
enemies, the Danes ; though, more probably, it had been 
introduced into this country by them. 

S. nigra, L. Common Elder. H. 156, B. 140.— F. 
June. T. 

Occurs frequently, though chiefly about the habitations of 
man, and probably not indigenous. Sometimes its leaves are 
variegated with white. 

Mr Croall observes that the first year's shoots are full of 
pith ; this, however, gradually disappears, and the wood 
then becomes so hard, that he has used it occasionally for 
carving and engraving instead of boxwood. 

Viburnum, L. Guelder-rose. 

Br.sp.2. F.2. 

V. Lantana, L. Meally Guelder-rose, or Wayfaring- 
tree. H. 156, B. 141.— F.June. T. 

A little distance above the Bridge at Old Montrose, Mr J. 
Cruickskank. 

V. Opulus, L. Common Guelder-rose, or Water Elder. 
H. 156. B. 141.— F. June, July. T. 

Den of Airlie, near the Reeky Linn, &c, but probably 
planted. 

Lonicera, L. Honeysuckle. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 2. 

L. P ericlymenum, L. Common Honey-suckle, or Wood- 
bine. H. 157, B. 141.— F. June, Oct. S. 

Not uncommon on rocky banks, chiefly on the coast, and 
in woods, loading the summer air with its rich incense. In 
the Den of Glammis this elegant shrub is seen suspending its 
flowery branches from the jutting crags, and often reaching 
the ground from a height of twenty or thirty feet. 

Den of Duninald, and rocks by the sea near Dysart, no 
doubt, I think, indigenous, Mr A. Croall, Rock of St Skae 
near Vsan, Mr G. M'Farlane. Den of Airlie, on the left 
bank, below the Castle, Rev. J. S. Barty. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 91 

" The rock of St Skae is a curious, almost isolated, rock, 
about a mile to the west of Usan. It stands in the middle 
of a little bay or hollow, from the inner part of which it 
extends for about a hundred yards to high-water mark, 
where it rests upon the submarine rock. It is perforated at 
the water's edge, and when viewed from either side, has very 
much the appearance of an elephant's head, sipping with its 
trunk from the briny wave. From its secluded situation 
and romantic appearance, it was chosen, tradition says, at 
some former period in the dark page of human history, as 
the abode of a sanctified recluse, whose prayers were held in 
high estimation by the passing mariner. The remains of a 
burying ground are still extant on its inner shoulder, and it 
is more than likely that a chapel had once kept it company, 
from whose hallowed portals the ' music sweet ' of choiris- 
ters, whose dust now mingles with its ruins, had echoed to 
the wailings of the surge below. 

" The sides of this rock are shaggy with the grey lichen, 
Ramalina scopulcrum, and festooned with honey-suckle. 
Immense quantities of algse are deposited in the bay, and 
the rocks near low-water are beautifully fringed with the 
Chyloclaclia Kaliformis." Mr A. Croall. 

L. Xylosteum, L. Upright Fly Honey-suckle. H. 157, 
B. 141.— F. May, July. S. 

Woods of Bum, in fruit, Sept. 1839, Mr A. Croall, 

LinNjEA, Gronov. Linnaea. 
Br.sp.l. F.l. 

L. borealis Gronov. Two-flowered Linnaea. H. 157, B. 
141.— F. May, Augt. P. 

This sweetest and loveliest of our native flowers, esteemed 
alike for its beauty and its rarity, and the association of its 
name with the immortal Swede, grows in considerable abun- 
dance on mossy rocks, at the base of Craig Maid, (xlen Dole, 
a little below the Falls on the White Water, among scat- 
tered old birch trees. 

Gathered in flower by Mr Brand and Dr Barry, at the 
very edge of the precipice overhanging the south side of the 
White Water, growing among short Vaccina, Prof. Graham. 
On the north-east corner of Mouroman Moor, not far from 



92 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

the side of the Arbi*oath road, Mr J. Cruickshank. Kin- 
naird Woods, Rev. James Bums. It has also been found 
in the "Woods of Inglismaldie, on both sides of the Fetter- 
cairn road, about a furlong from the bridge on the Kincar- 
dine side of the Esk, by Messrs Croall, Kerr, Cruikshank, 
and M^Farlane. In this station it was first discovered in 
1795 by Prof. Beattie, the author of the Minstrel. 

Linnaeus himself, we are told, when he gathered this plant 
at Lyksele in May 1732, chose it to commemorate his name. 
Former botanists had known it under the name of Campa- 
nula serpyllifolia, but he soon found it to be a new genus, 
and his name was given to it by his friend Gronovius. 
" Linnseus," says Smith, " found a resemblance of his own 
early fate in the history of ' this little northern plant, long 
overlooked, depressed, abject, flowering early ;' " and he 
adds, "more honoured in the name than any other: few 
could have been better chosen ; and the progress of prac- 
tical botany seems to be marked by the more frequent dis- 
covery of the Linnsea." 

Ord. XLIII.— RUBIACE^E, Juss. 
Gen. Br. 4. F. 3. Sp. and Br. 25. F. 17. 

Galium, L. Bedstraw. 
Br. sp. and v. 20. F. 15. 

Gk verum, L. Yellow Bedstraw. PL 158, B. 144.— F. 
June, Augt. P. 

One of our commonest summer flowers, extending from 
the sea-shores to the summits of the mountains. Its fra- 
grance is very pleasing, strongly resembling that of honey. 

Gr. cruciatum, L. Cross-wort. H. 159, B. 142. — F. 
May, June. P. 

Banks, Ninewells. Banks of Bullion Burn, near Inver- 
gowrie. Near the Reeky Linn, and other parts of the Den 
of Airlie. Plentiful on the waysides between Meigle and 
Alyth, in the neighbouring county of Perth. 

Moors above and below the Bridge of Dun, common, Mr 
A. Croall. Roadside near the Bridge of Dun, and Montrose 
road near Brechin, Mr G. M'Farlane. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 93 

G. pahtstrc, L. White Water Bcdstraw. II. 159, B. 
143._F. July. P. 

Abundant in marshy places, in woods, ditches, &c. 

/3. Wk/icrinpii, Hook. (G. Withcringii, E. Bot.) In 
marshes, particularly in the highland valleys, as Clova, &c. 

G. uligifiomm, L. Hough Marsh Bcdstraw. II. 159, 
B. 144.— F. July, Augt. P. 
Not uncommon in marshes. 

G. sawatile, L. Smooth Heath Bcdstraw. II. 159, B. 
144. — F. May, Augt. P. 

Abundant in the woods, often whitening the ground. 
Sandy pastures on the sea-shore, and on the hills. 

G. crectum, Iluds. Upright Bedstraw. II. 160, B. 143. 
— F. June, July. P. 

At the side of the carriage-drive, in a wood west from 
Kinnaird Mill, Mr A. Bousie. Mr G. Don enumerates 
this in his list, but does not give a locality. 

G. cinercum, All. Crey Spreading Bedstraw. IT. 160, 
B. 143. — F. Augt. P. (G. diffusion, Don. G. erectum, 
/3. cinercum, Bab.) 

Near Kinnaird, Mr G. Don. 

G. aristatum, L. Bearded Bedstraw. IT. 160, B. 143. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

Angusshire, not common, Mr G. Don. 

G. pusillum, L. Least Mountain Bcdstraw. IT. 161, B. 
144.— F, July, Augt. P. 

Lower rocks of Clova, Mr G. Don. Rocks on south side 
of Glen Dole, and west side of Glen Phee, associated in the 
latter station with Oxytropis campestris, Professors Balfour 
and Graham. 

G. spurium, L. Smooth-fruited Corn Bcdstraw. H. 161, 
B. 145.— F. July. A. 

In corn-fields near Forfar, rare, Mr G. Don. 



94 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

G. boreale, L. Cross-leaved Bedstraw. H. 162, B. 145. 
— F. June, Augt. P. 

Banks of streams and marshy ground frequent, in the 
hilly and mountainous districts. Bocks of Glen Dole, Can- 
lochen, Carlowie, &c, to nearly the summits of the moun- 
tains. By the sides of the Esk and the Isla abundant. East 
side of the White Hill, near a peat-bog, Sidlaw, perhaps the 
most southerly station in the county. 

Abundant on the rocks at " The Burn," near Brechin, 
and common on all the Clova mountains, Prof. Balfour. 
Bridge of Dun, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

G. Aparine, L. Goose-grass, or Cleavers. H. 162, B. 
.145.— F. June, Augt. A. • 

Abundant by waysides, in waste places, and under hedges. 

G. saccharatum, All. Warty-fruited Bedstraw. H. 161, 
B. 144. — F. June, Augt. A. (G. verrucosum, E. Bot. 
Valantia Aparine, L.) 

G. Mollugo, L. Great Hedge Bedstraw. H. 160, B. 
143.— F. July, Augt. P. 

The two latter species are enumerated by Mr G. Don as 
natives of the county, but no stations are given. 

Sherardia, L. Field- Madder. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. arvensis, L. Lilac Sherardia, or Field Madder. H. 
162, B. 142.— F. May, Augt. A. 

Fields and waste places frequent. Though stated to have 
." pale-blue" flowers, I have found them always to be of a 
lilac colour. 

Asperula, L. Woodruff. 
Br. Sp. 3. F. 1. 

A. odorata, L. Sweet Woodruff. H. 162, B. 142.— 
F. May, June. P. 

In the Dens of Airlie, Glammis, &c, plentiful. 
In a small ravine near Kossie Mill, Mr A. Croall. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 95 

On the south banks of the Tay near Balmerino, Fife, it 
grows in such profusion, as to whiten the interior of the 
woods with its snowy flowers. Some years ago, on the nor- 
thern bank of the river, at Ninewells, a plant or two was 
detected flowering under the shelter of some sloes, but they 
have since disappeared. The dried leaves retain their fra- 
grance for a long time, and are frequently used to scent 
clothes, &c. 



Ord. XLIV.-VALERIANE^. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 12. F. 3. 

Valeriana, L. Valerian. 

Br. #p. and v. 4. F. 1. 

V. officinalis, L. Great Wild Valerian. H. 164, B. 
146.— F. June, Augt. P. 

Occurs in many places, though not very common. Nine- 
wells, Seaton Den,, near Auchmithie, and other parts of the 
coast. Wayside near Brewhead. Dens of Glammis and 
Airlie. Banks of the Esk, Clova, in several places. Glen 
Dole, on a small island in the Dole, near its junction with 
Kilbo Burn. 

Near Marten's Den, &c, Mr. A. Croall. 

Their roots are used in medicine ; and the fondness of cats 
for them is a curious though well-known fact. 

Fedia, Vahl. Corn-Salad. 
Br. sp.and v. 7. F. 2. 

F. olitoria, Vahl. Common Corn-Salad. H. 164, B. 147- 
— F. April, June. A. (Valerianella olitoria, Mcench. 
Valeriana Locusta, L.) 

Rather common along the coast, and in corn-fields. 

F. dentata, Vahl. Smooth Narrow-fruited Corn-Salad. 
H. 164, B. 147. — F. June, July. A. (Valerianella den- 
tata, Deitr. Valeriana dentata, Willd.) 

In the south-east part of Forfarshire, Prof. Balfour and 



96 FLORA OF FORFARSttlRE. 

Dr G. M'Nab. Below Craigie, Rev. J. 0. Haldane and 
Rev. J. S. Barty. 



Ord. XL V.— DIPSACE^l. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. Br. 6. F. 3. 

Scabiosa, i. Scabious. 
Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

S. succisa, L, Devil's-bit Scabious. H. 167, B- 149. — 
F. July, Oct. P. 

Plentiful in the woods, and on heaths and moors. With 
white flowers in Mericmoor Wood, 1831. With white and 
rose-coloured flowers on the hill between Long Loch and 
Newtyle. 

S. columbaria, L. Small Scabious. H. 167, B. 149. — 
F. July, August. P. 

In corn-fields on the coast frequent ; particularly between 
Arbroath and East Haven, and about Montrose. Occasion- 
ally with white flowers. 

Knautia, L. Field Scabious. 
Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

K. arvensis, Coult. Field Scabious. H. 167, B. 148. — 
F. July, P. [Scabiosa arvensis, L.) 

Plentiful in corn-fields, particularly along the coast. With 
white flowers at Blackness, near Dundee. 

(Dipsacus sylvestris, L. Wild Teazel, is stated in the 
New Stat. Ace. of For., p. 385, to be found in the parish of 
Kirkden, but as in the same report Subularia aquatica is 
said to occur, it is doubtful whether there may not be some 
mistake, or at least the plant a garden-escape. It grows at 
Foulis, but near houses, and not likely indigenous.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 97 

Ord. xlvl— composite. 

Gen. Br. 47. (Bab. 52. j F. 33. Sp, and v. Br. H. 148. B. 164. F. 96. 

Tragopogon, L. Goafs-beard. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 1. 

T. pratensis, L. Yellow Goat's-beard. H. 169, B. 177- 
— F. June. B. 

Will's Braes near Dundee, and sandy sea-shore near 
Arbroath. 

East from the Red-Head, Rev. J. 0. Haldane, and Rev. 
J. S. Barty. Dysart, plentiful, Mr A. Croall. Boddin, 
Mr G. M'Farlane. Old churchyard of Montrose, south side 
near the foot, and links near the moor of Charlton, Mr A. 
Kerr. 

Apargia, Schreb. Hawkbit. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

A. Mspida, Willd. Rough Hawkbit. H. 170, B. 176. 
— F. June, Sept. P. (Leontodon hispidum, L. L. hastile 
a. vulgaris, Koch. Thrincia hispida, Macreight (not 
Roth.) Hedypnois, Huds.) 

Plentiful in sandy pastures near the sea, as well as on 
moory ground, waysides, and hills, inland. 

A. autumnalis, Willd. Autumnal Hawkbit. H. 170, 
B. 176. — F. July, Augst. P. (Oporinia, Don., Less. 
Hedypnois, E. Bot. Leontodon, L.) 

Not uncommon. 

/3. Taraxici. {Oporinia autumnalis /3. taraxici, Bab. 
Hieracium Taraxici, L. Hieracium autumnale t. Huds. 
Apargia pratensis, Link.) 

Plentiful on the mountains, flowering in July and August. 
Hypochceris, L. Cat's-ear. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 3. 

H. glabra, L. Smooth Cat's-ear. H. 171, B. 175. — 
F. July, August. A. 

In Mr G. Don's list, but no localities given. 

E 



98 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

H. maculata, L. Spotted Cat's-ear. H. 171, B. 176. 
— F. July, August. P. (Achyrophorus, Scop., Gasrt., DC.) 
Dry woods, east of Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

IT. radicata, L. Long-rooted Cat's-ear. H. 171 , B. 176. 
— F. July. P. {Achyrophorus, Gsert., DC.) 

Common by waysides and the margins of fields. 

A curious monstrosity was found at Balgay in 1833 by 
the late Mr James Butchart. In this specimen there were 
twelve stalks or scapes, the central one being about half an 
inch in diameter, surmounted by a flower-head several times 
the usual size. Two of the smaller stalks issued from the 
central one, the others from the caudex, and all over- 
topped the larger flower, some of them measuring 19 inches 
in height. 

Mr Butchart was a zealous votary of Nature, and derived 
much pleasure from her communings. He did not enter 
deeply into the investigation of any branch of natural history, 
but was nevertheless one of those who, 

" Find tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing." 

The feathered race captivated his attention most, and he 
was perhaps the first in this quarter who succeeded in breed- 
ing the Siskin in confinement. — (See Mag. Nat. Hist. viii. 
372.) 

Sonchus, L. Sow-thistle. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 4. 

S. alpinus, L. Blue Alpine Sow-thistle. BT. 172, B. 
181. — F. July, August. P. (S. cosruleus, Sm. Mulgedium, 
Cass. M. alpinum, Less., Bab.) 

In various stations in Glen Dole and Canlochen, where it 
is eagerly sought for by botanical explorers on account of its 
beino- one of the rarest and stateliest of our native alpine 
plants. In Glen Dole, Clova, it occurs on rocks near a 
waterfall about half-way up Craig Maid, and on shelving- 
rocks near its summit ; also in two places near the principal 
waterfall on the stream that descends between Craig Maid 
and Craig Rennet, — the one at the foot of the fall on the 
left-hand side, and the other about half-way up the fall on 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



99 



the right-hand side, where it was observed in considerable 
quantity, almost past flowering, on July 27, 1846. There 
are two stations for it near the top of Craig Rennet, on the 
right-hand side of a stream ; and it grows in several places 
by the sides of streams at the head of Canlochen Glen. 

S. arvensis, L. Corn Sow-thistle. H. 173, B. 181. — 
F. August. Sept. P. 

In corn fields frequent, its large yellow flowers agreeably 
odorous. 

S. oleraceus, L. Common Sow-thistle. H. 173, B. 181. 
— F. June, Augst. A. 

Abundant by waysides, in fields, and waste ground. Very 
variable in size and the cutting of its leaves. In one of the 
wooded dens at Will's Braes, some years ago, a plant of this 
species was observed with a stem between nine and ten feet 
high, supported and shaded by a stately hawthorn. 

/3. asper, Hook. H. 173, B. 181. (S.asper, Vill., Hoffm., 
Borr., Bab.) 

Common about Montrose, Mr A. Croall. Not unfrequent 
in other parts of the county. 

Crepis, L. Hawk's-beard. 

Br. sp. 5. F. 4. 

C. virens, L. Smooth Hawk's-beard. H. 173, B. 180. 
— F. June, Sept. A. (C. tectorum, E. Bot. — not Linn.) 

Common in pastures and waste ground. 

C. pulchra, L. Small-flowered Hawk's-beard. H. 174, 
B. 180. — F. June, Sept. A. (Prenanthes hieracifolia, 
Willd.) 

" Among the debris of the rocks of the Hills of Turin and 
Pitscandly, but very rare," Mr G. Don. In September 
1845, I visited the Hill of Turin with the express purpose of 
ascertaining whether C. pulchra was still to be found there, 
but after a careful investigation, was convinced that a turnip- 
field reaching to the base of the rocks now occupied the bank 
of debris where the plant had formerly grown. 



100 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

C. succisoefolia, Tausch. Succory-leaved Hawk's-beard. 
H. 174, B. 180.— F. July, Augst. P. {Hieracium, All. 
H. molle, Jacq. H. Croaticum, W. and K. Crepis hiera- 
cioides, W. and K. Geraciurn Croaticum, Reich. G. sue- 
cisosfolium, Reich.) 

Woods, and among bushes in meadows north of Forfar, 
Mr G. Don. 

C. paludosa, Mcench. Marsh Hawk's-beard. H. 175, 
B. 180. — F. June, Augst. P. (Hieracium, L. Geraciurn, 
Reich. Aracium, Monn., Neck.) 

On the marshy banks of streams in many places, as among 
the Sidlaw Hills, in the valleys of Clova and Glenisla, &c. 

Hieracium, L. Hawkweed. 

Br. sp. and v. (22 Hook. 28 Bab.) F. 21. 

H. alpinum, L. Alpine Single-flowered Hawkweed. H. 
175, B. 182.— F. July, Augst. P. 

/3. Halleri, Hook. (H. Halleri and hybridum, Vilh H. 
villosum, Sm. — not Jacq.) 

Both forms are frequent on the higher mountains, as those 
of Clova and Glen Isla, varying from two to twelve inches in 
height. A specimen of var. /3. from Canlochen, ten inches 
hio-h, had five scapes from the same root, each bearing a head 
of flowers. 

H. Pilosella,\i. Common Mouse -ear Hawkweed. H. 176, 
B. 181.— F. May, Augst. P. 

The most common species throughout the county. 

H. aurantiacum, L. Orange Hawkweed. H. 176, B. 
182.— F. June, July. P. 

Grassy banks, Den of Mains, but likely introduced. 

H. murorum, L. Wall Hawkweed. H. 176, B. 183. — 
F. June, Augst. P. 

Frequent in rocky places, in woods, dens, and on the moun- 
tains. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 101 

Var. incisum, Tausch. Reeky Linn, and in various places 
among the Clova mountains, as the Falls of Feula, Glen 
Dole, Carlowie, &c. Generally a foot or more high with 
large ovato-lanceolate leaves, much cut about the base ; heads 
of flowers from one to seven. 

Var. maculatum. Rocks of Carlowie, Glen Dole, Can- 
lochen, and other parts of the Clova and Glen Isla moun- 
tains, not unfrequent, though less so than in the Braemar 
district, Aberdeenshire. 

Var. glabrum (£. Hook.) In the ravine formed by the 
White Water at the head of Glen Dole, Clova, rare. Five 
to six inches high, bearing a single head of flowers. Leaves 
glabrous above, apiculated, and very slightly denticulated, 
except at the base, where a few strong teeth give some of 
them almost a saggitate appearance. 

H. Lawsoni, Sm. Lawson's Hawkweed. H. 176, B. 183. 
— F. June, July. P. (H. murorum y. Lawsoni, Hook. 
H. diaphanum fi. Laivsoni, Fries., Bab.) 

Reeky Linn. Clova, frequent, as Carlowie, Bassies, Glen 
Dole, &c. Canlochen. Varying in height from eight inches 
to two feet, and in the amount of pubescence. Generally 
the large heads of flowers, densely silky petioles, and gradu- 
ally tapering bases of the leaves, distinguish this plant from 
its allies, but in some specimens there is an apparent transi- 
tion to the incised var. of H. murorum, the bases of the 
leaves terminating rather abruptly, and somewhat toothed. 

H. nigrescens, Willd. (Wats. Phytologist i. 801, ii. 442. 
Bab. do. i. 865. Borr. do. ii. 496. — H. pulmonarium, Sm.) 

Rocks of Clova and Canlochen frequent. On Carlowie 
.mountain I found it from six to fifteen inches high, with one 
or two heads of flowers, stem-leaves two, radical several 
elliptical, all with a few strong teeth. Specimens gathered 
in Glen Dole had three stem-leaves, and the radical ones 
broadly elliptical, and about the Falls of Feula it was picked 
from five to fifteen inches high, with from one to nine heads 
of flowers, in some instances the leaves nearly rotundate, in 
others elliptic-lanceolate. The involucres and peduncles in all 
almost black, the hairs short, pale only at their points, and 
copiously intermixed with glands. 



102 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

H. sylvatimm, Sm. Wood Hawkweed. H. 177, B. 183. 
— F. July, Augt. P. (H. vulgatum, Fries.) 

Woods, banks, &c, frequent. Clova and Canlochen. 

/S. maculaturn, Hook. (H. maculatum, Sm.) Woods, 
and on the hills. 

y. pictum, (H. pictum, Schleich.) On the hills and moun- 
tains occasionally. 

H. cerinthoides, L. Honey-wort-leaved Hawkweed. H. 
177, B. 184.— F. Augt. P. 

" Rocks near the head of Clova," Mr G. Don. 

H. amplexicaule, L. Amplexicaul Hawkweed. H. 177- 
B. 184.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 

H. denticulatum, Sm. Small-toothed Hawkweed. H. 
177, B. 184. — F. July, Augt. P„ (H. prenanthoides, Sm.) 
(not Vill.) 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. Near Acharne, Glen Dole, 
Mr A. CroalL 

H. prenanthoides, Vill. Rough-bordered Hawkweed. 
H. 178, B. 184.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Glen Clova, and side of the stream that descends into 
Canlochen, on the south side of Cairn Curr, less frequent 
than in Braemar. 

Banks of the Esk, and near the farm called The Cairn, 
near Forfar, Mr G. Don. Woods at the Burn, Mr A. 
CroalL 

H. inuloides, Tausch, B. 185, var. latifolium, Fries. 
Glen Clova, Augt. 1846, Prof. Balfour. 

H. boreale, Fries. Shrubby broad-leaved Hawkweed. 
H. 178, B. 185.— F. Augt. Sept. P. (H. Sabaudum, Sm.) 
(not L.) (H. sylvestre, Tausch.) 

Woods, Mr G. Don. 

H. Schmidtii, Tausch. (Borr.) Rigid Hawkweed. B. 
186. — F. July. (H. rigidum, Fr. /3. angustifolium, Bab. ?) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 103 

Rocks of Canlochen, Loch Wharral, and the White Wa- 
ter, in the ravine above the Falls. From three to sixteen 
inches high, with from one to four heads of flowers, leaves va- 
riable in size, lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, and rough, 
with scattered scabrous hairs that arise from small dark tuber- 
cles. 

H. umbellatum, L. Narrow-leaved Hawkweed. H. 178, 
B. 186.— F. Augt. Sept. P. 

Valley of Clova, Dr M'Nab. 

Leontodon, L. Dandelion. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 2. 

L. Taraxacum, L. Common Dandelion. H. 178, B. 
179. — F. nearly the whole year, in greatest perfection in 
May and June. P. {Taraxacum officinale, Wigg. T. 
Dens-Leonis, Hall, DC.) 

Abundant from the coast to the mountain summits. Like 
the daisy, it is too common to be esteemed for its beauty, but 
its powerful diuretic properties recommend it in medical 
practice. The scape bears usually one head of flowers, though 
frequently from two to six, and the varieties run into one 
another so much that they can scarcely be considered as more 
than different states, caused solely by vainety of soil and 
situation. The /S. palustre (L. palustre Sm.) is common in 
wet moory places, and is distinguished by having the scales 
of the involucre adpressed, though not constantly so, 

Lapsana, L. Nipple-wort. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

L. communis, L. Common Nipple-wort. H. 179, B. 
175.— F. July, Augt. A. 

Abundant in waste places, by waysides, and borders of 
fields. 

L. pusilla, Willd. Dwarf Nipple- wort. H. 179, B. 175. 
— F. June, Augt. A. (L. minima, DC. Arnoseris pusil- 
la, G.sert.j Bab. Hyo&eris, L.) 



104 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Corn fields, frequent. Mr G. Don remarks of this species, 
that, " when any muir ground is broken up, although there 
is no symptom of its having ever been ploughed, this plant 
never fails to make its appearance the first year ; but after 
the field has been cultivated for some time it begins to dis- 
appear." 

CiCHORir/M, L. Succory. 

Br. sp, 1. F. 1. 

C. Lntybus, L. Wild Succory. H. 179, B. 175.— F- 
June, August. P. 

Not common. Near Arbroath, and north from Dundee. 
In a field near Forfar, Dr W. Reid. Near Montrose, 
Rev. R. Smith and Dr Patterson. Ruthven, Rev. P. Barty. 

Arctium, L. Burdock. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 2. 

A. Lappa, L. Common Burdock. H. 180, B. 171. — 
F. July, August. B. (Lappa major, Koch.) 

A. Bardana, Willd. Lesser Burdock. H. 180, B. 171. 
— F. July, August. B. (A. Lappa, ji. Hook. A. minus, 
Schkhur. Lappa minus, Koch.) 

Both these species, or varieties, are of frequent occurrence 
in waste places, and field borders. 

Saussurea, DC. Saussurea. 

Br. sp. l. f. 1. 

S. alpina, DC. Alpine Saussurea. H. 181. B. 168. — 
F. July, August. P. 

Rocks of Glen Dole, and Canlochen, not unfrequent. 

Stems rather leafy, corymb of flower-heads large in pro- 
portion to the size of the plant. Florets purplish-blue, turn- 
ing paler in drying. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 105 

Carduus, L. Thistle. 

Br. sp, 4. F. 3. 

C. acanthoides, L. Welted Thistle. H. 181, B. 172.— 
F. June, Oct. B. ? (C. polyacanthos , Curt. C. crispus 
L.) 

Not uncommon by waysides, in woods, and on the banks 
of streams, from the coast to the mountains. Heads of flowers 
occasionally white, as at Pleasance, Dundee, and Loch Brandy 
stream, Clova. In Mericmoor Wood (now cut down) in 
1831, a specimen was observed fully six feet high. 

C. tenuifiorus, Curt. Slender-flowered Thistle. H. 181, 
B. 172.— F. June, August. A. 

Near Broughty Ferry, west end, and other places on the 
coast. 

Cultivated fields near Montrose, Mr G. Don. Waste 
ground about the Lunatic Asylum, Montrose, Mr A. Croall. 

C. Marianus, L. Milk Thistle. H. 182, B. 174.— F. 
June, July. B. ? (Silybum Marianum, Ga?rt., Bab.) 

Broughty Ferry, and near the church of Monifieth. 
East Haven, about the railway, Messrs A. Croall and G. 
M'Farlane. 

Cnicus, L. Plume Thistle. 

Br. sp. and v. 1 0. F. 4. 

C. lanceolatus, Willd. Spear Plume Thistle, or Scottish 
Thistle. H. 182, B. 172.— F. July, Augt. B. {Cardu- 
us, L.) 

Plentiful by waysides. Occasionally with white heads of 
flowers about Dundee. The Onopordium Acanthium is cul- 
tivated in Scotland as the Scottish Thistle, but undoubtedly 
the C. lanceolatus is the real Scottish Thistle. 

It is the national badge of Scotland, and every Scotsman 
must feel a pride in exclaiming, with our native poet, Nicoll, 
on looking upon this plant, — 

" By Freedom ! our aith — be't in peace or in war — 
We'll mak' honour an' Scotland our bright guidin' star ; 
An' till valleys lie low, whar' our wild mountains are, 

We'll stand by the auld Scottish Thistle." 1 



106 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

C. palustris, Willd. Marsh Plume Thistle. H. 182, B. 
173. — F. July, Augfc. B. (Carduus L.) 

In marshy ground, and by the sides of streams, frequent. 

C. arvensis, Hoft'm. Creeping Plume Thistle. H. 182, 
B. 172. — F. July, Augt. P. (Carduus, Curt. Serra- 
tula, L.) 

Waysides abundant throughout the county, and too preva- 
lent in the poorer corn fields. Plentiful on the Sands of 
Barrie, and about Dundee it is not uncommon with white 
flowers. Mr A. Croall says, " I have been told by the work- 
men at the Hedderwick lime-quarries, that they have often 
found it penetrating with its roots the compact red clay that 
overlies the limestone, to the depth of 20 or 25 feet." 

C. heteropki/llus, Willd. Melancholy Plume Thistle. H„ 
183, B. 174.— F. June, Augt. P. (Cardans, Ij.) 

Banks of the Isla and South Esk, from Strathmore to 
nearly their sources. The var. with deeply laciniated leaves 
occurs occasionally, both at Reeky Linn and Clova. 

Banks of the North Esk in Glen Esk, and on those of the 
South Esk, from Montrose to its source, Mr A. Croall. 

In Glen Clova the natives call the flower-heads of this 
thistle " carl-doddies,'" a name applied, in the lower part of 
the county, to Plantago lanceolata and major. 

Carlina L. Carline Thistle. 
JBr.sp.l. F.l. 

G. vulgaris, L. Common Carline Thistle. H. 184, B. 
168.— F. June, Augt. B. 

Rocky banks of the coast from Arbroath to Montrose, not 
uncommon. 

Centaurea, L. Knapweed, &c. 

Br. Sp. and v. B. F. i. 

C. Jacea, L. Brown Radiant Knapweed. H. 185, B. 
169.— F. Augt. Sept. P. 

Discovered in a young plantation in Newbigging Muir, 



FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 107 

near Belmont Castle in 1811, by Mr Young. Invercarrity, 
by Kinnordy, C. Lyell, Esq. 

C. nigra, L. Black Knapweed. H. 185, B. 169.— F 
July, Sept. P. 

Common on the sea-shore, in inland pastures, and extend- 
ing up the Highland valleys. With white heads of flowers. 
Mr G. Don. 

C. Cyanus, L. Corn Blue-bottle. H. 185, B. 169.— F. 
July, Augt. A. 

Plentiful in corn-fields. The flowers are here termed 
" Blaworts" and when one looks very cold on a winter day, 
he is said to be " as blue as a blawort." Miss L. E. Landon 
says, — 



and, 



" The blue Cyanus we'll not forget, 
'Tis the gem of the harvest coronet." 



: While the golden ears their stores are yielding 
And azure cornflowers fall among the corn"— 



Memory awakens in the feeling heart thoughts of one, who, 
though she departed before the harvest-time, wrought for 
herself a coronet of flowers that will never fade, so long as 
" sweet poesy " hath a place in the world. 

C. Scabiosa, L. Greater Knapweed. H. 185, B. 170. — 
F. July, Sept. P. 

Very common about Dundee, both to east and west, and 
about Broughty Ferry. To the eastward of Montrose, about 
2J miles, Mr A. Croall. 

Three varieties, as respects the colour of the flowers, were 
found on Will's Braes, prior to their destruction by the rail- 
way, namely, one with the heads of flowers white, a second 
with them rose-coloured, and a third with the radial florets 
rose-coloured, and the discoid purple. 

Bidens, L. Bur-marigold. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 1. 

B. cernua, L. Nodding Bur-marigold. H. 187, B. 159. 
— -F. June, Sept. P. 



108 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

On mossy ground near the old Priory of Restenet, and 
at the east end of Forfar Loch, Mr A. Croall. 

Eupatorium, L. Hemp-Agrimony. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

E. cannabinum L. Common Hemp- Agrimony. H. 188, 
B. 156.— F.July, Sept. P. 

Not uncommon on the coast, as at Auchmithie, Usan, Bod- 
din, Duninald, &c. 

Tanacetum, X. Tansy. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. vulgare, L. Common Tansy. H. 189, B. 163. — F. 
Augt. P. 

Abundant in various places, as at Ninewells near Inver- 
gowrie, and by the side of the Arbroath and Forfar Railway, 
between the Colliston and Leysmills stations. 

In great profusion, covering several acres, below the 
Bridge of Dun, Mr A. Croall. Wayside near Charlton 
Wood, Mr A. Kerr. 

Artemisia, L. Wormwood, &c. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 4. 

A. maritima, L. Sea Wormwood. H. 189, B. 163.— 
F. Augt., Sept. P. 

/3. Gallica (A. Gallica, Willd.) Both forms have been 
picked on maritime rocks near Usan and Dysart, by Messrs 
M' Farlane, Croall, Kerr, &c. 

A. Absinthium, L. Common Wormwood. H. 189, A. 163. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

Rare. Kinnoull Wood, near Montrose, Mr A. Croall. 
A. vulgaris, L. Mugwort. H. 181, B. 163.— F. July, 
Sept. P. 

Not uncommon by the sides of fields. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 109 

Gnaphalium, L. Cudweed. 

Br. zp. and v. 8. F. 4. 

G. dioicum, L. Mountain Cudweed. H. 190, B. 165. 
— F. May, July. P. (Antcnnaria dioica, Gsert.) 

Not uncommon from the coast to the mountains. On the 
Sands of Barrie, at the mouth of the Buddon Burn, it occurs 
in broad patches, the sterile and fertile plants usually sepa- 
rate, scales of the involucre coloured rose, or crimson, or pure 
white. On Sidlaw Hills and on the Clova mountains the 
plant grows taller ; on Carlowie I have gathered specimens, 
fourteen inches high, those on the coast rarely exceed four or 
five inches. 

Moors of Guthrie, Rossie, Dun, &c. Mr A. Croall. 

G. sylvaiicum L. Highland Cudweed. H. 190, B. 164. 
— F. July Augt. P. /3 .(G. rectum, Huds.) 

Sandy fields on the coast, and plentiful in the mountain 
pastures, varying greatly in size, and more or less upright, 
leaves usually glabrous above. A specimen found in Can- 
lochen by Mr John Henderson has the leaves downy on both 
sides, and may be the true G. Norvegicum, Retz. 

G. supinum, L. Dwarf Cudweed. H. 190, B. 165. — 
F. July, Augt. P. (G. alpinum, Lightf. G. ptisilbjm, 
Hamke., Bab.) 

Abundant on the Clova and Glen Isla mountains, about 
their summits, and in some places descending to nearly their 
bases, always preferring dry stony ground. Varies from one 
to four inches high, with from one to five heads of flowers. 
Leaves linear, or linear-lanceolate, white and downy on both 
sides. Flower-heads when more than one approximate or 
distant. 

G, uliginosum, L. Marsh Cudweed. H. 191, B. 164. — 
F. Augt. Sept. A. 

In various places, not common. Auldbar road, between 
the railway station and the toll-bar. Wayside between Ar- 
broath and Montrose, Mr A. Kerr. Fields about Guthrie, 
Dun, &c, Mr A. Croall. 



110 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Filago, L. Filago, or Cudweed. 
Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

F. Gallica, L. Narrow-leaved Cudweed. H. 191, B. 
164. — F. July, Augt. A. (Gnaphalium, Huds., Sm.) 

Dry banks near Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

F. minima, Hook. Least Cudweed. H. 191, B. 164. 
— F. July, Augt. A. {Gnaphalium, Sm. Fil. montana, 
Sibth. (not L.) F. arvensis, Ehrh.) (not L.) 

Sandy places, dry banks, and wall-tops, frequent. 
Near Monifieth. Hare Craigs. Baldovan. Glammis. 
Clova. 

Sandy fields about Montrose, common, Mr A. Croall. 

F. Germanica, L. Common Cudweed. H. 191, B. 164. 
— F. July, Augt. A. (Gnaphalium, Huds., Sm.) 

Waysides and waste places not unfrequent. 

Petasites, Desf. Butter-Bur, 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

P. vulgaris, Desf. Common Butter-Bur. H. 192, B. 
156. — F. Mar. May. P. (Tussilago Petasites, Hoppe., L. 
Fertile state. T. hybrida, L.) 

Banks of the Dighty, frequent. 

Near Kinaber Mills, Bridge of Dun, &c, Mr A. Croall. 
It probably occurs on the banks of most streams in the 
county. 

Tussilago, L. Colt's-Foot. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. Farfara, L. Colt's-Foot. H. 192, B. 156.— F. Mar. 
Apr. P. 

Abundant by waysides, margins of fields, banks of 
streams, &c. It is used in medicine, and is sometimes smoked 
in lieu of tobacco. 

(Jfr G. Don mentions T. alpina, an Austrian plant, as 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. Ill 

found on the Clova mountains. May his plant not be Eri- 
geron alpinus, which he has not enumerated ?) 

Erigeron, L. Flea-Bane. 

Br. sp.and v. 4. F. 2. 

E. acris, L. Blue Flea-Bane. H. 193, B. 157. — F. 
July, Sept. B. 

Plentiful on the Sands of Barrie. Stems simple or branch- 
ed, from two to twelve inches high. 

E. alpinus, L. Alpine Flea-bane. F£. 193, B. 157. — F. 
July. P. 

Rocks at the head of Canlochen. High on the rocks of 
Craig Maid, and in the ravine nearly opposite the " wash" of 
Feula, Glen Dole. Generally with a single flower. 

Aster, L. Starwort. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. Tripolium, L. Sea Starwort. H. 193, B. 157.— F. 
Augt., Sept. P. (Tripolium vulgare, Nees., DC.) 

In salt-marshes on the coast from Invergowrie to Mon- 
trose. 

Solidago, L. Golden-Rod. 

Br. Sp. and v. 2. F. 2. 

S. Virgaurea, L. Common Golden-Rod. H. 194, B 
157.— F. July, Oct. P. 

Baldovan Woods, in one spot. Usan, Mr A. CroalL 

/?. cambrica, Sm. (S. Cambrica, Ffuds.) Not uncom- 
mon among the mountains, and on the banks of the streams 
descending from them, as the Isla and North and South 
Esk. From two to eighteen inches high, the racemes crowd- 
ed or lax. Stems and leaves covered with a short pubes- 
cence, the accuminated filaments of which are so constricted 
at regular distances as to present the articulated appearance 
of a conferva. 



112 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Senecio, L. Groundsel. 

Br. sp. and v. 12. F. 7. 

S. vulgaris, L. Common Groundsel. H. 194, B. 166. 
— F. All the year. A. 

Common in waste ground, fields, &c. Birds are fond of 
the buds and leaves, but more so of the seeds. 

S. viscosm, L. Stinking Groundsel. H. 194, B. 167. 
— F. July, Sept. A. 

Will's Braes, and other places, not frequent. 

S. sylvaticus, L. Mountain Groundsel. H. 194, B. 
167.— F.July, Sept. A. 

Not uncommon. Mr Croall observes that it is always 
found covering the ground where furze has been cut. 

/3. lividus, (referred doubtfully to S. lividus, L.), was found 
abundant on the Hill of Finhaven by Mr G. Don. 

S. Jacohcea, L. Common Ragwort. H. 195, B. 167- — 
F. July, Sept. P. 

Abundant in pastures and by waysides. The vernacular 
name in this county is " Weeby" 

S. aquaticus, Huds. Marsh Bagwort. H. 195, B. 168. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

Watery places, frequent. 

S. Saracenicus, L. Broad-leaved Groundsel. H. 195, 
B. 168.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Mr G. Don says it is found in the county, " always near 
houses," but does not refer to any locality. 

Doronicum, L. Leopard's-Bane. 

Br.sfi.2. F.l. 

D. Pardalianches, L. Great Leopard's-Bane. H. 196, 
B. 166.— F. May, July. P. 

Den of Mains, on shady banks near the old castle, plenti- 
ful. Bossie Castle, Mr A. Kerr. Woods at Kinnaird, 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 113 

abundant, Mr J. Cruickshank. Near Ahlie Castle, Mr J. 
Donald. Into all these stations it has probably been intro- 
duced at some remote period. It has the reputation of pos- 
sessing poisonous qualities, and in the dark ages of witchcraft 
found a place in Hecate's pharmacopoeia. Percy (in his An- 
nals of Peterhead) makes one of his witches say : 

" I hae been plucking (plants among,) 

Hemlock, benbane, adder's tongue, 

Nightshade, moon- wort, libbard's-bane ; 

And twice by tbe dogges was like to be ta'en." 

Bellis, L. Daisy. 

Br.sp. 1. F. 1. 

B. pcrennis, L. Common Daisy or Govvan. H. 198, B. 
157- — F. at all seasons, but most profusely in May and 
June. P. 

This " wee modest crimson-tipped flower" is found in 
nearly all places where plants will grow, and flowers in all 
seasons : from the sea-shore to the mountain-summit it is our 
constant companion, and from midsummer to midwinter, and 
to midsummer again, we never miss its starry blossoms in our 
rural walks. The rays of the head are sometimes pure white, 
though generally more or less tinted with crimson. The daisy 
is the commonest though loveliest of our native flowers, with 
associations numerous and interesting. It is dear to the heart 
of childhood, and to those of riper years what a luxury it is 
to walk in the fresh meadows and fields when gemmed with 
myriads of " May gowans," — health in every breeze, and the 
music of happy birds floating all around, inspiring the heart 
with peace and cheerfulness. 

Clare says, 



" Trampled under foot, 

The daisy lives, and strikes its little root 
Into tbe lap of Time : centuries many come 
And pass away into tbe silent tomb, 
And still tbe child, bid in tbe womb of Time, 
Shall smile and pluck thee." 

It also speaks to our higher comprehensions, and whispers 
of Him, who is 

-Ever present, ever felt, 



In the void waste, as in the city full," 



114 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

for its presence proclaims, that, 

" Not worlds on worlds in phalanx deep, 
Need we to prove a God is here; 
The daisy, fresh from winter's sleep 
Tells of His hand in lines as clear." 

And with Montgomery one feels disposed to exclaim — 

" Thrice welcome, little English flower! 

To me the pledge of hope unseen: 
When sorrow would my soul o'erpower 
For joys that were, or might have been, 

I'll call to mind, how — fresh and green — 

I saw thee waking from the dust; 
Then turn to Heaven with brow serene, 

And place in God my trust." 

The daisy (or day's eye) is a favourite with all, high and 
low, and many a tribute has been paid it by those who have 
expressed themselves in the language of " sweet poesy," and 
probably many a heart-felt eulogium has been pronounced 
upon it by kindred minds without the clothing of words. 

The beautiful and pathetic effusion to this lowly flower by 
Scotland's -ploughman poet is perhaps known to all, but pro- 
bably its best biographer is J. Montgomery, whose sweet little 
poem, like the former, might be read a thousand times over 
by the lover of Flora without satiety. 

"THE FIELD FLOWER. 

There is a flower, a little flower, 

With silver erest and golden eye, 
That welcomes every changing hour, 

And weathers every sky. 

The prouder beauties of the field 

In gay but quick succession shine ; 
Race after race their honours yield — 

They flourish and decline. 

But this small flower, to nature dear, 
While moon and stars their courses run, 

Wreathes the whole circle of the year, 
Companion of the sun. 

It smiles upon the lap of May, 

To sultry August spreads its charms, 
Lights pale October on its way, 

And twines December's arms. 

The purple heath and golden broom 

On moory mountains catch the gale ; 
O'er lawns the lily sheds perfume, 

The violet in the vale. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 115 

But tbis bold flow'ret climbs tbe bill, 

Hides in tbe forest, baunts tbe glen, 
Stays on tbe margin of tbe rill, 

Peeps round tbe fox's den. 

Witbin tbe garden's eultur'd round 

It sbares tbe sweet carnation's bed, 
And blooms on consecrated ground 

In bonour of tbe dead. 

The lambkin crops its crimson gem, 

Tbe wild bee murmurs on its breast, 
Tbe blue-fly bends its pensile stem 

Ligbt o'er tbe sky-lark's nest. 

'Tis Flora's page : — in every place, 

In every season, fresh and fair, 
It opens with perennial grace, 

And blossoms everywhere. 

On waste and woodland, rock and plain, 

Its humble buds unheeded rise ; 
The rose is but a summer reign, 

The Daisy never dies." 

Chrysanthemum, L. Ox-Eye. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

C. Lsucanthemum., L. Great White Ox-Eye. H. 198, 
B. 161.— F. June, Augt. P. 

Plentiful by waysides and margins of corn-fields from the 
coast to far up the mountain valleys, 

C, segetum, L. Corn Marigold, or Yellow Ox-Eye. H. 
198, B. 162.— F. June, Augt. A. 

Common in corn-fields throughout the county. 

Pyrethrum, Hall. Feverfew. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

P. Parthenium, Sm. Common Feverfew. H. 198, B„ 
162. — F. July, Augt. P. (Matricaria, L.) 

Ninewells, Den of Mains, &c, but not common. 

P. inodorum Sm. Corn Feverfew, or Scentless Mayweed. 
H. 198, B. 162. — F. Augt., Oct. A. (Chrysanthemum 
Matricaria, DC.) 

Waysides and fields, common. 

/3. maritimum, (Pyrethrum maritimum, Sm. Matricaria 
maritima, L.) 



116 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Sea shore, frequent, as at Carnoustie, Auchmithie, &c. 
TJsan, and Rock of St Skae, Mr G. M' Farlane. 

Anthemis, L. Chamomile. 
Br. sp. 5. F. 3. 

A. arvensis, L. Corn Chamomile. H. 199, B. 159. — 
F. June, July. B. 

Bare. Fields behind Provost Paton's house, east end of 
Montrose, 1840, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

A. Cotula, L. Stinking Chamomile. H. 200, B. 160. 
— F. July, Augt. A. (Marutafcetida, DC.) 

In Mr G. Don's list, but without named stations. 

A. tinctoria, L. Ox-eye Chamomile. H. 200, B. 160. 
— F. July, Augt. P. or B. ? 

Wayside north from Forfar, Messrs G. and D. Don. 
Achillea, L. Yarrow. 

Br. sp. avdv. 4. F. 2. 

A. Ptarmica, L. Sneezewort. H. 200, B. 160.— F. 
July, Augt. P. 

Woods, ditches, marshes, and moist places, frequent. 

A. Millefolium, L. Common Yarrow or Milfoil. H. 200, 
B. 161. — F. June to Sept. P. 

Abundant by waysides and in pastures, from the coast to 
nearly the summits of the mountains. Florets white, or 
more or less tinged with crimson. 

Ord. XLVIL— CAMPANULACE^E. 

Gen. Br. 4. F. 2. Sp. Br. 15. i?. 5. 

Campanula, L. Bell-flower. 

Br. sp. 10. F. 4. 

C. rotundifolia, L. Bound-leaved Bell-flower, or Hair- 
bell. H. 202, B. 189.— F. July, Sept, P. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 117 

The graceful Hair-bell is nearly as widely diffused as the 
daisy. Not only does its 

" drooping bells of clearest blue" 

adorn " brown heath and shaggy wood," but the sandy sea- 
shore and the lofty mountain- rock ; and it is a familiar 
flower by our waysides and under our hedge-rows. Heber, 
addressing it, says — 

" But most I love thine azure braid, 
! When softer flowers are all decayed, 
And thou appearest 
Stealing beneath the hedgerow shade, 
Like joys that linger as they fade, 
Whose last are dearest. 

Thou art the flower of memory ; 
The pensive soul recalls in thee 

The year's past pleasures ; 
And led by kindred thought will flee, 
Till back to careless-infancy 

The path she nisasures." 

The " Scottish Blue Bells" are especial favourites with the 
poets, and the sweet and fairy numbers to which they have 
been made to chime are attractive to all. " Our own blue- 
bell," as Nicoll calls it, was highly esteemed by Scott, whose 
lines, put in the mouth of his Lady Ellen, will give an addi- 
tional charm to every such blossom that blooms on the banks 
of Loch Katrine. 

" ' For me,' she stooped, and looking round, 
Plucked a blue harebell from the ground, — 
' For me, whose memory scarce conveys 
An image of more splendid days, 
This little flower, that loves the lea, 
May well my simple emblem be : 
It drinks heaven's dew blithe as the rose 
That in the king's own garden grows ; 
And when I place it in my hair, 
Allan, a bard, is bound to swear 
He ne'er saw coronet so fair.' " 

It occurs frequently with pure white flowers. 

C.,latifolia, L. Giant Bell-flower. H. 203, B. 188. — 
F. July. Augt. P. 

In the Den of the Vane, which the water Koran runs 
through, Murr. North Flor. Ruthven, Rev. P. Barty. 
Mr G. Don enumerates this in his list, but gives no station. 



118 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

C. rapunculoides, L. Creeping Bell-flower. H. 203, 
B. 189.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Den of Mains, but likely introduced. 
Duninald Den, near Usan, Mr A. Balfour. 

C. glomerata, L. Clustered Bell-flower. H. 203, B. 188. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

Frequent on the rocky coast from Arbroath to Montrose- 
Will's Braes, and banks of Dighty near Claverhouse Bleach- 
field, but, from alterations in these localities, the plants have 
in the meantime disappeared. Flowers generally deep blue, 
with a purplish tinge, but varying from dark purple to white. 
White-flowered plants were gathered near Auchmithie by 
Dr P. Neill and Dr M'Nab, and I have found it with pale 
blue flowers on Will's Braes. 

Between Usan and Duninald, Mr G. M'Farlane. North 
side of the Montrose Basin, Mr. J. Cruickshank. 

Lobelia, L. Lobelia. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

L. Dortmanna, L. Water Lobelia. H. 205, B. 187. — 

F. July, Augt. P. 

Small loch at the south-west corner of Loch Brandy, 
plentiful. Loch of Lintrathen, Mr G. Don. Near Kettins, 
Mr James Gibb. Pool near Auchterhouse, Mr Douglass 
Gardiner. 

Ord. XLVIIL— VACCINIE^E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 4. F. 4. 

Vaccinium, L. Whortle-Berry. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 4. 

V. Myrtillus, L. Bilberry, or Whortle-berry. H. 206, 
B. 194. — F. May, June. S. Fruit ripe July, Augt. 

Abundant in the woods, and on the hills and mountains. 
The berries are well known in this county, and in Scotland 
generally, under the name of " Blae- Berries," being gathered 
and brought to market. They are about the size of black- 
berries, have a somewhat glaucous bloom, and are deliciously 
flavoured. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 119 

V. uliginosum, L. Great Bilberry, or Bog Whortle- 
berry. H. 206, B. 194.— F. May, July. S. 

Plentiful on boggy heaths among the Clova mountains, on 
the summits, and partially descending into the alpine valleys. 
The very deciduous flowers are not frequent, and the fruit 
must be rare in this county, as none of the shepherds of whom 
I have made enquiry have ever detected it. 

V. Vitis-Id(ea, L. Bed "Whortle-berry, or Cowberrv, 
H. 206, B. 195.— F. May. June (and in Sept. 1846), S. 
Fruit ripe in Sept. 

Woods, hills, and the higher mountains to their summits. 
The flowers are white, tinged slightly or deeply with pink. 
The berries, called " Brawlins" grow in little clusters like 
grapes ; when ripe, of a fine scarlet colour, and pleasant acid 
taste. 

V. Oxycoccos, L. Marsh Whortle-berry, or Cranberry. 
H. 206, B. 195. — F. June, July. S. (Oxycoccos ■palustris 
Pers., Kich.) 

Among Sphagna on the Clova mountains, as banks of 
Feula Burn, &c, but not common. 



Sub-Class III.-COROLLIFLOR^E. 

Ord. XLIX.— ERICEJE, 

Gen. Br. 6. F. 4. Sp. and v. Br. 15. F. 5. 

Erica, L. Heath. 

Br. sp. 6. F. 2. 

E. Tetralix, L. Cross-leaved Heath. H. 207, B. 192. 
— F. July, Augt. S. 

Plentiful on the hills and mountains, but in greatest per- 
fection in the woods. Its wax-like rose-coloured flowei's are 
peculiarly beautiful. It was found with pure white flowers 
in Mericmoor Wood by W. Gardiner, Senr. 

E. cinerea, L. Fine-leaved Heath. H. 208, B. 193.— 
F. July, Augt. S. 

This heath is met with in abundance wherever there is a 



120 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

bit of moory ground, from the sea-shore to the highest sum- 
mits of the Clova mountains. It is named " Carlin-heather," 
and its blossoms are usually of a fine rich purple, though 
sometimes pale pink and white, as on the Sidlaw Hills, Loch 
Brandy, Glen Dole, &c. 

Calluna. Salisb. Ling, 
Br.sp. 1. F.L 

C. vulgaris, Salisb. Common Heath, or Ling. H. 209, 
B. 192. — F. June, Augt. S. (Erica vulgaris, L.) 

Fully as widely diffused as E. cinerea. With white flow- 
ers on Sidlaw Hills. On the Clova mountains a procumbent 
form is not uncommon. 

This beautiful little shrub, the veritable Heather of Scot- 
land, 

" On Caledonian hills sublime 



Spreads its dark mantle, where the bees delight 
To seek their purest honey, flourishes 
Sometimes with bell-like amethysts, and then 
Paler, and shaded like a maiden's cheek 
With gradual blushes; others while as white 
As rime that hangs upon the frozen spray. 
Of this old Scotia's hardy mountaineers 
Their rustic couches form, and there enjoy 
Sleep, which beneath his velvet canopy, 
Luxurious Idleness implores in vain." 



Azalea, L. Azalea. 

Br. sp. 1 . F.l. 

A. procumbens, L. Trailing Azalea. H. 210, B. 194, — 
F. May, June. S. [Chamceledon, Link. Loiseleuria, 
Desvaux.) 

On the summits of the Clova mountains plentiful, as those 
of Carlowie, Bassies, Bed Craig, White Bent, Ben Bed, Loch 
Brandy Hills, King's-seat in the Corrie of Clova, &c. 

On the mountains bounding Glen Phee and Glen Dole, 
Professor Balfour, who remarks that a large variety of the 
plant, resembling that brought from America, is met with on 
the Clova range. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 121 

Arbutus, L. Bear-berry. 

Br. Sp. 3; F. 1. 

A. Uva-Ursi, L. lied Bear-berry. H. 211, B. 192.— 
F. May, June. S. (Arciostaphylos Uva-Ursi, Spreng., 
Bab.) 

Plentiful on all the Clova mountains, with green fruit in 
July. In one spot on the Sidlaw Hills I detected a clump 
of it in bud, Apr. 1840. It was growing near a small peat- 
bog to the eastward of White Hill, on the left-hand bank. 

Ord. L.— MONOTROPEJE. 
Gen. Br .2. F. 1. Sp. Br. 6. F. 5. 

Pyrola, L. Winter-green, 

Br.Sp.b. F.5. 

P. uniflora, L. Single-flowered Winter-green. H. 212, 
B. 196. — F. June, July. P. (Moneses grandiflora, Salisb., 
Bab.) 

Clova Mountains, but rare, Mr G. Don. This singularly 
beautiful and fragrant flower I have gathered in Scone 
Woods, near Perth, but have never met with it in Forfar- 
shire, and Mr Don has not indicated any particular station. 

P. secunda, L. Serrated Winter-green. H. 212, B. 194. 
— F. July. P. 

Bocks, Canlochen, and Craig Maid, Glen Dole, not very 
plentiful. Woods near Gannachy Bridge, abundant, Messrs 
Bousie and Kerr. 

P. rotundifolia, L. Round-leaved Winter-green. H. 212, 
B. 195.— F. July, Sept. P. 

Rocks of Glen Dole and Canlochen sparingly. 

Fir-woods, Mr G. Don. Gannachy Woods, Dr J. D. 
Hooker. Miss Carnegie. 

A solitary specimen was found on the south side of the 
White Hill of Auchterhouse, near the summit, among young 
larch trees, July 1845. The root was left. Messrs Geo. 
Lawson and James Adie. 



122 FLORA OF FORFA.RSHIRE. 

P. media, Sw. Intermediate Winter-green. H. 213, 
B. 195.— F. May, Augt. P. 

Cramb's Wood, south-west from Glammis. Glen Clova, 
a little beyond the " smithy," or smith's shop, by the way- 
side, on open grassy banks. 

Den of Airlie, in the oak copse on the right bank, associ- 
ated with Trientalis europasa, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

Burn Woods, Mr A. Bousie. Moor of Pert, and Craigo, 
Mr A. Croall, Near Kinnaird, and Woods of Ardovie and 
Kinnoul, Mr J. Cruickslxank. 

P. minor, L. Lesser Winter-green. H. 213, B. 195. — 
F. June, July. P. (P. rosea, E. Bot.) 

Baldovan Woods, plentiful. Woods, back-moor of Dun- 
trune. Woods near Newtyle. Lumley Den. Den of 
Glammis, and Hunter's Hill Wood. Sidlaw Hills. Rocks 
of Canlochen, and Glen Dole, &c. 

Den of Fullerton, Dr White. Woods of Dun and Guthrie, 
Mr A. Croall. Fir-woods near Forfar, Mr G. Don. Ruth- 
ven, Rev. P. Barty. 

Ord. LI.-ILICINE^. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 1. F. 1. 

Ilex, L. Holly. 
Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

I. Aquifolium, L. Common Holly. H. 214, B. 196.— 
F. May, June. T. 

About Mains Castle, and other places, but probably 
planted. 

Small plants occur here and there in the Woods of Dun, 
that are apparently indigenous, Mr A. Croall. Clova 
Mountains, Mr G. Don. It is likely to be perfectly indige- 
nous there, but no definite station is pointed out. 

Okd. LIL— JASMINES. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 3. F. 2. 
Ligustrum, L. Privet. 

Br.sp. 1. F.l. 

L. vulgare, L. Privet. H. 214, B. 197.— F. June, 
July. S. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 123 

Near Tannadice, Mr G. Don. Hedge-bank opposite the 
south end of the Lower North Water (Esk) Bridge, appa- 
rently indigenous, Mr A. Croall. Banks of the North Esk 
near the Burn, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

Fraxinus, L. Ash. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

F. excelsior, L. Common Ash. H. 215, B. 197.— F. 
March, May. T. 

Frequent, but likely introduced. 

Ord. liil— apocyne^:. 

Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. S 1} . Br. 2. F. 2. 

Vinca, L. Periwinkle. 

Br. sp. 2. F.2. 

V. minor, L. Lesser Periwinkle. H. 216, B. 197. — F. 
May, June. P. 

Woods of Kinnaird, and wood opposite Brechin Castle, in 
both places abundant, and undoubtedly introduced, though 
now completely naturalized, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

Y. major, L. Greater Periwinkle. H. 216, B. 198.— 
F. April, May. P. 

Langley Park, undoubtedly naturalized, Mr G. M'Far- 
lane. 

Ord. LIV— GENTIANEJE. 

Gen. Br. 6. F. 3. Sp. Br. 14. F. 5. 

Erythr^a, Renealm. Centaury. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 1. 

E. Centaur him, Pers. Common Centaury. H. 217, 
B. 199. — F. June, Augt. A. (Chironia, Curt. Gentiana, 
E. Bot.) 

Rare. Hare Craigs sparingly, June 183 Found there 
Augt. 1844, by the Rev. J. 0. Haldane and Rev. J. S. Barty. 
To the west of Dundee, Mr G. Don. I have never met with 
it there. 



124 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Gentiana L. Gentian. 

Br. sp. 6. F. 3. 

G. nivalis L. Small Alpine Gentian. H. 218, B. 200. 
— F. July, Augt; A. 

Rocks at the head of Canlochen Glen, in fl. and ft. July 
1846. 

Varying from one inch, with a single flower, to four or five 
inches with ten flowers. Picked it in the same place in 1844 
in company with Mr Watson and the late Mr Edmondston. 

These rocks, Prof. Balfour observes, " are well marked by 
the white veins of quartz that intersect them in different 
places, and having at their summit a patch of snow which 
generally remains the whole year. In this situation the plant 
is associated with Erigeron alpinus; and Carex atrata." The 
quartoze veins are very conspicuous, but the patch of snow is 
more evanescent. 

" The sparkling of this most rare and lovely gem," says the 
late Prof. Graham, " among the scanty mountain herbage, 
cured me of hunger and thirst, and made me forget that I was 
gathering it at the risk of my neck." 

North side of Canlochen Glen, along with Veronica saxa- 
tilis and alpina ; and in a new spot in Glenisla, Aug. 1846, 
the specimens varying from one-tenth of an inch to six inches 
in length, Prof. Balfour. 

G. Amarella, L. Small-flowered Autumnal Gentian. H. 
218, B. 200.— F. Aug. Sept. A. 

Sands of Barrie, plentiful, especially about the east end. 
Sea-shore near 'Arbroath. Very variable in size, sometimes 
scarcely an inch in height, with one or two flowers, but usu- 
ally from three to six inches, with numerous floAvers, and in 
one 'specimen culled near Carnoustie, in 1839, by Mr A. 
Croall, sixteen inches high, I counted 200 blossoms and 
pericarps. 

G. campestris, L. Field Gentian. H. 219, B. 200.— F. 
May, Sept. A. 

Sands of Barrie, abundant, from half an inch high, with a 
single flower, to several inches, with numerous flowers. Rocks 
between Arbroath and Auchmithie. Lawhill Dundee. Sid- 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 125 

law Hills, north side, near the new Glammis road. Pastures, 
Clova, plentiful. 

Between Restenet and Rescobie, Montrose Links, near 
Usan, &c Mr A. Croall. 

Menyanthes L. Buckbean. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

M. trifoliata, L. Buckbean, or Marsh Trefoil. H. 220 
B. 201.— F. May, July. P. 

Marshes, and marshy margins of lakes frequent. 

Ord. LV.-POLEMONIACE^E. 
Gen. Br. I. F.l. Sp. Br. I. F.l. 

Polemonium, L. Jacob's-Ladder. 

Br.sp.l. FA. 

P. cceruleum, L. Blue Jacob's Ladder. H. 221, B. 202. 
— F. July. P. 

Woods of Dun, but perhaps introduced, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. 

[Ord. LVL— CONVOLVULACE^E. 

Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 7. F. i. 

Convolvulus, L. Bindweed. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

C. arvensis, L. Small Bindweed. H. 221, B. 202.— F. 
June, July. P. 

Wayside east from Dundee, on the Broughty-road, spa- 
ringly, almost extinct, from scantiness of soil between the 
footpath and wall. Formerly abundant on the Constitution 
Brae, Dundee, now effectually banished by modern improve- 
ments. Flowers delicately fragrant. 

Bocks at Dysart, and Montrose Links, Mr A. Croall. 
Plentiful near Usan, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

When contemplating the small bindweed, we may say, in 
the beautiful language of Bryant : — 



126 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

" That delicate field flower, 
With scented hreath, and look so like a smile, 
Seems, as it issues from the shapeless mould, 
An emanation of the indwelling life, 
A visible token of the upholding love, 
That are the soul of this wide Universe." 

C. Sepium, L. Great Bindweed. H. 221, B. 202.— F. 
July, Augt. P. (Calystegia, Br.) 

Near Balgay, on banks below the house. Mr G. Don 
names it in his list without locality. 

C. Soldanella, L. Sea-side Bindweed. H. 222, B. 202. 
— F. June, Augt. P. (Calystegia, Br.) 

Sea-shore about a mile west from East Haven, Mr A. 
Croall. 

Cuscuta, L. Dodder. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 1. 

C. Europcea, L. Greater Dodder. H. 222, B. 203.— 
F. Augt. Sept. A. 

*' Generally on flax, and seems a very destructive weed ; it 
mats it altogether like a parcel of hair," Mr G. Don. May 
not Don's plant be C. Epilinum ? 

Ord. LVII.-BORAGINEtE. 

Gen. Br. flO Hook. 12 Bab.) F. 9. Sp. and v. Br. 26. F. 20. 

Echium, L. Viper's Bugloss. 

Br. sp. 2. F.l. 

E. vulgare, L. Common Viper's Bugloss. H. 223, B. 
206.— F. June, July. B. 

Rocky banks of the Tay from Invergowrie to B rough ty, 
abundant ; and on many other parts of the coast, especially 
the sandy downs to the west of Arbroath, where it is some- 
times found with white flowers (E. Italicum, Sm.) 

Ruthven, Rev. P. Barty. Kingoldrum, Rev. J. O. Hal- 
dane, who observes that it sometimes appears there in culti- 
vated fields. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 127 



Lithospermum, L. Gromwell. 

Br. sp, 4. F. 3. 

L. officinale, L. Common Gromwell, Grey Mill, or Grey 
Millet'. H. 224, B. 207.— F. May, Augt. P. 

Sparingly on rocky banks, Ninewells. 

In an old water-course near Edzell Castle, Mr A. Croall. 
Between Brechin Castle and the river Esk, Mr Thomas 
Smart. Rocky heights on the right bank of the Isla, Den 
of Airlie, north of the " Boat Pool," and on the ruined walls 
of Hatton Castle, near Newtyle, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

L. arvense, L. Corn Gromwell. H. 224, B. 208.— F. 
May, July. A. 

Frequent in corn-fields. 

L. maritimum, Lehm. Sea-side Gromwell. H. 225, B. 
207- — F. May, June. P. (Pulmonaria marilima, L. 
Steenhammera maritima, Reich., Bab.) 

Stony beach near Usan, plentiful, Messrs Kerr, Croall, 
M'Farlane, &c. Near Torrenshaven, Mr G. Don. 

Symphytum, L. Comfrey. 

Br. Sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

S. officinale, L. Common Comfrey. H. 225, B. 206. — 
F. May, Augt. P. 

Frequent on the banks of streams, as near the bridge across 
the Dean, on the Kirriemuir road, banks of the Dighty at the 
bridge on Mains road, &c. Den of Auchterhouse, Whit- 
field, Baldragon, and other places. 

Abundant near Montrose, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

/3. patens (S. patens, Sibth.) Near the Bridge of Dun. 
Ditch bank, Links of Montrose. Back of a cottage, Glen 
Clova, several miles above Cortachy. 

S. tuberosum, L. Tuberous-rooted Comfrey. H. 225, 
B. 206.— F. June, July. P. 

Near Marten's Den, Mr A. Kerr. Abundant near Mon- 
trose, Mr G. M'Farlane. 



128 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE, 



Borago, L. Borage. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

B. officinalis, L. Common Borage. H. 226, B. 205. — 
F. June, July. B. 

Noranside, Murr. North. Fl. Den of Dun, Mr A. Kerr. 
Among rubbish near the railway at the south-west end of 
Arbroath, Mr A. Croall. 

Lycopsis, L. Bugloss. 

Br. sp. 1. FA. 

L. arvensis, L. Small Bugloss. H. 226, B. 206.— F„ 
May, Oct. (Anchusa arvensis, Lehm.) 

Corn-fields common ; particularly abundant along the 
coast. 

Anchusa, L. Alkanet. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

A. sempervirens, L. Evergreen Alkanet. H. 226, B. 
206.— F. April, Augt. P. 

Bocky bank, Ninewells. Balgay, in the lane leading to 
the gardener's house. Near Mains Castle, east side. At the 
small village of Denhead, west from Lochee. Den of Auch- 
terhouse. Banks a little to the eastward of Monifieth. Way- 
side between Montrose and Brechin. Near the small farm 
of Bentire, Clova. 

Small den by the game-keeper's house, Kinnaird, Gate of 
Dun, Old Montrose, &c, Mr A. Croall. Parish of Kin- 
goldrum, Rev. J. 0. Haldane. 

Its juice stains the hands red, and probably a good dye 
might be procured from it. 

Myosotis, L. Mouse-ear, or Forget-me-not. 

Br. sp. 8. F. 7. 

M. palustris, With. Marsh Mouse-ear, or Forget-me-not. 
H. 227, B. 208.— F. June, Augt. P. (M. scorpioides pa- 
lustris, L. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 129 

Not uncommon in marshy and watery places, and gene- 
rally esteemed for the delicacy and beauty of its flowers, and 
the thoughts and feelings they awaken in the mind. It is 
named in our home-vocabulary " Forget-me-not," and these 
three words suggest many things of the greatest importance 
to a human being. The lover, the friend, the unfortunate 
poor, all feel their force ; and we surely cannot gaze long 
upon the beauteous and delicate blossom, the work of that 
Almighty hand that formed the glorious galaxies of stars that 
throng with living worlds the houndless realms of space, with- 
out hearing a " still small voice " whispering " Forget-ME- 
not ! " The flower, therefore, small and fragile though it 
be, has a mission far nobler than that of merely adorning the 
marsh, or pleasing the eye with its lovely form. 

" There breathes for those who understand, 

A voice from every flower and tree ; 
And in the works of Nature's hand, 

Lies Nature's best philosophy ; 
For ' things invisible ' are known, 
By what the visible have shown." 

Many an important and improving lesson can a flower con- 
vey ! — even this little wilding of the marsh can administer 
consolation, and inspire hope, to the human breast. 

There are numerous poetical effusions to this flower, but 
space will not admit of quoting more than the following lines 
by Mr Wilkie, Dundee : — 

" TO THE FORGET-ME-NOT. 

Not wbere the lordly myrtles grow, 
Nor near the gorgeous rose thou'rt seen ; 

Half hid beside some streamlet's flow, 
Thy lonely dwelling erst has been. 

Or looking from the hedge-row's shade, 

As if to catch some straggling ray, 
Meekly thou lift'st thy beautous head, 

To kiss the wandering smile of day. 

Sweet flower ! we would not wish thy lot 

With those that boast a brighter hue ; 
Far sweeter, in thy chosen spot, 

Bloom thy fair flowers of heavenly blue. 

Hid like the memories of the heart, 
Whose sleep thy presence oft hath broken, 

And made them from their slumbers start, 
As if some youth-loved friend had spoken ; 
F 2 



130 FLORA 6¥ FORFARSHIRE. 

And brought once more before our eyes, 
The scenes that cheered our youthful lot, 

And told that long-hushed voice to rise, 
And breathe thy words, ' Forget-me-not.' " 

M. repens, Don. Creeping Water Mouse-ear. H. 227, 
B. 208.— F. May, August. P. (M. secunda, Murr, M. 
palustris, /3. Hook. Fl. Scot.) 

Frequent about the sides of rills, and in marshy places. 
Den of Pitairlie. Glen Ogilvy. Near Ben Hard, Loch 
Brandy stream, and streams on the Bassies, Clova. 

M. cosspitosa, Schultz. Tufted Water Mouse-ear. H. 
227, B. 208.— F. May, June. P. ? (M. lingulata, Lehm.) 

Banks of the lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies, Mr A* 
Croall, where I have also found it. Banks of Lunan Water, 
Dr W. Heid. Ditch, Links of Montrose, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

M. sylvatica, Hoffm. Upright Wood Mouse-ear. H. 228, 
B. 209.— F. June, July. P. 

Den of Fullerton, Mr A. Croall. Small wood in the deer- 
park of Kinnaird, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

M. arvensis, Hoffm. Field Mouse-ear. H. 228, B. 209. 
— F. May, August. A. (M. intermedia, Link. M. scor- 
pioides a. arvensis, Fl. Br.) 

Fields and waste places frequent. 

M. collina, Hoffm. Early Field Mouse-ear. H. 228, B. 
209. — F. April. May. A. (M. arvensis, Link. M. ar- 
■densis, y. Wahl. M. hispida, Schlecht., Koch. M. striata, 
Link.) 

Will's Braes and Ninewells, plentiful on the braes and 
rocks. Sands of Barrie, varying from a quarter of an inch 
high with a single flower, to two inches with several flowers. 
Reeky Linn, &c. 

Near the woods of Charlton, on the sands, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. 

M. versicolor, Lehm. Yellow and blue Mouse-ear. H. 
229, B. 209.— F. May, June. A. (M. scorpioides y. L. 
M. scorpioides /3. Huds. M. scorpioides collina, Ehrh. M. 
arvensis y. versicolor, Pers.) 

Ninewells. Strathmartin. Trottick. Walls of Broughty 



FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 131 

Castle. Near the Druids' Thicket, Invergowrie, and other 
places, growing on banks and under hedges. 

On the Sands of Barrie, a var. with flowers at first pure 
white, gradually changing to blue, Messrs G. Laieson and D. 
Jackson. 

(It is singular that the delightful M. alpestris, so frequent 
on the micaceous mountains of Breadalbane, should not be 
found on those of a like character in Clova. On Ben-Lawers 
and Stuich-an-Lochan it is rather plentiful, but I have never 
seen a single specimen on the mountains of Forfarshire, nor 
those of Braemar. It is a truly beauteous flower when seen 
blooming in its " native Highland home," and like all other 
things of beauty, has its pleasant teachings. To some minds 
this linking of beautiful objects with thoughts and feelings of 

• • • • • 1 1 

an elevating tendency gives these objects an additional charm. 
For such only I venture to transcribe the following lines, 
addressed 

TO THE MOUNTAIN FOKGET-ME-NOT. 
Myosotis alpestris. 

Sweet inountain-flower with eye of gold, 

And petals dipt in heaven's own dye, 
What bloom more bright did e'er unfold 

Its charms beneath an orient sky ? 
And yet on Scotland's mountains high, 

Thou hast thy home, and lov'st to dwell ; 
Born 'midst the snows, nursed with the cry 

Of angry storms that round thee swell ! 

little flower, does He who made 

The mountain-crest thy dwelling-place, 
In every storm that bursts, not aid, 

And shield from harm thy every grace ? 
And when the sun, with shining face, 

Smiles o'er the world in radiant joy, 
'Tis His kind master- hand we trace 

In thy delightful symmetry. 

When wandering 'midst these alpine rocks, 

To seek the health-inspiring breeze, 
And list the bleat of browsing flocks, 

And merry hum of summer bees ; 
What blossom of the wild can please 

The eye, the soul, so much as thee ? 
The raptured eye thy beauty sees — 

The soul awakes to extacy! 

For thou a moral teacher art, 

Though humble, yet of wondrous power : 
And well thy lessons can impart 

Their holy influence, lovely flower.' 



132 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Thy teachings are not stern and sour, 

Nor dipt, like haughty man's, in gall ; 
But o'er the heart, like tender shower, 

With sweet persuasive voice they fall. ) 

Asperuoo, L. Madwort. 

Br. sp. 1.F..1. 

A. procumbens, L. German Madwort. H. 229, B. 205- 
— F. May, June. A. 

Rare. At the base of the rocks on the sea-shore, in one 
spot, a little to the eastward of Auchmithie. "West Haven, 
Mr G. Don. 

Cynoolossum, L. Hound's-tongue. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

C. officinale, L. Common Hound's-tongue. H. 230, B, 
205.— F. June, July. B. 

Banks of the Tay at Ninewells, rare. 

C. sylvaticum, Hsenke. Green-leaved Hound's-tongue. 
H. 230, B. 205.— F. June, July. B. 

" West from Dundee, rare," Mr G. Don. I have never 
found it there. It is said to occur in the Carse of Gowrie, 
which, though " west from Dundee," is wholly in Perthshire. 

Okd. LVIIL— S0LANE2EL 
Gen. Br. 4. F. 3. Sp. and v. Br. 8. F. 3. 

Hyoscyamus, L. Henbane. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

H. niger, L. Common Henbane. H. 231, B. 211. — F. 
June, July. A. or B. 

Rare. A specimen or two has occasionally been found at 
Ninewells, Roodyards east from Dundee, Broughty Castle^ 
&c. It was formerly abundant on the " Sea Braes" a range 
of steep banks near the head of the Magdalen-yard road, 
Dundee, now occupied by buildings and public works. 

In the vicinity of Montrose, Murr. North. Fl. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 133 

It is a powerful narcotic, and used in medicine. Its poi- 
sonous properties are tlius graphically described by Shaks- 
peare in the address of the ghost of Hamlet's father to his 
son : — 

" Sleeping within mine orchard, 

My custom always of the afternoon, 

Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole, 

With juice of cursed hebcnon in a viol, 

And in the porches of mine ear did pour 

The leprous distilment ; whose effect 

Holds such an enmity with hlood of man, 

That, swift as quicksilver, it courses through 

The natural gates and alleys of the hody ; 

And with a sudden vigour, it doth posset 

And curd, like eager droppings into milk, 

The thin and wholesome hlood : so did it mine." 

Solanum, L. Nightshade. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 1. 

S. Dulcamara, L. Bitter-sweet, or Woody Nightshade. 
H. 231, B. 210.— F. June, July. S. 

Woods west from Kinnaird Mill, Mr A. Bousie. Side of 
Kinnaird Mill-lead, Mr John Laing. By the side of the 
lead at the Upper Mills of Kinaber, Mr A. Croall. At 
Arbroath, Dr Murray. Parish of Kirkden, Rev. D. Car- 
ruthers. 

It is plentiful in the neighbouring county of Perth in 
hedges, as between Meigle and Alyth, and Perth and Dun- 
keld. 

Atropa, L. Dwale. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. Belladonna, L. Common Dwale, or Deadly Night- 
shade. H. 232, B. 210.— F. June, July. P. 

Rare. Den of Bonnington, four miles west from Mon- 
trose. Den of Fullerton, Mr A. Croall. 

The fruit are here termed " daft-berries" as the mere 
tasting of them produces delirium. Though tempting to the 
eye, they are forbidden fruit, death being the consequence of 
eating them. The generic name is derived from Atropos, one 
of the Fates, and the specific name signifies Fair Lady. This 
at first appears puzzling, but when we learn that the Italian 



134 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

ladies use a decoction of it as a wash in cutaneous eruptions, 
and couple this fact with that of its deadly poisonous effects, 
our perplexity is removed. The poisonous principle in alka- 
line, and an extract used in medicine, procured from the 
plant, is named Atropia. Dr Brande iustituted a series of 
experiments on it, but was obliged to discontinue them in 
consequence of their effects on his health. " He once tasted 
a small quantity of sulphate of Atropia. The taste was not 
bitter, merely saline ; but there soon followed violent head- 
ache, shaking in the limbs, alternate sensations of heat and 
cold, oppression of the chest and difficulty of breathing, and 
diminished circulation of the blood." 

It is related by Buchannan the (Scottish historian, that the 
greater part of the invading army of Sweno the Dane were 
at one time cut off by the influence of this plant ; the drink 
supplied to the Danish soldiers being mixed with the juice 
of its berries, and thus rendering them incapable of accom- 
plishing the ruthless designs of their leader. 



Ord. LX.— SCROPHULARINEJE. 
Gen. Br. 13. F. 11. Sp. and v. Br. 67. F. 31. 

Veronica, L. Speedwell. 

Br. sp. and v. 25. F. 15. 

V. serpyllifolia, L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell. H. 235, 
B. 224.— F. May, July. P. 

Waysides and pastures, common. 

/3. alpina, Hook. (V. serpyllifolia /3. humifusa, Sm. V. 
kumifusa, Dicks.) 

Sides of streams and in marshy places among the moun- 
tains, frequent. 

V. alpina, L. Alpine Speedwell. H. 235, B. 224.— 
F. July, August. P. 

Sides of streams and wet stony places, frequent in Glen 
Dole and Canlochen. 

Glen Phee, and Maskeldie Craigs at the head of Loch 
Lee, Prof. Balfour. Turns more or less black in drying. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 135 

V. saxdtilis, L. Blue Rock Speedwell. II. 235, B. 223. 
— F. July. P. 

Bocks of Canlochen and Glen Dole, plentiful. Side of the 
stream Come of Ben Hard, below 2000 feet, probably brought 
down by the water. One of the most beautiful of our native 
alpine plants, pleasant to the eye, and instructive to the 
mind. 

THE ROCK SPEEDWELL.— Veronica saxatiUs. 

Advent' rous dweller of the rock, 

With blossoms bright as azure sky, 
When haze uor cloud doth dim its hue — 

Who carelessly could pass thee by? 
When dew-drops twinkle in thine eye, 

On summer morn, in alpine wild, 
We cannot, little flower, deny 

That thou art Beauty's darling child. 

Then why not seek some sunny vale, 

Where warm soft airs with odours teem, 
And there on velvet mossy bank 

Rejoice with merry bird and stream ? 
But thou, sweet floweret, it doth seem, 

Contentment's pleasant charms dost know — 
Regardless of more genial clime, 

Thou lov'st thy home of mist and snow. 

What boots it to the sons of men, 

Whate'er their station, rich or poor ; 
Whether in princely halls they dwell, 

Or cottage of the lowliest boor — 
If those bright charms they can secure, 

By meet contentment only given, 
That render earth's delights more pure, 

And school the chasten'd soul for Heaven. 

V. scutellata, L. Marsh Speedwell. H. 236, B. 222.— 
F. June, August. P. 

Ditches and pools not rare. Drains, Sands of Barrie. 
Marshy pool north from the Lawhill, Dundee. Margin of 
Forfar Lake. Ditches between Forfar and Brechin. 

Abundant in ditches near Montrose, Brechin, and Forfar, 
Prof. Balfour. Guthrie Woods, Mr A. Croall. Woods of 
Charlton, Mr D. White. 

V. Anagallis, L. Water Speedwell. H. 236, B. 222. 
— F. July, August. P. 

Lochs of Lundie, Bescobie, Balgavies, &c. 

Between Montrose and Usan, Prof. Balfour. Bossie 



136 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Moor, Lunan Water, and Old Montrose, Dr W. Reid. Den 
of Fullerton and near Usan, Mr G. M'Farlans. Near 
Friockheim on the road to Forfar, Mr A. Croall. East end 
of Forfar Lake, Mr G. Don. Restenet, Mr J. Cruickshank. 
Burn of Benvie, Rev. Dr Addison. Noranside, Murr. 
North. Fl. 

V. Beccabunga, L. Brooklime. H. 236, B. 222.— F. May, 
August. P. 

Very common in ditches. 

V. officinalis, L. Common Speedwell. H. 236, B. 223. 
— F. May, July. P. 

■ Rather common on ditch-banks, by waysides, in the woods, 
and on the hills and mountains. With white flowers in the 
Den of Glammis. 

In Canlochen a form of V. officinalis occurs, which may 
be Babington's 0. glabra, or intermediate between V. offici- 
nalis and V. Allionii. The leaves and old stems are gene- 
rally glabrous, the young shoots and lower part of the sepals 
densely pubescent, and occasionally a few hairs upon some of 
the leaves. It is a larger plant than V. officinalis. 

Used as tea in gouty and rheumatic complaints, Mr Doug- 
lass Gardiner. 

V. montana, L. Mountain Speedwell. H. 236, B. 223. 
— F. May, June. P. 

Banks of the Esk, Mr G. Don. Moist sloping bank a little 
below the Low Garden, Den of Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

V. Chamwdrys, L. Germander Speedwell. H. 237, B. 
222.— F. May, June. P. 

Abundant by waysides, on ditch-banks, under hedges, in 
woods, on the sandy sea-shore, and ascending the mountains 
to an elevation of 2000 feet. The loveliest ornament of early 
summer, its racemes of brilliant blue flowers rivalling in depth 
of tint the purest glory of the cserulean concave. 

V. hederifolia, L. Ivy-leaved Speedwell. H. 237, B. 
225.— F. Mar. June. A. 

•Corn-fields and hedge-banks abundant. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 137 

V. agrestis, L. Green Procumbent Field Speedwell. H. 
237, B. 224.— F. Mar. Sept. A. 

Frequent by waysides, hedge-banks, and on old walls. 

V. polka, Fries. Grey Procumbent Field Speedwell. 
H. 237, B. 225.— F. Apr. Sept. A. 

Cultivated ground near Usan, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

V. arvensis, L. Wall Speedwell. H. 238, B. 224.— F. 
Apr. July. A. 

Banks, cornfields, and old walls, frequent. 

Bartsia, L. Bartsia. 

Br. sp, 3. F. 1. 

B. Odontites, Huds. Red Bartsia. H. 239. B. 222.— 
F. July, Augt. A. (Euphrasia, L., Bab.) 

Cornfields common, varying much in size. Mr A. Croall 
observes of this species that it is " variable in the colour of 
the flowers, and the form of the capsule, which is more or less 
compressed, acute, obtuse, or obcordate, but so inconstant as 
to furnish no permanent character to distinguish the forms 
even as varieties." 



Euphrasia, L. Eye-Bright. 

Br.sp.l. F.\. 

E. officinalis, L. Common Eye-Bright. H. 239, B. 221. 
— F. July, Augt. A. 

The usual form of this plant is abundant in pastures from 
the coast to the mountain summits, varying in height from 
half an inch to a foot, and the stems from simple to exces- 
sively branched. Another form occurs on the Sidlaw Hills 
and Clova mountains, with darker flowers and foliage, gener- 
ally upright, slender, and simple, or sparingly branched. 

The corolla in this is partially pubescent, particularly on the 
outside of the upper lip. The two forms grow together and 
appear to the eye quite distinct. 



138 flora of Forfarshire, 

Rhinanthus, L. Yellow- Rattle. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

R. Crista-Galli, L. Common Yellow-Rattle. H. 240, 
B. 220.— F. June. A. 

Common in fields and waste places. 

R. major, Ehrh. ? Sm. Large Bushy Yellow- rattle. 
H. 240, B. 221.— F. July, Augt. ' A. (R. Crista-Galli, fl. 
L.) 

Plentiful in fields about Monifieth and Carnoustie. Fields 
near the sea west from Arbroath, Mr A. Croall. Dr Mac- 
nab. 

Melampyrum, L. Cow- Wheat. 

Br. sp. and v . 6. F. 3. 

M. pratense, L. Common Yellow Cow- Wheat, H. 241, 
B. 220.— F. June, July. A. 

Woods and mountains to the north of Strathmore, plenti- 
ful. The /3. montanum (M. montanum, Johnst.) is common 
in mountain pastures, but scarcely differs except by its smaller 
size and entire bracts. 

M. sylvaticum, L. Lesser-flowered Yellow Cow- Wheat. 
H. 241, B. 220.— F. June, July. A. 

Reeky Linn, on the north bank a little below the water- 
fall, in great abundance. 

Pedicttlaris, L. Red-Rattle, or Lousewort. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

P. palustris,~L, Tall ^Red-Rattle, or Marsh Lousewort. 
H. 241, B. 220.— F. June, July. A. ? or P. ? 

Common in marshy places. With white flowers, banks of 
Forfar Lake. 

P. sylvatica, L. Dwarf Red-Rattle, or Pasture Louse- 
wort, * H. 241, B. 220.— F. May, Augt. A. ? or P. ? 



■ FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 139 

Common on heaths and moors. With white flowers on 
moist heaths, Sidlaw Hills. 

Scrophularia, L. Figwort. 

Br. sp. 5. F. 2. 

S. nodosa, L. Knotted Figwort. H. 242, B. 218.— F. 
June, July. P. 

Ninewells, Bullion Burn, Baldovan, Dens of Glammis, 
Airlie, Fowlis, &c., frequent. 

S. vernalis. L. Yellow Figwort. H. 243, B. 219.— F. 
Apr. May. P. 

Near Lower, two miles south from Forfar, Mr G. Don. 
Buthven, Rev. P. Barty. 

Digitalis, L. Foxglove. 

Br.sp.l. -F.l. 

D. purpurea, L. Purple Foxglove. H. 243, B. 216. — 
F. July, Augt. B. 

Abundant in many places throughout the county, in woods, 
dens, waysides, by streams, on the hills, &c. It occurs with 
white flowers in Glen Dole, Clova, Den of Glammis, and 
plentifully on the embankment of the Arbroath and Forfar 
railway, between Arbroath and Friockheim. 

On the Sidlaw Hills, and in the mountain valleys of Clova, 
it is peculiarly exuberant, and is known to the peasantry by 
the name of " dead men's bells," probably on account of its 
poisonous qualities. It is much used in medicine as a seda- 
tive and diuretic. 

Linaria, Juss. Toad-Flax. 

Br. Sp. and v. 10. F. 3. 

L. Cymbalaria, Mill. Ivy-leaved Toad -Flax. H. 244, 
B. 217. — F. July, Augt. P. (Anterrhinum Cymbalaria, 
L.) 

Old wall, Den of Mains, probably introduced, 



140 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

L. vulgaris, Mcench. Yellow Toad-Flax. H. 245, B. 
218. — F. July, Augt. P. (Anterrhinum Linaria, L.) 

Cornfields and waste places, frequent, from the coast to 
the mountain valleys. The var. Peloria with five nectaria, 
and five stamens placed irregularly, I have found in the vici- 
nity of Dundee, but rarely. 

Limosella, L. Mudwort. 

Br. Sp. 1. F. 1. 

L. aquatica, L. Common Mudwort. H. 245, B. 219. — 
F. July, Sept. A. 

Margins of pools, &c, common, Mr A. Groall. 

VERBAsctJM, L. Mullein. 
Br. sp. and v. 9. JF. 1. 

V. Thapsus, L. ? Great Mullein. H. 246. B. 211.— 
F. July, Augt. B. 

Will's Braes, Ninewells, Roodyards, east from Arbroath, 
and other places along the coast, not common. 

Parish of Kingoldrum, Rev. J. 0. Haldane. With white 
flowers near Airhe Castle, Mr G. Don. 

(Mimulus luteus, W. Yellow-flowered Monkey-flower. 
This plant has slender claims to be considered a native. 
It was introduced into this country in 1812 from America, 
and though now naturalized in many parts of Britain, can 
only be recorded in our floras as an emigrant. In August 
1830, I found it in abundance and perfection on the marshy 
banks of Bullion Burn, near the Bridge of Invergowrie, where 
its creeping scions were spreading in all directions, and its 
flowering-stems rising from a foot to a foot and a-haif high, 
richly clothed with flowers. There is little doubt but that the 
plant had been washed down from the garden of Gray by the 
stream, as the intelligent gardener, Mr W. Chalmers, in- 
formed me that he had it in cultivation twenty years before, 
and it was his opinion that such was the origin of the Inver- 
gowrie Mimulus. It is probable that the plant, in the vari- 
ous other stations recorded in the Magazine of Natural His- 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 141 

tory, v. 198, and Phytologist, ii. 389, 420-1, are also garden- 
escapes, and have no title to be considered indigenous. Per- 
haps, however, other plants generally looked upon as natives, 
as Anchusa senipervirens , Doronicum Pardalianches, &c, 
many have had a like origin, although at a remote period. 

Rather abundant on the banks of the Esk near Kinnaird, 
Mr John Laing. Margin of the Dighty at Strathmartin, 
plentiful and quite naturalized, Mr G. Lawson. In both of 
these places its origin is likely similar, especially on Dighty, 
as there are gardens in the small village of Strathmartin close 
upon the stream, above the station. 

The stigma of this plant presents a very remarkable in- 
stance of vegetable irritability. It is two-lobed, and on the 
lobes being touched on their interior surface with a pin or a 
grain of pollen, they suddenly collapse, and continue in that 
state for some time, thus allowing the pollen sufficient time 
to elaborate. This curious property is perhaps intended by 
Nature to supply the place of the usual viscid moisture of the 
stigma, which in this plant is comparatively deficient.) 



Ord. LXL— LABIATE. 
Gen. Br. 23. F. 14. Sp. and v. Br. 69. F. 26. 

Salvia, L. Sage, or Clary. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 1. 

S. Verbenaca, L. Wild English Clary, or Sage. H. 
248, B. 230.— F. May, June. P. 

Side of the Magdalen-yard Green, Dundee, but probably 
the outcast of a garden. 

Mentha, L. Mint. 

Br. sp. and v. 18. F. 5. 

M. syhestris, L. Horse-Mint. H. 249, B. 228.— F. 
Augt. Oct. P. 

In several spots on the side of the new Glammis road, where 
it emerges from the Sidlaw Hills into Glen Ogilvy, not near 



142 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

houses, and apparently wild, but may have been introduced 
by the agency of man. 

M. viridis, L. Spear-Mint. H. 249, B. 228.— F. Sept. 
P. 

Banks of streams rare, as the Dighty near Claverhouse, 
the Feithy near Claypots Castle, and Bullion Burn near In- 
vergowrie. 

M. rotundifolia, L. Round-leaved Mint. H. 249, B. 
228. Augt. Sept. P. 

Banks of Dighty near Claverhouse, but probably now de- 
stroyed. 

M. hirsuta, L. Hairy Mint. H. 250, B. 229. (M. 
aquatica, and sativa, L.) 

Plentiful on the banks of streams, and in ditches, and wet 
places. Varying much in the inflorescence, from densely ca- 
pitate to laxly whorled. 

M. arvensis, L. Corn Mint. H. 251, B. 229.— F. Augt. 
Sept. P. 

Cornfields frequent. 

Thymus, L. Thyme. 

Br. sp.l.F.l. 

T. Serpyllum, L. Wild Thyme. H. 251, B. 230.— F. 
June, August. P. 

The " bonny wild thyme " is abundantly distributed 
throughout the county, shedding its fragrance over the sands 
and rocks of the sea-shore, the inland waysides, woods, and 
hills, and ascending to the highest mountain summits. Vari- 
able in respect to the amount of pubescence on its leaves, and 
their odour, which is however always agreeable. With white 
flowers on the Sands of Barrie, south bank of Forfar Loch, 
and Bassies, Clova. It gives preference to heaths. 

" There's not a heath, however rude, 
But hath some little flower, 
To brighten up its solitude, 
And scent the evening hour. 

There's not a heart, however cast 

By grief and sorrow down, 
But hath some memory of the past, 

To love and call its own." 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 143 



Origanum, L. Marjoram. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

0. vulqarc, L. Common Marjoram. H. 252, B. 230. — 
F. July, Oct. P. 

Rather I'are. Will's Braes. Den of Glammis. Craigs 
of Lundie. 

Between Duninald and Usan, Prof. Balfour. With white 
flowers, Mr G. Don. 

The Craigs of Lundie are a range of precipitous cliffs 
forming the front of one of the western Sidlaws near the 
village of Lundie, and besides the fragrant Marjoram, afford 
many other interesting plants. The Viola lutea grows on 
their summits, and at their base the Drosera rotundifolia, 
and other curious marsh plants. The Arabis hirsuta, and 
Viola hirta, are found among the rocks, and various rare 
mosses and lichens that will be noticed in their proper places. 
Indeed the parish of Lundie, though no notice is taken of its 
vegetation in the New Statistical Account of Forfarshire, is 
well worthy of being perambulated by the lover of Flora, as 
well as the admirer of quiet, rural, and picturesque scenery. 
To both, the lakes, though not extensive, will afford much 
interest. The Loch of Pitlyal is a beautiful little sheet of 
water, situated in a pleasant and retired place, its banks 
finely wooded, and its surface animated with numerous wild- 
ducks, and several stately swans, that gracefully wend their 
way amid the bright water-lilies. The Lochs of Lundie and 
Balshandie abound in marsh and lake plants, and the Long 
Loch, a bare upland tarn, has its banks covered with a turf 
of the singular Littorella lacustris. These lakes give rise to 
the small river Dighty, which, after a meandering course of 
15 or 16 miles through a beautifully diversified valley, em- 
bracing portions of the parishes of Lundie, Auchterhouse, 
Strathmartin, Mains, and Monifieth, disembogues itself into 
the Frith of Tay, a little to the westward of the latter village. 

Teucrium, L. Germander. 

Br, sp, and v. 5. F. 2. 

T. Scorodonia, L. Wood Sage. H. 252, B. 237.— F. 
July, Oct. P. 



144 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Plentiful in the Dens of Airlie, G-lammis, Foulis, &c, 
and on the rocks along the coast from Arbroath to Montrose. 

T. Chamcedrys, L. Wall Germander. II. 253, B. 237. 
— F. July, August. P. 

Near Coupar-Anaus, Prof. Balfour, Mr J. Gibb. Near 
Forfar, and Kelly, H. B. F. 



Ajuga, L. Bugle. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 2. 

A. reptans, L. Common Bugle. H. 253, B. 238.— F. 
May, June. P. 

Not uncommon in woods and dens, and upon the hills and 
mountains. Woods near Baldovie. Banks of the Feithy and 
Dighty. Dens of Airlie, Glammis, Foulis, and near Auch- 
mithie on the coast. Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains. 

Near Marten's Den, and marshes about Rescobie, Guthrie, 
&c, Mr A. Croall. 

A. alpina, L. Alpine Bugle. H. 253, B. 238.— F. 
July. P. 

Stream falling into the White Water, Clova, above the 
falls : only two specimens found, Prof. Graham. 

Galeopsis, L. Hemp-nettle. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 2. 

G. Tetrahit, L. Common Hemp-nettle. H. 255, B. 235. 
— F. July, Oct. A. 

Fields, waste ground, and woods, common. Flowers red 
or white. 

G. versicolor, Curt. Large-flowered Hemp-nettle. H. 
255, B. 235.— F. June, August. A. 

Cornfields about Lundie, Auchterhouse, Baldovan, &c. 
Field at the top of the hill N. W. from the Upper Mills of 
Kinaber, Mr A. Croall. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 145 

Lamium, L. Dead-nettle. 

Br. Sp. and v. 7. F. 6. 

L. album, L. White Dead-nettle. H. 256, B. 234.— F. 
May, July. P. (L. vulgatum, Bentli.) 

Dens of Mains and Auchterhouse. Near Fleuchar Craio-, 
Dundee. Side of the Glammis road, at the entrance of the 
carriage-road to Tealing House, &c. In the Houff, or old 
burying-ground, Dundee, it was formerly abundant, but since 
its alteration has disappeared. 

y. Hook. (L. maculatum, L., Bab.) Clova, Bab. Man. 
234. 

L. pmyureum, L. Red Dead-nettle. H. 256, B. 233. 
— F. Mar. Sept. A. 

Banks and waste places., not uncommon. 

L. intermedium, Fries. Intermediate Dead-nettle, H. 
256, B. 233.— June, Sept. A. 

About Montrose, Mr A. Croall. 

L. amplexicaule, L. Henbit-nettle. H. 256, B. 233. — 
F. May, Aug. A. 

Fields, gardens, and waste places, plentiful. 

L. incisum, Willd. Cut-leaved Dead-nettle. H. 256, B. 
233.— F. March, June. A. 

Fields and gardens about Montrose, common, Mr A. 
Croall. 

Stachys. Woundwort. 
Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 3. 

S. syhatica, L. Hedge Woundwort. H. 257, B. 236. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

Frequent about hedge-sides and in shady places, remark- 
able for its rank disagreeable smell. 

S.palustris, L. Marsh Woundwort. H. 257, B. 236. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

G 



146 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Not uncommon on ditch banks, and about the margins of 
moist fields. 

S. arvensis, L. Corn Woundwort. H. 258, B. 236. — 

F. July, Sept. A. 

In corn-fields frequent. 

Glechoma, L. Ground-ivy. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

G. hederacea, L. Ground-ivy. H. 259, B. 232.— F. 
April, June. P. (Nepeta Glechoma, Benth., Bab.) 

In many places, though not very common. Near Inver- 
gowrie and Ninewells. Magdalen-yard Green, Dundee, west 
end. Balgay, in the lane leading to the gardener's house. 
Banks of Dighty, near Mains, and of Feithy, near Claypots. 
Den of Airlie. Craigie, &c. 

Den of Fullerton, and near Rossie Castle, Mr A. Croall. 

Acinos, Mcench. Basil-Thyme. 
Br. sp. 1. F . 1. 

A. vulgaris, Pers. Common Basil-Thyme. H. 259, B. 
231. — F. Augt. A. (Thymus Acinos, L. Calamintha 
Acinos, Clairv., Bab. Melissa, Benth.) 

Near East Haven, north side. 

Near the village called Welltown, about one mile south of 
Forfar, Mr G. Don. Sandy fields, Arbroath Common, Dr 

G. Macnab, Mr A. Croall. At the extreme south point of 
the gravelly arable field, adjoining the oak-copse, Den of 
Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. Very abundant on light ground 
having a southern exposure, in the parish of Kingoldrum, 
Rev. J. 0. Haldane. 

Clinopodium, L. Wild Basil. 

Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

C. vulgare, L. Wild Basil. H. 260, B. 231.— F. July, 
Aug. P. (Calamintha Clinopodium, Spenn., Bab. Me- 
lissa, Benth.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 147 

Banks of the South Esk between the Bridge of Dun and 
Balbirnie Mill, Mr A. CroalL Duninald and Usan, Rev. J. 
Brewster. 

Prunella, L. Self-heal. 
Br.sp.l. FA. 

P. vulgaris, L. Self-heal. H. 261, B. 232.— F. July, 
Augt. P. 

Common on ditch banks, by waysides, in woods, and on the 
hills and mountains. With white and rose-coloured flowers 
in Mericmoor Wood, and on the Sidlaw Hills. The white- 
flowered state also occurs on the Loch Brandy Hill, Clova. 

Scutellaria, L . Skull-cap. 

Br.sp.2. F.\. 

S. galericulata, L. Common Skull-cap. H. 261, B. 232- 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

In marshes (but no station indicated), Mr G. Don. 



Ord. LXIII.— LENTIBULARIiE. 

Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. Br. 7. F. 4. 

Plnguicula, L. Butterwort. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 1. 

P. vulgaris, L. Common Butterwort. H. 262, B. 239. 
— F. May, June, P. 

Abundant in moist ground from the coast to the mountain 
summits. Particularly plentiful on the Sands of Barrio, Sid- 
law hills, and Clova mountains. 

Utricularia, L. Bladderwort. 
Br.sp.3. F.3. 
U. vulgaris, L. Greater Bladderwort. H. 264, B. 239. 



-F. June, Augt. P. 



148 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Not uncommon in marshy pools, ditches, &c, as at Resco- 
bie and Forfar Lakes, White Hill, Sidlaw, &c, 

U. intermedia, Hayne. Intermediate Bladderwort. H. 
264, B. 240.— F. Juue, Augt. P. 

Marshy pools in Rescobie Marsh, near the lake, by the 
wayside to the east of the church, bearing plenty of terminal 
buds, but no flowers. 

East end of Balgavies Lake, Prof. Balfour, Messrs Croall 
and Cruickshank. Pools near Guthrie, Prof. Balfour. In 
a marsh in the woods of Ardovie, Mr Reid. 

U. minor, L. Lesser Bladderwort. H. 264. B. 240. — 
F. Sept. P. 

With U. intermedia in the Rescobie station flowering 
beautifully in Sept. 1845. 

East end of Forfar Lake, Mr G. Don. East end of Bal- 
gavies Lake, Mr A. Croall. In a pool by the wayside in 
Glen Clova, three or four miles north-east from the Kirkton, 
not far from a birch wood, Prof. Balfour. 



Ord. lxiv.— primulaceje. 

Gen. Br.9.F.6. 8j>. and v. Br. 20. F. 9. 

Anagallis, L. Pimpernel. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F.l. 

A. arvensis, L. Scarlet Pimpernel, or Poor Man's Wea- 
ther-glass. H. 265, B. 243.— F. June, Oct. A. 

Corn-fields frequent. This brilliant gem is an excellent 
substitute, like the daisy and many other plants, for a baro- 
meter, indicating, by the opening or closing of its flowers, 
any change in the weight of the atmosphere, consequently 
whether dry or wet weather is to ensue. Dr Jenner says, — 

" Closed is the pink-eyed Pimpernel ; 

'Twill surely rain, I see, with sorrow, 
Our jaunt must he put off to-morrow." 

Many have shared a similar disappointment to the Doc- 
tor's by attending to the indications of these vegetable moni- 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 149 

tors, yet their prophetic warnings often prevent more disa- 
greeable consequences. 

In 1829, I gathered this plant in flower in November, 
with upwards of twenty other wild blossoms, being their se- 
cond flowering, a circumstance that frequently occurs in mild 
seasons. 

Lyseuachia, L. Loosestrife. 

Br.sp.b. F.Z. 

L. thyrsiflora, L. Tufted Loosestrife. H. 266, B. 242. 
— F. June, July. P. (Naumburgia, R.) 

Margin of Rescobie Lake plentiful, generally growing in 
the water. 

In an old water-course a little to the east of the Bridge of 
Dun, and in bogs to the westward of the Bridge, Mr John 
Laing. 

L. nemorum, L. "Wood Loosestrife, or Yellow Pimper- 
nel. H. 266, B. 243.— F. June, Augt. P. (Epheme- 
rum, R.) 

Moist banks in shady places frequent. Sidlaw Hills, as 
near the little water-fall, south side of Craig Owl, west mar- 
gin of the wood. Glen Dole, and Bassies, Clova. 

Den of Airlie, on the left bank, below the Castle, Rev. J. 
S. Barty. Nearly opposite Edzell, on the banks of the West 
Water, Mr A. Croall. Woods of the Burn, Mr G. M> Far- 
lane. 

[Hottonia palustris is stated in the New Stat. Ace. of Scot. 
p. 525, to be found in the parish of Carreston ; but as, in the 
same report, Orchis Morio and Ligusticum Scoticum (a coast 
plant) are mentioned, doubts are awakened as to whether 
either are indigenous there. These doubts can only be re- 
moved by the author of the report transmitting specimens, 
with remarks on the conditions under which the plants were 
found.) 

Primula, L. Primrose. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 3. 

P. vulgaris, Huds. Common Primrose. H. 267, B. 241. 



150 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

— F. April, June. P. (P. acaulis, All. P. veris y. acau- 
lis, L.) 

Banks and shady places abundant. In profusion in the 
Dens of Mains, Airlie, Glammis, Foulis, &c. Sidlaw hills and 
Clova mountains, and in wooded dens along the coast. 

With pale purple flowers at Usan, Mr A. Croall. 

It occasionally occurs with only four divisions in the limb 
of the corolla, and a corresponding number of stamens. In 
Trientalis a similar diminution of the parts of fructification 
has sometimes puzzled the Linnsean student, some plants 
having only six stamens, and the like number of divisions in 
its monopetalous corolla. 

The Primrose is a beloved flower with poetical minds, and 
has many pleasant associations. Elliot, with his soul-awa- 
kening eloquence, thus addresses it in the following lines : — 

" TO THE PEIMEOSE. 

Surely that man is pure in thought and deed, 
Whom spirits teach in breeze-born melodies; 

For he finds tongues in every flower and weed, 
And admonitions in mute harmonies. 

Erect he moves, by Truth and Beauty led, 
And climbs his throne, for such a monarch meet, 

To gaze on valleys, that, around him spread, 
Carpet the hall of heaven beneath his feet. 

How like a trumpet under all the skies, 
Blown to convene all forms that love his beams, 

Light speaks in splendour to the poet's eyes, 
O'er dizzy rocks, and woods, and headlong streams! 

How like the voice of woman, when she sings 

To her belov'd, of love and constancy, 
Thy vernal odours, o'er the murmuriugs 

Of distant waters, pour their melody 

Into his soul, mixed with the throstle's song 
And the wren's twitter ! Welcome then again, 

Love-listening Primrose ! Though not parted long, 
We meet, like lovers, after years of pain ; 

Oh, thou bring'st blissful childhood back to me ! 

Thou still are loveliest in the lonest place ; 
Still, as of old, day glows with love for thee, 

And reads our heavenly Father in thy face. 

Surely thy thoughts are humble and devout, 
Flower of the pensive gold ! for why should Heaven 

Deny to thee his noblest boon of thought, 
If to earth's demigods 'tis vainly given ? 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 151 

Answer me, sinless sister ! Thou bast speech, 
Though silent. Fragrance is thy eloquence, 

Beauty thy language ; and thy smile might teach 
Ungrateful man to pardon Providence." 

/8. umbellatum, Bab. (P. vulgaris /3. caulescens, Lond. 
Cat. Bot. Soc. P. elatior of Brit, authors, not Jacquin.) 
Near Glammis, Mr G. Don. Den of Duninald, with P. veris, 
Mr G. M'Farlane. Frequent on the coast at Usan and 
Dysart, and at the Upper Mills of Kinaber associated with 
P. vulgaris, but where I have never seen P. veris, Mr A. 
Croall. Den of Mains, a single specimen, with simple and 
umbellate scapes, — no P. veris nearer than several miles. 
Near Balmerino, Fife, on the south banks of the Tay, I have 
seen growing associated, P. vulgaris, veris, and what is called 
elatior, all apparently distinct to the eye, and not running 
into each other through intermediate forms, unless elatior 
might be considered a single connecting link between the 
other two. It has flowers exactly intermediate in size, in 
colour, and in odour, with a limb less concave than in P. veris, 
yet not so flat as in P. vulgaris ; and it has simple and um- 
bellate scapes from the same root, but this might be attri- 
buted to the general luxuriance of the plant. Whether this 
plant is a variety of P. vulgaris or P. veris, or a hybrid be- 
tween them, does not appear to be yet clearly decided ; but 
against the latter supposition there is the fact that all three 
are seldom found growing together. 

P. veris, L. Cowslip. H. 267, B. 241.— F. April, May. 
P. (P. veris a. officinalis, Hensl.) 

Frequent, though not in such exuberance as on the Fife 
side of the Tay, where in some places it covers acres. Bocky 
banks, east end of Will's Braes. Balgay Wood. Wooded 
Hill of Laws near Drumsturdymuir. Dens of Glammis, 
Airlie, and Foulis. 

Abundant on a bank at the south end of the bridge on the 
North Esk east from Montrose, along with P. vulgaris, but 
where I have never seen P. elatior. At the west end of the 
bank the latter occurs, where there is a profusion of P. vul- 
garis, but where P. veris seldom appears, Mr A. Croall. 
Den of Duninald, Mr G. M'Farlane. Sands of Barrie, Mr 
G. Laicson. With red flowers, Balgay Wood, Mr W. Jack- 
son, senr. 



152 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

" Unfolding to the breeze of May, 
I The cowslip greets the vernal ray ; 
The topaz and the ruby gem 
Her blossom's simple diadem ; 
And as the dew-drops gently fall, 
They tip with pearls her coronal." 



Centunculus, L. Chaffweed. 
Br.sp.l. F.l. 

C. minimus, L. Small Chaffweed, or Bastard Pimpernel. 
H. 268, B. 243.— F. June, July. A. 

By a wayside in Guthrie Woods, its direction eastwards, 
Mr A. Croall. 

Trientalis, Rupp. Chickweed Wintergreen. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

T . Europoea, L. European Chickweed Wintergreen. H. 
269, B. 244.— F. May, July. P. 

Abundantly distributed throughout the county. Baldo- 
van Woods. Balkemnock Woods. Lumley Woods, in pro- 
fusion, and frequently richly tinted with pink. Hunter's Hill 
Wood and Cramb's Wood, near Glammis. Woods, banks of 
Bescobie Lake. Woods at the foot of Glen Isla. Blacklaw 
Hill, near Foulis. Sidlaw Hills. Merlin Den, a beautiful 
wooded dell north from Brechin. Clova mountains, smaller 
in size than in the woods, and flowering later. 

Guthrie Hill, about Craigo, and in Kinnoul Wood, near 
Montrose, Mr A. Croall. Gannachy Woods, woods west 
from Kinnaird, and Bossie Moor, Mr A. Bonsie. Carreston 
Woods, Mr John Laing. Woods of Ardovie, and Monroman 
Moor, Mr J. Cruicksliank. 

In fruit, on heaths, by the side of the footpath leading 
from Kirkton of Clova into Glen Prosen, July 1846. 

There is commonly but one flower on the plant, occasion- 
ally two or more. The leaves under the microscope appear- 
very slightly serrated ; their net-work of veins is beautiful, 
but more so the delicate lace-like membrane that invests the 
seeds. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 153 

Glaux, L. Sea-Milkwort. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

G. maritima, L. Sea-Milkwort, or Black- Saltwort. H. 

269, B. 244.— F. June, July. P. 

Frequent in salt marshes and wet banks on the sea-shore, 
from Invergowrie to Montrose, in some places, as at the 
mouth of Buddon Burn, Sands of Barrie, forming, when in 
flower, a compact rosy- coloured turf. 

Oed. lxv.-plumbagine^e. 

Gen. Br. 1. (Bab. 2.) F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 7. F. 2. 

Statice, L. Thrift. 

Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 2. 

S. Armeria, L. Common Thrift, or Sea Gillifiower. H. 

270, B. 245. — F. June, August. P. [Armeria maritima, 
Willd., Bab.) 

Plentiful along the coast on grassy banks and rocks, occa- 
sionally with white flowers. It is known here by the name 
of " sea-daisy," and is sometimes used as an edging to garden- 
walks. 

p. alpina grows on the summit of the Little Culrannoch, 
Clova, with Lychnis alpina, but is scarcely distinguishable 
from the other. 

Ord. LXVL— PLANTAGINE^E. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 11. F. 8. 

Plantago, L. Plantain. 

Br. Sp. and v. 10. F . 7. 

P. major, L. Greater Plantain. H. 272, B. 247.— F. 
June, August. P. 

Abundant by waysides, and very variable in size. Small 

g2 



154 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



birds relish the seeds, and the ripe spikes are often gathered 
for those in cages. 

P. media, L. Hoary Plantain, H. 272, B. 247.— F. 
June, Sept. P. 

Pastures, Kinnaird, Mr A . Bousie. In a field near the 
Burn of Keithock, and near the mansion-house, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. 

P. lanceolata, L. Ribwort Plantain. H. 272, B. 246 — 
F. May, July. P. 

Waysides and pastures from the coast to the mountains 
plentiful, varying much in size and the length of its flower 
spikes. Spikes sometimes several, combined, sessile, or 
stalked. 

/3. altissima, Koch. Wayside, Invergowrie, Mr G. Law- 
son. 

y. sphcerostachya, W. and G. Sands of Barrie and on 
the mountains abundant. Intermediate forms render it 
doubtful if these can be retained even as varieties. 

P. maritima, L. Sea-side Plantain. H. 273, B. 246. — 
F. June, Sept. P. 

Abundant on the sea-shore, and occasionally inland. Glen 
Clova, at the foot of Carlowie. 

Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. Parish of Kingoldrum, Rev. J. 
0. Haldane. Banks of the South Esk, Kinnaird, Mr A. 
Bousie. 

A broad-leaved var. is frequent about Usan, Redhead, &c, 
Mr A. Croall. Probably /3. major, Hook? 

P. Coronopus, L. Buck's-horn Plantain. H. 273, B. 
246.— F. June, July. A. ? 

Common on the coast, and like the other species very 
variable in size. 

Banks of the South Esk, Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

Littorelia, L. Shore-weed. 

Br. sp: 1. F. 1. 

L. lacustris, L. Plantain Shore-weed. H. 274, B. 247. 
— F. June, July. P. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 155 

Margins of lakes and moist places. Lundie and Long 
Lochs. Foot of White Hill of Auchterhouse, south side, 
banks of a small tarn. 

Dun's Dish, Guthrie Moors, &c, Mr A. Croall. Moist 
places, Rossie Moor, Mr A. Bousie. 



Sub-Class IV.— MONOCHLAMYDE^l. 

Ord. LXVIII.— CHENOPODE^E. 
Gen. Br. b. {Bab, 1.) F. i. Sp. and v. 29. {Bab. 32.) F. 13. 

Chenopodium, L. Goose-foot. 

Br. Sp. and v. 15. F. 5. 

C. maritimurn, L. Annual Sea-side Goose-foot. H. 275, 
B. 249. — F. July, August. A. {Schoberia maritima, Mey.) 

Muddy banks of Montrose Basin, and sea -shore, Sands of 
Barrie. 

C. polyspermum, L. Many-seeded Goose-foot. H.276, 
B. 249.— F. August, Sept. A. 

Rare, Mr G. Don. No station noted. 

C. Bonus- Henrieus, L. Mercury Goose-foot, or Good 
King Henry. H. 276, B. 251.— F. June, August. P. 
(Blitum, Mey.) 

Waysides and waste ground, not common. Near Inver- 
gowrie. Near Auchterhouse. Mains, &c. 

Wayside at Fullerton, Mr G. M'Farlane. W'ayside a 
little west from the church of Marytown, Mr A. Croall. 
Between the Loch of Bescobie and Moss of Restenet, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. 

C. murale, L. Nettle-leaved Goose-foot. H. 277, B. 
250.— F. August. A. 

Found by Mr G. Don, but he does not mention a station. 

C. album, L. White Goose-foot. H. 277, B. 250.— F. 
July, August. A. 

Fields and waste places common. 



156 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Atriplex, L. Orache. 

Br. sp. and v. 9. (12 Bab.) F. 5. 

A. laciniata, L. Frosted Sea Orache. H. 278, B. 253. 
— F. July, Sept. A. 

Frequent along the coast. Sides of Montrose Basin, Mr 

A. Croall. 

A. rosea, L. Spreading-fruited Orache. H. 278, B. 253. 
— F. July, Sept. A. 

Plentiful along the coast from Dundee to Arbroath, vari- 
able in size. 

A. erecta, Huds. Upright Spear-leaved Orache. H. 
279, B. 252.— F. July, Oct. A. 

Cornfields about Guthrie, &c, Mr A. Croall. 

A. angustifolia, Sm. Spreading Narrow-leaved Orache. 
H. 279, B. 252.— F. July, Oct. A. 

Cornfields about Guthrie, &c, Mr A. Croall. 

A. patula, L. Spreading halbert-leaved Orache. H. 278, 

B. 252.— F. June, Oct. A. 

Sea-side, Mr A. Croall. 

(More attention than has yet been paid to the Forfar- 
shire Atriplices will undoubtedly increase the catalogue.) 

Salsola, L. Saltwort. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. Kali, L. Prickly Saltwort. H. 280, B. 249.— F. 
July, August. A. 

Common on the sandy sea- shore, particularly plentiful be- 
tween Broughty and Carnoustie. 

Salicornia, L. Glasswort. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 2. 

S. herbacea, L. Jointed Glasswort. H. 280, B. 251. — 
F. August, Sept. A. (S. annua, E. Bot.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 157 

/3. procumbens (S. procumbens, E. Bot.) Both plentiful 
on the muddy banks of Montrose Basin. 

Plentiful at the head of the Basin four miles from Mon- 
trose, Mr D. White, {North. Flora.) 

(S. radicans, Sm. is stated in Hook. FL Scot, to be found 
on the sea-coast at Montrose, but I have seen no specimens, 
nor do any of my Montrose friends meet with it.) 



Ord. LXIX.— POLYGONEiE, 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 3. Sp. and v. Br. 33. F. 21. 

Polygonum, L. Bistort, Knot-grass, &c. 

Br. sp. and v. 17. F. 11. 

P. Bistorta, L. Bistort, or Snakeweed. H. 281, B. 257- 
— F. June. P. 

Den of Mains near the old churchyard. It was formerly 
very abundant in the " Howff" or old burying-ground of Dun- 
dee, but since the improvement of that cemetery the plant has 
disappeared. 

Banks of the " Potc " or lint-pond, Kinnaird, Mr A. 
Bousie. Near Kinaber Mills, round a field said to have 
formerly been a garden, Mr A. Croall. 

P. viviparum, L. Viviparous Alpine Bistort. H. 281, 
B. 257. F. June, July. P, 

Frequent on the Sidlaw Hills, and the Clova and Glenisla 
mountains. 

Marten's Den, Mr A. Croall. 

P. aviculare, Ij. Common Knot-grass. H. 282, B. 259. 
— F. May, Sept. A. 

Abundant about waysides, borders of fields, and waste 
places, varying much in size in all its parts. 

P. Eoberti, Lois. Kobert's Knot-grass. H. 282, B. 259. 
— F. August, Sept, A. (P. Bail, Bab. P. maritimum, 
Bay. P. aviculare, fi. Br. Fl. ed. 3d. P. acetosum, Hook, 
in Sm. Com. P. dubium, Deak.) 



1 58 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Sandy sea-shore from Broughty to Carnoustie, but princi- 
pally near the last named village and Monifieth. 

P. Fagopyrum, L. Buck-wheat. H. 282, B. 260.— F. 
July, August. A. [Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench., Bab.) 

Cornfields near Lochee, 1830, but most likely introduced. 

P. Convolvulus, L. Climbing Buck-wheat. H. 282, B. 
259.— F. July, August. A. 

In cornfields frequent, twining its stems around the culms 
of the corn, and other plants in its vicinity. 

P. ampkibium, L. Amphibious Persicaria. H. 283, B. 
257.— F. June, August. P. 

Lakes of Forfar, Bescobie, Balgavies, Lundie, and most 
other lakes in the county ; also in marshy pools, slow streams, 
and on damp ground, when it becomes /3. terrestre. 

P. Persicaria, L. Spotted Persicaria. H. 283, B. 258. 
— F. July, Oct. A. 

Frequent in waste places and borders of fields. The 
flowers are green or red, and the leaves spotted or spotless, 
narrow or broadly lanceolate, sometimes pubescent beneath. 

P. minus, Huds. Small creeping Persicaria. H. 284, 
B. 258.— F. Sept. A. 

Moist fields round Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

P. Hydropiper, L. Biting Persicaria. H. 284, B. 258. 
— F. August, Sept. A. 

Pools below and above the Bridge of Dun, Mr A . Croall. 
Mill-dam at Farnell, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

P. lapathifolium, L. Pale-flowered Persicaria. H. 283, 
B. 257.— F. July, August. A. 

Damp fields and moist ground frequent. 

Rumex, L. Dock and Sorrel. 

Br. sp. and v- 14. F. 9. 

B. Hydrolapathum, Huds. Great "Water Dock. H. 284, 
B. 256. — F. July, August. P. (R. aquaticus, Sm.) 






FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 159 

Barrie, near one of the cottages on the Links, but pro- 
bably not indigenous. 

R. crispus, L. Curled Dock. H. 285, B. 255. — F.June, 
August. P. 

The most common species, abundant by waysides and in 
waste places. The vernacular name " Dockens " is applied 
particularly, though not exclusively, to this species. 

R. aquaticus, L. Grainless Water Dock. H. 285, B. 
255.— F. July, August. P. 

Not uncommon throughout the county, particularly plenti- 
ful on the banks of the Dighty, Isla, and Esk. 

R. sanguineus, L. Bloody-veined Dock. H. 285, B. 255. 
— F. July. P. 

Den of Mains, but probably naturalized there. 
Near Carnoustie, Mr A. Croall. 

R. acutus, L.' Sharp Dock. H. 286, B. 254.— F. July, 
August. P. (R. conglomerates, Murr.) 

Marshy places frequent. 

R. obtusifolius, L. Broad-leaved Dock. H. 286, B. 255. 
— F. July, August. P. 

Waste ground common. 

R. palustris, Sm. Yellow Marsh Dock. H. 286, B. 
254. F.July. P. 

Mr G. Don gives this in his list, but does not specify any 
locality. 

R. Acetosa, L. Common Sorrel. H. 287, B. 256.— F. 
June, July. P. 

Abundant by waysides, in woods, and in waste places. 
The leaves have an agreeable acid taste, and are known here 
by the name of " Sourocks." 

R. Acetosella, L. Sheep's Sorrel. H. 287, B. 256.- F. 
May, July. P. 

Plentiful upon dry banks, pastures, and walls. 



160 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Oxyria, Hill. Mountain-Sorrel. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

O. reniformis, Hook. Mountain-Sorrel. H. 287, B. 
256.— F. July, August. P. 

Plentiful about the sides of streams among the mountains, 
and descending far down the Highland valleys. 

Ord. LXXIV.— EMPETRE^E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F.l. Sp.Br.l. F.i. 

Empetrum, L. Oowberry. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

E. nigrum, L. Black Crow-berry, or Crake-berry. H. 
291, B. 262.— F. April, May. Fruit ripe in July, August, 
or Sept. S. 

Common on the hills and mountains. 

Ord. LXXV.— EUPHORBIACE^E. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 19. F.i. 

Mercurialis, L. Mercury. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 1. 

M. perennis, Ij. Dog's Mercury. H. 291, B. 266. — F. 
April, May. P. 

In shady dens plentiful, as Mains, Glammis, Airlie, 
Foulis, &c. 

Den of Fullerton, and banks of the N. and S. Esk, Mr A. 
Croall. 

Dr Hill says, " There is not a more fatal plant, native of 
our country, than this ; many have been known to die by 
eating it boiled with their food." It is injurious to cattle, 
but is seldom touched by them except in early summer, when 
they are first let out to pasture. At this season, eager for a 
mouthful of anything green, they do not very nicely discri- 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 161 

minate the herbage, and the consequence is often disease or 
death. An instance of the effects of the eating of this plant 
by cattle once came under my own observation. In the small 
village of Airnyfoul, near Glammis, several cows had their 
milk coagulated in the udder, and the proprietor could not 
assign any cause for the disease. On visiting the Den of 
Glammis immediately after, where the cattle had been brows- 
ing, I found much of the Mercurialis cropped, and on show- 
ing it to the herdboy he admitted that the " beasts " had eaten 
of it, and thus confirmed my suspicions as to the cause of 
their disease. Had herdboys, shepherds, and farmers more 
knowledge of our wild plants and their properties, than they 
generally have, much mischief might often be prevented. 

In drying, it frequently turns, like the common polypody, 
to a deep blue, and might afford a valuable pigment, if some 
means of fixing the colour were discovered. The fertile and 
sterile plants, in this quarter, grow freely intermixed. 

Euphorbia, L. Spurge. 

Br. sp. 15. F. 3. 
E. helioscopia, L. Sun Spurge. H. 292, B. 263.— F. 
June, Sept. A. 

Cornfields frequent. Its milky juice is very acrid, hence 
perhaps our vernacular name, " Little Goody." 

E. exigua, L. Dwarf Spurge. H. 294, B. 265.— F. 
July, Augt. A. 

Cornfields frequent. 

E. Peplus, L. Petty Spurge. H. 294, 265.— F. July, 
Augt. A. 

In cornfields and waste ground common. Plentiful on the 
sea-beach at the base of the cliffs near Auchmithie. 



Okd. lxxvl— urtice^. 

Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 7. F. 3. 
Urtica, L. Nettle. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 2. 

U. urens, L. Small Nettle. H. 296, B. 267.— F. June, 
Sept. A. 



162 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

In gardens and waste ground frequent. 
U. dioica, L. Great Nettle. H. 296, B. 267-— F. July, 
Sept. P. 

Plentiful by hedge-sides and in waste places, particularly 
near the habitations of man. It is sometimes used in place of 
rennet to curdle milk, and the young tops are frequently 
gathered by the peasantry to make a favourite and delicious 
dish named, " Nettle-brose." 

Parietaria, L. Wall-Pellitory. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1 ?, 
P. officinalis, L. Common-Pellitory-of-the wall. H. 296, 
B. 267.— F. May, Oct. P. 

Plentiful among the rocks on the sea-shore to the eastward 
of Auchmithie, and on the ruins of the Abbey of Arbroath. 
Old Castle of Edzell, Mr A. Croall. 

Ulmus, L. Elm. 

Br. sp. and v. 10. F. 2. 
U. campestris, L. Common small-leaved Elm. H. 297, 
B. 268.— F. Apr. May. T. 

Cultivated in many places. 

U. montana, Bauh. Broad-leaved or Wych Elm. H. 
299, B. 269.— F. March, Apr. T. 

Not unfrequent ; distinguished by its smooth bark and 
large rough leaves. The variety called weeping Elm has 
been planted in the Dundee cemeteries to overshadow graves. 

Betula, L. Birch. 

Br. sp. and v. 5? F. 2 ? 

B. alba, L. Common Birch. H. 300, B. 282.— F. Apr. 
May. T. 

The graceful and fragrant Birch, is extensively cultivated, 
but on the mountains and in the mountain-valleys is cer- 
tainly indigenous. On the sides of the rocky mountain Craig 
Maid, in Glen Dole, Clova, there are the remains of a na- 
tural birch forest, and on the banks of the Dole, a little above 
its junction with the White Water, a form occurs which ap- 
pears to be the B. glutinosa, /3. pubescens of Babington's 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 163 

Manual. It looks tolerably distinct from the usual form, but 
it is the opinion of some able botanists that its characters are 
not sufficiently permanent to entitle it to the rank, of a 
species. 

Miss Twamley, in her usual lively and graceful manner, 
says :— 

" The pine,is king of Scottish woods ; 
And the queen ? — Ah ! who is she ! 
The fairest form the forest kens — 
The bonnie birken tree ! 



What magic hues the sunset pours 

All through a birken glade ! 
Sooth you might think that every leaf 

Of living gold was made. 

And every stem is silver blight, 

Wrought featly o'er with brown, 
More daintily than jewel-work 

Upon our fair Queen's crown. 

God crowns the tree with loveliness, 

A bonnie Queen to be — 
Queen of the glens in auld Scotland — 

The bonnie birken tree." 

In Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, Augt. 1837, 
Colonel Brown of Thun, Switzerland, " states it as his opi- 
nion that a specimen sent by Dr Balfour, from Clova, is Be- 
tula intermedia, a rare plant on the Jura, and differing 
essentially from Betula alba." In Prof. Graham's Report 
to the Edinburgh Botanical Society in March 1838, this was 
admitted a question still open to investigation. 

B. nana, L. Dwarf Birch. H. 300, B. 282.— F. May, 
July. S. 

Clova mountains, Don, Drummond, Balfour, Hooker, 
Greville, Burchell, fyc 

Alnus, Tourn". Alder. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. glutinosa, Gasrt Common Alder. H. 301, B. 283. 
— F. March, May. T. 



164 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Frequent in moist woods, and on the banks of streams. 
Salix, L. Willow, Sallow, and Osier. 

Br. sp.and v. H. 79, B. 83. F. 49. 

S. purpurea, L. Bitter Purple Willow. H. 303, B. 272. 
— F. Mar. Apr. T. 

Found in the county by Mr G. Don. 

S. Lambertiana, Sm. Boyton Willow. H. 303, B. 272. 
— F. Mar. Apr. T. (S. purpurea lambertiana, Bab.) 
Found also by Mr G. Don. 

S. Forbyana, Sm. Fine Basket Osier. H. 304, B. 273. 
— F. Apr. May. S. 

At the base of the cliffs, near Auchmithie, but evidently 
planted by some of the fishermen, for the purpose of making 
baskets. 

S. rubra, Huds. Green-leaved Osier. H. 304, B. 273. 
— F. Apr. May. T. {^.fissa, Hoffin.) Enumerated by 
Mr G. Don. 

S. undulata, Ehrh. Sharp-leaved triandrous Willow. 
H. 304, B. 271.— F. May, June. T. (S. lanceolata, 
Sm.) 

Banks of Rescobie Lake. 

S. triandra, L. Long-leaved triandrous Willow. H. 
305, B. 272.— F. May, June. T. 

Banks of Balgavies Lake, probably planted. 

S. amygdalina, L. Almond-leaved Willow. H. 306, B. 
272.— F. Apr. June. T. 

Banks of Feithy Water between Claypots Castle and the 
toll-bar of Baldovie, bearing sterile catkins in June. 

S. pentandra, L. Sweet Bay-leaved Willow. H. 306, 
B. 270.— F. May, June. T. (S. Meyeriana, Borr. in Br. Fl. 
ed. 3d. not Willd.) 

Woods of Strathmartin, and wayside near Lundie, with 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 165 

sterile catkins. Marshy banks near Rescobie Lake, and Moss 
of Restenet, with sterile and fertile catkins. 

S.Jragilis, L. Crack Willow. H. 307, B. 271.— F. Apr. 
May. T. In Mr G. Don's list. 

S. Russelliana, Sm. Bedford Willow. H. 307, B. 271. 
— F. Apr. May. T. 

Mr G. Don also enumerates this among the Forfarshire 
species, and remarks that its bark " is the best adapted for 
tanning of any of the willows." 

S. alba, L. Common White Willow. H. 308, B. 271. 
— F. May. T. 

Frequent, but likely introduced. Fullerton, Old Mon- 
trose, &c, Mr A, Croall. 

S. mtellina, L. Yellow Willow, or Golden Osier. H. 
308, B. 271.— F. May. T. (S. alba y. mtellina, Koch., 
Bab.) 

Marshy ground, Rescobie. 

S. petiolaris, Sm. Dark Long-leaved Willow. H. 308. 
—F.Apr. T. 

Mr G. Don gives this in his list of the county plants, but 
Dr Lindley says it is not even a European species, so that Mr 
Don's plants may have only been naturalized. 

S. angustifolia, Wulf. ? Little Tree Willow. H. 309, 
B. 278. — F. Apr. S. (S. Arbuscula, Sm.) (not Koch, nor 
Fries.) 

Clova mountains, Hook. Br. Flora. 

S. Doniana, Sm. Don's Willow. H. 309, B. 279.— F. 
May. S. 

Baldovan Woods, rare. 

S.fusca, L. Dwarf Silky Willow. H. 310, B. 279.— 
F. Mar. May. S. 

Plentiful on the sandy sea-shores, in woods, by waysides, 
and on the hills and mountains, very variable. 



166 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

y. prostrata (S. prostrata, Sm.) Plentiful on ditch-banks 
to the eastward of Montrose. 

t. incubacea, (S. incubacea, L.) Clova mountains, Mr G. 
Don. 

£. argentea, (S. argentea, Sm.) Sands of Barrie. 

S. ambigua, Ehrh. Ambiguous Willow. H. 310, B. 279. 
— F. May, July. S. 

Side of a stream, Clova, July 1843. Stigmata bifid. 

fi. major, Bogs near Forfar, Hook. Br. H. 

S. reticulata, L. Reticulated Willow. H. 311, B. 281. 
— F. June, July. S. 

Mountain rocks of Glen Dole, and Canlochen, frequent, 
bearing fertile and sterile catkins profusely. 

S. glauca, L. ? Sm. ! Glaucous Mountain Willow. H. 
311, B. 280.— F. June, July. S. (S. armaria, y. Bab.) 

Clova mountains, Don, Drummond, Hooker, Greville, and 
Burchell. 

S. arenaria, L. Downy Mountain Willow. H. 312, B. 
280. — F. June, July. S. (S. limosa, Wahl. S. Lapponum, 
L., Fries., Koch.) 

Clova, by the sides of streams, as those of the Corrie of 
Clova, Feula, &c. Canlochen, particularly abundant by the 
stream descending into the Glen on the south side of Cairn 
Curr, the leaves there more downy than in the other locali- 
ties. 

S. viminalis, L. Common Osier. H. 312, B. 273. — F. 
Apr. May. S. 

Margin of liescobie Lake, &c, and cultivated in many 
places on, the wet banks of streams. 

S. stipulates, Sm. Auricled Osier. H. 312, B. 273.— 
F. Mar. S. 

S. Smithiana, Willd. Silky-leaved Osier. H. 313, B. 
273. F. Apr. May. S. 

In Mr Or. Don's list, but no stations named. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 16? 

S. cinerea, L. Grey Sallow. H. 314, B. 27-4.— F. Mar. 
Apr. T. 

Plentiful in many places. Baldovan and Glammis Woods, 
Sidlaw Hills, Clova, &c. 

S. aqwitica, Sm. Water Sallow. H. 314, B. 274.— F. 
Apr. June. T. (S. cinerea. /3. Bab.) 

Banks of Bescobie Lake, and in marshes between that and 
Clocksbriggs, with fertile catkins. 

S. oleifolia, Sm. Olive-leaved Sallow. H. 314, B. 274. 
— F. Mar. T. (S. cinerea, y. Bab.) In Mr G. Don's list. 

S. aurita, L. Round-eared Sallow. H. 314, B. 274. — 
F. Apr. July. S. 

From the Sands of Barrie to nearly the summits of the 
Clova mountains, bearing catkins copiously. 

S. caprea, L. Great Round-leaved Sallow. H. 314, B. 
274.— F. Apr. May. T. 

Frequent by the sides of streams. On the rocks of Craig 
Maid, Glen Dole, with ovato-lanceolate leaves. 

S. cotinifolia, Sm. Quince-leaved Sallow. H. 315, B. 
275.— F. Apr. May. S. 

Near Forfar, Hook. Br. Fl. 

S. hirta, Sm. Hairy branched Sallow. H. 315, B. 275. 
— F. Apr. June. T. 

Clova, by the side of the Esk below the Kirkton, and over- 
hanging a waterfall on the Bassies. 

S. nigricans, Sm. Dark-leaved Willow. H. 315, B.275. 
— F. Apr. S. (S. phylicifolia, /3. L.) 

Glen Dole, Clova, rare. 

S. Andersoniana, Sm. Green Mountain Sallow. H. 
316, B. 276.— F. May, June. S. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 

S. Forsteriana, Sm. Glaucous Mountain Sallow. H. 
316, B. 275.— F. May, June. T, 



168 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Rocks in the ravine of the White Water, head of Glen 
Dole, and among those of Canlochen. 

S. rupestris, Donn. Silky Rock Sallow. H. 316, B. 
275.— F. 

Clova, Don, Drummond, Hooker, Greville, and Burchell. 

S. petrasa, And. Dark-green Rock Sallow. H. 317, B. 
276.— F.May. S. 

Rocks of Canlochen plentiful, and a variety with silky cap- 
sules on rocks in Glen Dole. 

S. radicans, Sm. Tea-leaved Willow. H. 318, B. 
277.— F. May. S. (S. phylicifolia, Sm.) 

Canlochen Glen. 

S. Borreriana, Sm. Borrerian Willow. H. 318, B. 277. 
— F. Apr. S. ( S. phylicifolia, Hook. Scot., Wahl.) 

In the ravine of the White Water, rare. 

S. Davalliana, Sm. Davallian Willow. H. 318, B. 277- 
— F. May. S. 

By the side of a stream on the Bassies, Clova, and near the 
top of the ravine of the White Water, with fertile catkins, 
Augt. 1842. 

S. Weigeliana, Willd. Weigelian Willow. H. 319, B. 
277.— F. June. T. ? (S. Wulfeniana, Sm. (not Willd.) 

Baldovan Woods, with abundance of fertile catkins. 

S. bicolor, Ehrh. Two-coloured Willow. H. 320, B. 
280. — F. Apr. July. S. (S. tenuifolia, Sm. S. Jiori- 
bunda, Forb.) 

Sides of streams in the alpine valleys of Clova and Glen 
Isla. 

S. pruni/olia, Sm. Plum-leaved Willow. H. 321, B. 
280. — F. Apr. June. S. (S. myrsinites, Lightf. (not L.) 
S. Arbuseula, p. Bab.) 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



169 



S. Myrsinites, L. Green Whortle-leaved Willow. H. 
322, B. 280.— F. June. S. 

Rocks of Canlochen and Clova plentiful. 

S. herbacea, L. Least Willow. H. 322, B. 281.— F. 
June. S. 

Frequent in rocky places on and near the summits of the 
higher mountains. 

S. hastata, L. Apple-leaved Willow. H. 323, B. 276. 
— F. May. S. (S. malifolia, Sm.) 

Sands of Barrie, Mr G. Don. 

S. lanata, L. Wooly Broad- leaved Willow. H. 323, B. 
276.— F. May. S. (S. crysantha, Fl. Dan.) 

On the rocks of Glen Dole, the White Water, and Can- 
lochen, frequent. I have gathered the fertile catkins, though 
sparingly, in these localities, as well as in Glen Callater, 
where Mr G. Don first detected this most beautiful of our 
native willows. 

Popult/s, L. Poplar. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 3. 

P. tremula, L. Aspen. H. 325, B. 281.— F. Mar. Apr. 
T. 

P. nigra, L. Black Poplar. H. 325, B. 281.— F. Mar. T. 
P. alba, L. Great White Poplar, or Abele. H. 324, B. 
281.— F. Apr. T. 

These three species occur frequently throughout the coun- 
ty, but mostly planted, except the Aspen, which is appa- 
rently indigenous in some of the Highland glens. A super- 
stitious notion connected with it entertained by some of the 
Highlanders, and alluded to by Lightfoot, is embodied in the 
following verses : — 

THE ASPEN-TKEE. Popuhts tremula. 

In Highland glen, at sultry noon, 

When scarce a zephyr dares to breathe, 

And birds are mute, and leaves are still, 
And bees take shelter underneath 
H 



170 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



The verdant umbrage, or at will, 

Drain nectar from some floweret's breast — 
One tree the solemn quiet breaks, 

Whose quivering foliage cannot rest. 

And denizen of Highland glen 

Will tell you why the Aspen-leaves 
No rest can find, though all around 

Is quietude ; for he believes, 
The cross on which our Lord was bound, 

The Aspen furnished, and disgrace 
Still clings to the ill-fated tree, 

And spares it not a moment's peace. 

Poor tree ! methinks thy smooth green leaves, 

Steeped in the golden solar ray, 
Seem glad, though doomed to such reproach ; 

And useful lessons might convey : 
For, ever active, do not they 

Whisper of One whose life was given 
Wholly, to teach mankind the way 

To win Earth's happiness, and Heaven? 



Fagus, L. Beech. 
Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

F. syhatica, L. Beech.. H. 325, B. 283.— F. April, 
May. T. 

Plentiful in woods, but probably all planted. 

Castanea, Tonm. Chestnut. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. vulgaris, Lam, Spanish Chestnut. H. 326, B. 283. 
— F. May. T. 

This graceful tree is planted in many places in the county, 
but, like the beech, has, I fear, slender claims to be consi- 
dered indigenous. 



Quercus, L, Oak. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 1. 

Q. Bohur, L. Common British Oak. H. 326, B. 283. 
-F. April, May. T. (Q. pedunculata, Willd.) 
The " mio-hty monarch of the wood " is frequent in the 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 171 

county, but in most, if not in all cases, it has likely been in- 
troduced through the agency of man. 

Corylus, L. Hazel-nut. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. Avellana, L. Common Hazel-nut. H. 327, B. 284. 
— F. March, April. T. 

Frequent by the sides of streams, and in hedges. 
Carpinus, L. Hornbeam. 

Br.sp.l. FA. 

C. Betulus, L. Hornbeam. H. 327, B. 284.— F. May. 
T. 

Woods and hedges, not common, and always planted, as 
near Brechin Castle, Woods of Dun, &c. Messrs Croall and 
Cruickskank. 

Okd. LXXIX.— MYRICE^E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 1. F. 1. 

Myrica, L. Gale. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

M. Gale, L. Sweet Gale, or Bog Myrtle. H. 328, B. 
282.— F. May, June. S. 

Marshy places. Abundant on the banks of Rescobie Lake, 
perfuming the air with its agreeable fragrance. Sterile and 
fertile catkins are sometimes found on the same, though ve- 
nerally on different plants. 

Ord. LXXX.— CONIFERS. 

Gen. Br. 3. F. 3. Sp. and v. Br. 5. F. 4. 

PlNUS, L. Fir. 

Br. sp. 1 . F.l. 

P. sylvestris; L. Scotch Fir. H. 329, B. 285.— F. May, 
June. T. 



172 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Plentiful from the coast to the mountains, but mostly 
planted, and showing nothing of the magnificent pine-forest 
scenery of the neighbouring district of Braemar. 

Juniperus, L. Juniper. 
Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 2. 

J. comnmnis, L. Common Juniper. H. 330, B. 285. — 

F. May, fruit ripe in autumn. 

Not so plentiful as in Perthshire, but occurs in many places. 
Baldovan Woods, rare. Glen Phee and other valleys among 
the Clova mountains. . m ■ nu,-. ; ; 

Hill of Edzell, Hill of Findhaven, and Monroman Moor, 
Mr A. Croall. 

/3. nana, Hook. (J. nana, Willd.) 

Sands of Barrie, north side of the sandhill of Button-ness, 
and frequent on the Clova mountains, as those of Glen Dole, 

&c. 

Taxus, L. Yew. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F.\. 

T. baccata, L. Common Yew. H. 330, B. 285.— F. 
March, April. T. 

Near Mains Castle and other plaoes, but probably intro~ 
duced. 



Class II.— MONOCOTYLEDONES. 
Sub-Class I.— PETALOIDE^E. 

Ord. LXXXI.— ALISMACE^. 

Gen. Br. 3.F.I. Sp. and v. Br. 7. F. 2. 

Alisma, L. Water Plantain. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 2. 

A. Plantaqo, L. Greater Water Plantain. H. 331, 
B. 317.— F. July, August. P. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 173 

Iii ditches and pools frequent, and about the margins of 
Lakes, as those of Rescobie, Balgavies, Forfar, Lundie, &c. 
Dens of Foulis, Glammis, and Aiilie. 

Near Marten's Den, and the Bridge of Dun, Mr A. 
Croall. 

A. ranunculoides, L. Lesser Water Plantain. H. 332, 
B. 318.— F. June, Sept. P. 

Margins of the Lakes of Rescobie and Forfar, and in moist 
places on the Sands of Barrie. 

Ord. LXXXIIL— JUNCAGINE^E. 

Gen. Br. 2.F.I. Sp. Br. 3. F. 2, 

Triglochin, L. Arrow-grass. 

Br.sp.2. P. 2. 

T.palustre, ~L. Marsh Arrow-grass. H. 333, B. 319. — 
F. June, July. P. 

Marshy ground frequent. 

T. maritimum, L. Sea-side Arrow-grass. H. 334, B. 
319.— F. May, Aug. P. 

Salt marshes along the coast frequent. 

Ord. LXXXIV.— AROIDEJE, 

Gen, Br. 4. F. 3. Sp. Br. 8. F. 5. 

Arum, L. Cuckow-pint. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

A. maculatum, L. Cuckow-pint, or Wake-Robin. H. 
335, B. 321.— F. April, May. P. 

Naturalized in various places, as Den of Dun, at the bridge 
near the garden, Mr A. Croall, and in a wood south from 
Brechin Castle, Mr IV. Anderson. 

Typha, L. Cat's-tail, or Reed-mace. 
Br. sp. S.F.I. 

T. latifolia, L. Great Reed-mace. H. 336, B. 320.— 
F. June, Aug. P. 



174 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

In the Lakes of Forfar, Rescobie, Balgavies, &c. 

In a rivulet not far from Pitmuies by the side of the For- 
far and Arbroath turnpike road, Mr G. Don. Near Guth- 
rie Castle, Mill-dams of Pitmuies, and Braikie Mills, &c, 
Mr A. Croall. Banks of Lunan Water, a little above Red- 
castle, plentiful, Mr A. Kerr. 

Sparganium, L. Bur-reed. 
Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

S. ramosum, Huds. Branched Bur-reed. H. 336, B, 
320.— F. July. P. (S. erectum, L.) 

Not uncommon in ditches and marshes. 

S. simplex, Huds. TJnbranched Bur-reed. H. 337, B. 
320. — F. June, July. P. (S. erectum, /3. L.) 

Ditches and pools between Rescobie and Clocksbriggs, east 
and west ends of Forfar Lake, &c. 

Near Lunan, Mr A. Croall. Pools on the Hill of Strick- 
athro, Mr A. Kerr. 

S. nataus, L. Floating Bur-reed. H. 337, B. 320.— F. 
July, Aug. P. 

Marshy pools and ditches about the Lakes of Forfar, Res- 
cobie, Balgavies, &c. 

Ord. lxxxv.— pistiaceje. 

Gen.Br.l.F.l. Sp. Br. i. F.2. 

Lemna, L. Duckweed. 

Br. sp. 4. F. 2. 

L. trisulca, L. Ivy-leaved Duckweed. H. 337, B. 321. 
— F. June. A. 

Ditch between the old kirk of Logie and foot of Marten's 
Den, rare, Mr A. Croall. Along the course of a spring that 
rises in the swampy ground, below the Hill of Land-head, 
Kingoldrum, Rev. J. 0. Haldane. Frequent, Mr G. Don. 

L. minor, L. Lesser Duckweed. H. 337, B. 321. — F. 
June, July. A. 

Still pools and ditches, plentiful. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 1?0 



Qrd. LXXXVI. -NAIADES. 

Gen, Br. 4. F. i. Sp. and v. Br. 25. F. ]'>. 

Potamogeton, L. Pond-weed. 

Br. sp. and v. 20. F. 13. 

P. pectinatus, L. Fennel-leaved Pond- weed. H. 339, 
B. 325. — F. July, Sept. P. (According to Babington our 
Forfarshire plant is not the true P. pectinatus of Linn., but 
T.jiliformis, Nolte, and, when growing in salt water, is the 
P. marinus of Fries and Koch.) 

Lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies. 

These lakes furnish all the species of Pond-weed that in- 
habit this county, and are otherwise interesting to the bo- 
tanist, from the great variety of beautiful plants that grow in 
their waters, and in the marshes and woods that margin them. 
They are situated on the line of the Arbroath and Forfar 
railway, between the Auldbarand Clocksbriggs stations, Bal- 
gavies on the south, and Rescobie on the north side of the 
line. On a clear sunny day the Potamogeta:, flourishing at a 
great depth amid the transparent waters, animated by nume- 
rous members of the insect and finny races, present a delight- 
ful spectacle, and the long stems of the white and yellow 
water-lilies may be traced from their floating flowers to the 
root. A marsh on the north banks of Rescobie lake, a little 
to the eastward of the church, presents the three British 
Utricularice , with Menyanthes, Comarum, various Carices, 
Salices, Equisetfe, and Musci, and is lavishly perfumed by 
Myrica Gale. A wood between this marsh and the lake is, 
in May, a perfect paradise, richly adorned with wood-ane- 
monies, primroses, wood-sorrels, bilberries, and the starry 
Trientalis, with other sylvan flowers, that love to luxuriate in 
such verdant shades. This exuberance of floral beauty, the 
freshness and diversity of the foliage, the soul-thrilling tones 
of happy birds, and the glimpses of blue sky seen through 
the rustling boughs smiling in sunlight, or reflected from the 
scarcely rippled surface of the lake, give to the scene a cha- 
racter of rural sweetness and repose, quite apart from the 
jarring bustle of every-day life. One feels, in such a place, 
estranged for the time from the cares and vicissitudes of the 
world, and the charms of Nature penetrate, with their refin- 



176 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

ing influences, the deepest recesses of the heart, denying to 
human language the power to give them full expression : — 

" Trees, and flowers, and streams, 
Are social and benevolent ; and he 
Who oft communetn in their language pure, 
Eoaming among them in the cool of day, 
Shall find, like him who Eden's garden dress'd, 
His Maker there, to teach his listening heart." 

Between the Clocksbriggs station and Forfar stands the 
ruins of Restenet Priory, and the moss, which was formerly 
one of this chain of lake*, now drained for its marl, presents 
the Chara hispida, Polytrichum gracile, and other plants of 
interest. The lake of Forfar, to the west of the town, is 
more extensive than the others, but its botanical productions 
are similar. The active researches of Don and Drummond 
have rendered the banks of these lakes attractive, and no 
lover of Flora visiting this part of the county neglect them. 

P. pusilhus, L. Small Pond- weed. H. 339, B. 325.— 
F. June, July. P. 

Lakes of Rescobie, Balgavies, and Forfar, frequent. 

Pond at Hedderwick Lime-works, and near the new kirk 
of Logie, Mr A. Croall. Pools close to Guthrie, Prof. Bal- 
four. Near Montrose, Mr White. Ditch, wayside above 
Craigo, Mr A. Kerr. 

jS. major (P. compressus, L.), Lochs of Forfar and Resco- 
bie, Mr G. Don. 

P. gramineus, L. Grassy Pond-weed. H. 339, B. 325. 
— F. June, July. P. (P. obtusifolius, Mert. and Koch.) 

Lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies, Mr G. Don, Mr A. Kerr. 

P. zostercefolius, Solium. H. 340, B. 324. -F. June, 
July. P. (P. cuspidatus, Schrad., Sm. P. compressus, 
Fries, Koch.) 

Lakes of Rescobie, Balgavies, and Forfar, frequent. 

P. crispus, L. Curled Pond-weed. H. 340, B. 324.— 
F. June, July. P. 

Forfar, Rescobie, and Balgavies Lakes, common. 

Pools above the Bridge of Dun, and in the South Esk, be- 
low Kinnaird, Mr A. Croall. Near Montrose, Mr D. 
White. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 177 

P. perfoliatus, L. Perfoliate Pond-weed. H. 340, B. 
324.— F. July. P. 

Lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies, frequent. 

P. lucens, L. Shining Pond- weed. H. 340, B. 323. — 
F. June, July. P. 

Lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies, frequent. 

P. prwlongus, Wulf. Long-stalked Pond-weed. H. 340, 
B. 324.— F. June, Sept. ¥. 

Lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies, Prof. Balfour, Messrs 
Croall, Cruickshank, and Kerr. 

Plentiful in the stream after leaving the Loch of Balgavies, 
and onward to Guthrie ; first found, I believe, by Prof. Bal- 
four, Mr A. Croall. 

P. heterophyllus, Schreb. Various -leaved Pond- weed. H. 
341, B. 323. — F. June, July. P. (P. gramineus, Fries, 
&c.) 

Rescobie Lake. 

Dun's Dish, Mr J. Cruickshank. Near Montrose, Mr D. 
White. 

P. lanceolatus, Sm. Lanceolate Pond-weed. H. 341, B- 
323.— F. July, Aug. P. 

Lake of Lintrathen, Mr G. Don. South side of Resco- 
bie Lake, Mr A. Croall. In a small pond on Monroman 
Moor, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

P. rufescens, Schrad. Reddish Pond- weed. H. 342, B. 
323.— F.July. P. (P.fuitans, Sm.) 

Near Forfar, Mr Maughan. Rescobie Lake, Dr M l Nab. 
Lake of Balgavies, and in a marsh below Guthrie, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. 

P. natans, L. Sharp-fruited broad-lt-aved Pond-weed. 
H. 342, B. 322.— F. June, July. P. 

The most common species, plentiful in ponds, ditches, 
marshy pools, streams, and lakes throughout the county. 
h2 



178 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Zostera, L, Grass-wrack. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

Z. marina, L. Common Grass-wrack. H. 343, B. 326. 
— F. July, Aug. P. 

Muddy beach of Montrose Basin plentiful. Beach near 
Monifieth, rare. 

Ruppia, L. Ruppia. 

Br.sp.2. F.l. 

R. maritima, L. Sea Ruppia. H. 343, B. 326.— F. 
July. Aug. P. 

This is known as the Tassel Pond-iueed, and occurs with 
Zostera marina in Montrose Basin. 

Ord. LXXXVII.— SMILACE.E. 

Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. Br. 6. F. 4. 
Convallaria, L. Lily of the Valley, and Solomon's Seal. 

Br. sp. I. F. 3. 

C. majalis, L. Lily of the Valley. H. 345, B. 302.— 
F. May, June. P. 

Near Inchewen, parish of Tannadice, Mr G. Don. Den 
of Airlie, on the left bank of the Isla, by the side of the up- 
per walk. But a less suspicious, and undoubtedly indigenous 
station, was lately discovered by the Rev. J. 0. Haldane, on 
the right bank. It is opposite the Castle, at a considerable 
height above the river, and not easily approachable, Rev. J. 
S. Barty. In a hedge near a cottage at the top of the hill 
west from Upper Mills of Kinabor, three miles north from 
Montrose, but I should think not indigenous, Mr A. Croall. 

In the beautiful plantations of Birkhill, on the Fife side of 
the Tay, it seems quite at home, growing among the wild 
hyacinths and woodruff. Its elegance and delicate perfume 
recommend it to general patronage, and it is, accordingly, 
much cultivated in the shady nooks of our gardens. 

THE LILY OF THE VALLEY. Convallaria majalis. 

Fair Lily of the Valley, 

How I love thy fragrant flowers, . 
When thy sweetness by the summer wind 

Is breathed anion" tiie bowers! 



i I.OKA OF tfOKlTAllsniKK,. 17!' 

Half-hid amid the azure bloom 

Of Hyacinths thou'rt seen; 
With pendant bells of snowy hue, 

Ami leaves of brightest green. 

Oh ! lovely gem, what lessons thou 

Canst to the mind convey, 
Of purity, and love, and joy, 

Both here and far away ! 
If human hearts, in this cold world, 

Were but as pure as thee, 
And open as thy balmy breast, 

How blissful would it be ! 

But vain, perhaps, are our desires 

That these should flourish here ! 
So pure, so bright, they seem designed 

To fill a higher sphere ! 
Yet thou, sweet floweret, hast a voice, 

Though " still and small," at morn and even, 
Doth bid us inwardly rejoice, 

And look with fervent hope to heaven. 

C. verticillata, L. Narrow- leaved Solomon's Seal. H. 
345, B. 301.— F. June. P. 

Den of Airlie, on the right bank of the Isla, immediately 
opposite a purple beech in the Low Garden, on the other side 
of the stream. Rev. J. 0. Haldane, and Rev. J. S. Barty. 

C. multiflora, L. Common Solomon's Seal. H. 345, B. 
301.— F. May, Aug. P. 

Doubtfully native, but naturalized in the following sta- 
tions: — On clay, in the moist shady woods of Langley Park, 
near Montrose, Mr A. Croall. Den of Duntrune, not plen- 
tiful, Mr G. Laicson. 

Paris, L. Herb Paris. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

P. quadrifolia, L. Common Herb Paris. H. 346, B. 
301.— F. May, June. P. 

Abundant on a projecting ridge on the left bank of the 
Isla a little above its confluence with the Melgum, Rev. J. S. 
Barty, and Rev. J. 0. Haldane. It occurs rather plentifully 
in the neighbouring counties of Kincardine and Perth ; but 
this is the only Forfarshire station we are yet able to record. 



180 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Oed. lxxxviil— liliace^e. 

Gen. Br. 2. F. 1. Sp. Br. 2. F. 1. 

Tulipa, L. Tulip. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

T. sylvestris, L. Wild Tulip. H. 347, B. 303.— -F. 
Apr. May. P. 

In a wood a little to the north of Brechin Castle, Mr A. 
Bousie. Mr W. Anderson found it flowering there in May 
1847, and remarks that the plants are scattered through 
the wood, near the stables, which were erected on the site of 
the old garden about 40 years ago. A doubt is therefore 
created whether the plant may be really indigenous in that 
station. 

Ord. lxxxix. asphodele^;. 

Gen. Br. 8. F. 2. Sp. and v. Br. 23. F. 7. 

Allium, L. Onion. 

Br. sp. and w. II. .F. 6. 

A. Ampeloprasum, L. Great Bound-headed Garlic. H. 
347, B. 305.— F. Augt. P. 

In dens near the shore, east from Arbroath, Mr G. Don. 

A. arenarmm, L. Sand Garlic. H. 347, B. 306. — F. 

June, July. P. (This and A. Scorodoprasum, L. is con- 
sidered identical by Bab.) 

Enumerated by Mr G. Don, but without locality. 

A. carinatum, L. Mountain Garlic. H. 348, B. 307- 
— F. July, Augt. P. (&t--Gl«m6emm, r ~fi. -wmplaMetetm,, 
Fries.) 

Among rocks by the side of the Isla, and to the eastward 
of Arbroath, plentiful, Mr G. Don. 

A. vineale, L. Crow Garlic. H. 348, B. 306. — F. June, 
July. P. (A. arenarium, Fries.) 

Frequent, from Will's Braes to Usan. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



181 



A. uranium, L. Broad-leaved Garlic, or Bamsons. H. 
349, B. 307.— F. May, June. P. 

Dens of Airlie, Glammis, Foulis, &c. 

A. oleraceum, L. Streaked Field Garlic. H. 348, B. 
307.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Near Montrose, Prof. Balfour, and Dr 31' Nab. Den of 
Fullerton, Mr A. Kerr. 

Hyacinthus, L. Hyacinth. 

Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

II. non-scriptus, L. Wild Hyacinth, or English Blue- 
bell. H. 351, B. 308.— F. May, June. P. (Scilla nutans 
E. Bot. Agraphia nutans, Link., Bab.) 

Wooded dens, as those of Airlie, Glammis, Foulis, &c, 
abundant. 

Dens of Fullerton and Bonnington, Mr A. Croall. Banks 
of the South Esk, a little above Balbirnie Mill, Mr J. 
Cruickshank. Montrose Links, near Kinnaber House, Mr 
A. Kerr. 

Ord. XC— MELANTHACE^E. 

Gen. Br. 2. F. 1. Sp. Br. 2. F. 1. 

Tofieldia, Huds. Scottish Asphodel. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. palustris, Huds. Scottish Asphodel. H. 353, B. 
309.— F. June, Augt. P. (T. borealis, Wahl. Antheri- 
cum calyculatum, L.) 

Wet rocks, and marshy banks among the Clova mountains 
frequent, seldom lower than 2000 feet. 

Ord. XCII— JUNCE^. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 3. Sp. and v. Br. 40. F. 22. 
Juncus, L. Bush. 
Br. Sp. and v. 28. F. 14. 

J. glaucus, Ehrh. Hard Rush. H. 355, B. 311.— F. 
July, Augt. (J. inflexus, Leers.) 



182 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Wet ground Ninewells, and near Montrose, from one to 
three feet high. 

J. effusus, L. Soft Rush. 

J. conglomeratus, L. Common Rush. II. 355, B. 311. 
— F. July. P. 

Both species common in wet and marshy ground, through- 
out the county. They are known by the vernacular name 
of " Rashes," and are associated with one of Burns' most 
popular songs. " Rashg-tcicks," or the pith of the rushes, 
were much in use among the humbler classes before gas al- 
most superseded the use of the " crusey." It was the leisure 
employment of herd-boys to strip the outer portion from the 
pith, and the latter tied up in bundles were brought into the 
towns on market days by country dames along with their 
rural produce. The " crusey" with its whale oil and rashy- 
wick is still extensively used in those places where gas can- 
not be procured, or candles afforded. 

J. Baltieus, Willd. Baltic Rush. H. 355, B. 311.— F. 
July, Sept. P. 

On the sandy coast abundant, especially on the Sands of 
Barrie and Montrose Links. 

J. acutiflorus, Ehrh. Sharp-flowered jointed Rush. H. 

356, B. 313. — F. June, Augt. P. (J. articulatus, E. Bot. 
J. sylvaticus, Hoppe.) 

Marshy places and ditches, common. 

J. lampocarpus, Ehrh. Shining-fruited jointed Rush. 
H. 356, B. 313.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Abundant in moist places, from the sea-shore to the moun- 
tains, varying much in size. 

J. uliginosus, Sibth. Lesser Bog jointed Rush. H. 

357, B. 313.— F. June, Augt. P. (J. supinus, Moench, 
Bab. J. bulbosus, L. J. subvert icillatus, Wulf.) 

Generally diffused throughout the county. Its variations, 
caused by the varied degrees of humidity of its place of growth, 
so graphically described by Hooker, I have noticed in many 
places, and have observed, that although the extreme forms 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 183 

appear to the eye sufficiently distinct, yet the connecting links 
between the small upright plant and that floating in boggy 
pools, are so close, that it is difficult to draw any line of de- 
marcation. The swollen base of the stem of that state called 
bulbosus, which grows on rather dry ground, or more fre- 
quently on ground that had been flooded and left dry, seems 
a wise provision of Nature to enable the plant to provide for 
a time of scarcity — much moisture being desirable, as the spe- 
cies is naturally a marsh plant. 

J. castaneus, Sm. Clustered Alpine Rush. H. 357, B. 
312.— F. July, Augt. P. 

Along the upper part of the White Water, in considerable 
quantity, Augt. 1831, Prof. Graham. In the course of the 
White Water, above the Falls, so abundant that 250 specimens 
were gathered in one little spot, 1831, Dr Barry and Mr J. 
Macnab. Canlochen, 1836, Drs Greville, Balfour, and 
Mr Brand. 

J. trijidus, L. Three-leaved Rush. H. 357, B. 312. — 
F. July, Augt. P. 

Clova mountains, frequent. Very stunted on the summits, 
but growing in luxuriant tufts in moist crevices of the rocks 
between 2000 and 3000 feet. 

J. compressus, Jacq. Round- fruited Rush. II. 358, B. 
314.— F. June, Augt. P. 

Various places along the coast, from Monifieth to Mon- 
trose. 

j8. Hook. (J. Bothnicus, Wahl. J. camosus, Bich., Bab. 
J. Gerardi, Loisel.) 

Side of the Montrose Basin, Mr A. Croall. It is not un- 
frequent on the Fife side of the Tay, and probably on the 
Forfarshire coast, future observation will prove it to be not 
uncommon. 

J. tenuis, Willd. Slender Spreading Rush. H. 358, B. 
315. — F. July. P. (J. Gesneri, Sm. J. gracilis, E. 
Bot.) 

" By a rivulet in marshy ground, among the mountains of 
Clova, near their summits," Mr G. Don, Mr D. Bon. (H. 
B. F.) 



184 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

J. bufonius, L. Toad Rush. H. 358, B. 315.— F. July, 
Augt. A. 

Common in moist ground throughout the county, varying 
much in size and ramification. On the Sands of Barrie a 
very small state occurs, frequently bearing flowers and fruit 
at less than a quarter of an inch high, and ranging from that 
to an inch. In some places I have met with it nearly a foot 
high. 

J. squarrosus, L. Heath Ru3h. H. 358, B. 314. — F. 
June, July. P. 

Moory, heathy, and marshy ground, abundant ; in the lat- 
ter its densely-tufted roots often afford good footing to the 
botanical explorer. 

J. triglumis, L. Three-flowered Rush. H. 359, B. 312. 
— F. July, Augt. P. 

Marshy places and by the sides of rills among the moan- 
tains, frequent. The flowers vary from two to four, though 
generally three. 

Ltjzula, D. C. Wood-Rush. 

Br. Sp. and v. 8. F. 8. 

L. sylvatica, Bich. Great Hairy Wood-rush. H. 360, 
B. 315. — F. May, June. P. (L. maxima, D. C, Koch. 
Juncus solvations, Huds. J. pilosus, L.) 

Plentiful in shady woods and on the banks of streams. 

L. pilosa, Willd. Broad-leaved Hairy Wood-rush, H. 
360, B. 315. — F. Apr. June. P. (Juncus pilosus, L.) 

Not uncommon in the woods and on the hills. 

L. Forsteri, D. C. Narrow-leaved Hairy Wood-rush. 
H. 360, B. 315.— F. May, June. P. 

Fir woods near Forfar, Mr 6r. Don. 

L. campestris, Br. Field Wood-rush. H. 360, B. 315. 
— F. Apr. June. P. 

Abundant from the coast to the mountains, in dry sandy 
and heathy places, as well as in moist woods, and on the 



flora of forfarshire. 185 

marshy banks of streams and lakes, varying much in height, 
and in the size and ramification of its spikeleted heads. Var. 
/S. (L. conjesta, Lej.) is not uncommon, particularly in moist 
and shady situations. 

L. multiflora,Lej. Many-flowered Wood-rush. B.316. 
— F. June. P. 

Baldovan Woods, Sands of Barrie, Rescobie, &c. This is 
apparently a good species, but L. conjesta, and other inter- 
mediate forms seem to link it very closely to L. campestris. 
Mr Bentall of Halstead, Essex (the manufacturer of the ad- 
mirable botanical drying paper), who has studied these plants 
with care, points out a character, which, if constant, might de- 
cide the point. The seeds of L. multiflora, he observes, are 
somewhat oblong, whilst those of L. campestris are nearly 
globular, and have a much more conspicuous basal appen- 
dage. 

L. spicata, D. C. Spiked Mountain Wood-rush. H. 
361, B. 316— F. July, Augt. P. (Juncus, L.) 

Plentiful on rocky shelves among the mountains, and scat- 
tered in tufts over their summits. 

L. arcuata, Hook. Curved Mountain Wood- rush. H. 
361, B. 316.— F. July. P. 

Clova mountains, July 1824. Hooker, Greville, Burchell, 
and Drummond. The precise locality is not specified, and 
I have not seen it except on the highest ground in Scotland, 
Ben-na-Muic-Dhui. It is, however, an inconspicuous plant, 
and may be easily overlooked. In the neighbouring county 
of Aberdeen, in August 1846, it was picked on the classical 
Lochnagar by Prof. Balfour. 

Narthecium, Huds. Bog-Asphodel. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

N. ossifragum, Huds. Bog Asphodel. H. 361, B. 310. 
— F. May, Augt. P. 

Plentiful in marshy places, on moors, in woods, on the 
lower hills, and ascending to upwards of 2000 feet on the 
mountains. 



186 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE, 



Ord. xciil— hydrocharide^e. 

Gen. Br. 2. F. 1. Sp. Br. 2. F. I. 

Stratiotes, L. Water -Soldier. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

S. aloides, L. Water Soldier. H. 362, B. 287.— F. June. 
July. P. 

Plentiful in the Lakes of Forfar, Rescobie, Balgavies, and 
Feithy, probably not really indigenous, as Mr G. JJon ad- 
mits of having introduced it into the Lake of Forfar in 1792, 
but in the above localities it is now at least perfectly natur- 
alized. 

In a pool at Bracklaw Burn, parish of Carreston, Rev. J. 
0. Haldane. 

Ord. XCIV.— ORCHIDE^E. 

Gen. Br. 14. {Bab. 16.) F.8. Sp. and v. Br. 45. F. 14. 

Goodyera, Br. Goodyera. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

G. repens, Br. Creeping Goodyera. H. 363, B. 294. — 
F. July, Augt. P. 

Woods of Stracathro, Mr G. M' Farlane. Burn Woods, 
south from the entrance to Glen Esk, near Gannachy Bridge. 
This stately and picturesque bridge, which is much admired 
for the beautiful and romantic scenery around, spans the 
North Esk about ten miles north from Brechin, connecting 
the counties of Forfar and Kincardine. On both sides of the 
river the woods are rich and diversified, and to the botan- 
ist afford many a hidden gem ; and the rocky banks will 
amply reward the cryptogamist. 

Listera, Br. Twayblade. 

Br.sp.S. F.3. 

L.omta,Bv. Common Twayblade. IT. 364 B. 294.— 
F.May, June. P. {Ophrys,!..) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 187 

Den of Airlie, left bank of the Isla, near the Low Gar- 
den, Rev. J. 0. Haldane, and Rev. J. S. Barty. Banks of 
the Esk near Kinaber, Mr G. M'Farlane. Bogwood of 
Craigo, Mr John Laing. In a small wood by the wayside 
near Usan, and in ravines between Marten's Den and Upper 
Mills, Mr A. Croall. Den of Bonnington, Mr J. Cruick^ 
shank. 

L. cordata, Br. Heart-leaved Twayblade. H. 364, B< 
294.— F. May, Augt. P. (Ophrys, L.) 

In woods abundant, as those of Baldovan, Lumley, Deer- 
hill, &c. On heaths, Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains, 
ascending on the latter to upwards of 2000 feet, but small in 
size. In Baldovan Woods specimens are frequently found 
with a third and fourth leaf on the stem, between the two 
cordate ones and the base of the flower-spike, and a variety 
with pale green flowers, their usual colour with us being a 
deep purplish brown with a slight mixture of green. 

Woods of Carreston, Kinnaird, and Craigo, Messrs John 
Laing and A. Bousie. Woods of Dun, and Monroman Moor, 
Mr A. Croall. 

L. Nidus-Avis, Hook. Bird's-nest. H. 364, B. 294.— 
F.May, June. P. (Neottia, L., Bab.) 

Den of Airlie, left bank of the Isla, near the Low Garden, 
Rev. J . 0. Haldane, and Rev. J. S. Barty. 

Epipactis, Br. Helleborine. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 1. 

E. latifolia, Sw. Broad-leaved Helleborine. H. 364, B. 
295.— F. July, Augt. P. {Serapias, L.) 

In woods, occasionally. 

Corallorhiza, Hall. Coral-root. 

Br. sjo. 1. F. 1. 

C. innata, Br. Spuvless Coral-root. H. 366, B. 296. — 
F. June, Augt. P. {Ophrys corallorhiza, L.) 

In wet pastures, Sands of Barrie, a little to the north-east 
of the larger light-house, not plentiful. 



188 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE* 

In a marshy wood behind the north lodge of Carreston, 
about four miles from Brechin, on the Forfar road, Messrs 
Bousie and Laing. 

Orchis, L. Orchis. 

Br. sp. and v. 13. F. 3. 

0. mascula, L. Early Purple Orchis. H. 366, B. 289. 
— F. May, June. P. 

Woods frequent, less common in open pastures. Mr G. 
Don has found it with white flowers, and ] have picked it 
with pink flowers in Balgay Wood and on Will's Braes. 

Will's Braes, before their destruction by the operations in 
forming part of the line of the Dundee and Perth Railway, 
was a favourite resort of many of the inhabitants of Dundee, 
being one of the pleasantest places in its vicinity for a morn- 
ing or evening walk. A sweet wooded path on the sum- 
mit of the flower-covered rocks and banks winded along the 
side of the Tay from the west end of the town to the bay of 
Invergowrie ; on the one hand margined by cornfields, on 
the other commanding a delightful view of the noble river, 
and the richly cultured hills of Fife. The lover of flowers, 
of birds, of insects, or of varied and picturesque scenery, here 
found ample enjoyment ; and on the demolition of that bow- 
ery and blossmy path by the " quiet waters," not a few may 
have said with the poet, — 

" I never looked a last adieu 

To things familiar, but my heart 
Shrank with a feeling, almost pain, 
Even from their lifelessness to part." 

The following lines were suggested during an evening ram- 
ble on these braes, and to other visitors of the scenery, in 
whose minds similar thoughts have arisen, they may be ac- 
ceptable as a memorandum of the past : — 

THE STILLNESS OF A SUMMEK NIGHT, 

The moonbeams are sleeping on forest and hill, 
And the winds are at rest, and the waters are still ; 
Not a sound breaks the silence of nature so deep — 
Not a whisper is breathed that could ruffle her sleep. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 189 

Not a bird-warble rises among the green trees, 
Nor a sweet-murmured kiss of the leaves by the breeze; 
And the clouds that repose on the breast of the sky 
Are like isles all asleep in blue waters that lie. 

Not a dew-drop is heard from the rose-leaves to fall ; 
How profound is the quiet that broods over all ! 
And am I the sole spirit, that, watching, doth keep 
The eye from a slumber so potent and deep ? 

Ah, no ! there's an eye that for ever is bright — 
A spirit that sleeps not by day nor by night — 
An eye, whose wide glance can the universe trace — 
A spirit of love that is boundless as space ! 

On the flower-bosomed earth, in the star-spangled sky, 
And farther than light-pinioned fancy can fly, 
That spirit is felt like a life-giving flame — 
That bright eye is beaming for ever the same ! 

Then let me not deem, though all nature's asleep, 
That alone in the silence my vigils I keep ; 
For that eye on me smiling in goodness doth shine, 
And that spirit delights to hold converse with mine. 

0. latifolia, L, Marsh Orchis. H. 368, B. 291. — F. 
June. P. 

Moist woods and marshy places frequent, occasionally with 
white and rose-coloured flowers. 

O. maculata, L. Spotted palmate Orchis. H. 368, B. 
290.— F. June, July. P. 

Moist shady woods, marshy ground, and wet pastures, not 
uncommon, and frequently with white flowers. 

Gymnadenia, Br. Gymnadenia. 
Br. sp. l. F. ]. 
G. cojiopsea, Br. Fragrant Gymnadenia. H. 368, B. 
291.— F. June, July. P. (Orchis, L.) 

Plentiful on heaths, moors, and in woods, throughout the 
county, scenting the air with a powerful fragrance similiar to 
that of the Jonquil. It occurs with pale rose-coloured flowers, 
as in woods near Pitairlie Den, Avest from Monikie. 

Habenaria, Br. Habenaria. 
Br. sj>. and v. 4. F, 3. 
H. viridis, Br. Green Habenar, or Frog Orchis. H, 
369, B. 292.— F. June, July. P. (Satyrium, L. Peri- 
stylus, Lindl. Himantoglossum, Reich.) 



190 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Pastures frequent. Sands of Barrie, valleys of Clova, and 
Canlochen, and on the mountains to nearly their summits. 
Moors and grassy places at Dun, Craigo, and west from Ar- 
broath plentiful, Mr A. Croall. 

H. albida, Br. Small White Habenaria. H. 369, B. 
292. — F. June, July. P. [Gymnadenia albida, Rich., 
Bab. Satyrium, L. Orchis, Sm. Peristylus, Lindl.) 

Frequent in the Highland valleys, as Glen Clova. 

H. bifolia, Br. Butterfly Habenaria. H. 369, B. 292. 
■ — F. June, July. P. [Orchis bifolia, L. Platanthera bi- 
folia, Lindl.) 

Moors and moist woods frequent. 



Malaxis, Sw. Bog-orchis. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

M. paludosa, Sw. Bog-orchis. H. 372, B. 296.— F. 
Augt. Sept. P. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. Frequent in the valleys 
of Clova, Prof. Graham. Glen Phee, Prof. Balfour. A 
single specimen was picked by Dr Greville on the side of the 
hill above the Kirkton of Clova, August 1831. In consider- 
able abundance, a little higher up the Esk, on the opposite 
side to the Kirkton, 1831, Dr Barry, and Mr J. M'Nab. 

Obd. XCV.— IRIDEJE. 

Gen. Br. 3. F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 10 ? F. 1. 

Iris, L. Iris, or Flower-de-Luce. 

Br.sp. and v. 3. F. 1. 

I. Pseudo-acorus, L. Yellow Water Iris, or Yellow 
Flag. H. 373, B. 298.— F. May, July. P. 

Marshy pools, and by the sides of streams and lakes plen- 
tiful. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 191 

Ord. XCVI.-AMARYLLIDE.E. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. Br. 5. F. 3 . 

Narcissus, L. Daffodil. 

Br.sp.3. F. 2. 

N. Pseudo-narcissus, L. Common Daffodil. H. 376, B. 
299.— F. Mar. Apr. P. 

Woods at Kinaber, with Galanthus nivalis, both in pro- 
fusion, but neither perhaps indigenous, Mr A. Croall. 

This early favourite of the garden, that, as Shakspeare 
says, 

" ■ Comes before the swallow dares, 

And takes the winds of March with beauty," — 

has probably no claim to be considered a British plant, but is 
hardy and easily naturalized. Wordsworth once came upon 

" A host of golden daffodils, 
Beside the lake, beneath the trees, 
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze," 

and, after describing their appearance, he adds, — 

" The waves beside them danced ; but they 
Outdid the sparkling waves in glee: 
A poet could not be but gay, 
In such a jocund compatiy. 
I gazed — and gazed — but little thought 
What wealth the show to me had brought ; 
For oft, when on my couch I lie, 
In vacant, or in pensive mood, 
They flash upon that inward eye 
Which is the bliss of solitude; 
And then my heart with pleasure fills, 
And dances with the daffodils." 

N. poeticus, L. Narcissus of the Poets. H. 376, B. 299. 
— F. May. P. 

Den of Fullerton, but only a plant here and there, Mr A. 
Croall. 

It must be pleasant to meet in a wild spot with the 

" ■ Narcissus fair, 

As o'er the fabled fountain hanging still." 

but. like the former, it has the look of another clime. One 



192 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

is apt to think that the poets have done injustice to such a 
fair sweet flower, by making it the emblem of vanity ; for 
may not the unconquerable desire of Narcissus for contem- 
plating his own graceful features, reflected from the fountain, 
have arisen rather from that love of the beautiful inherent in 
the human mind, intensely excited, than from any vain or 
self-conceited notions ? The beauty of the flower tempts one 
to view the fable in this light. 

Galanthus, L. Snowdrop. 

Br.sp. 1. F.l. 

G. nivalis, L. Snowdrop. H. 378, B. 300.— F. Feb. 
Mar. P. 

This, 

" The first pale blossom of the unripen'd year," 

was found naturalized near Mains Castle, but, from altera- 
tions, now lost. Mr A. Croall finds it in woods near Kina- 
ber, and at the Upper Mills, &c, but does not think it really 
indigenous in these stations. 



Sub-Class. II.— GLUMACE^. 

Ord. xcviil— gramine^e. 

Gen. Br. (Hook. 41. Bab. 49.) F. 29. Sp. and v. {Hook. 151. Bab. 155.) 
-F. 94. 

Anthoxanthum, L. Vernal-grass. 

Br.sp.]. F.l. 

A. odorata, L. Sweet-scented Vernal-grass. H. 378, 
B. 356.— F. May, July. P. 

Plentiful from the coast to nearly 3000 feet on the Clova 
and Canlochen mountains. 

Nardus, L. Mat-grass. 
Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

N. stricta, L. Mat-grass. H. 379, B. 378.— F. June. 
P. 

Moors and heaths plentiful. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 193 

Alopecurus, L. Fox-tail-grass. 

Br. Sp. 6. F. 5. 

A. pratensis, L. Meadow Fox-tail-grass. II. 379, B. 
357. — F. May, June. P. 

Meadows, pastures, waysides, and woods, abundant. 

A. alpinus, Sm. Alpine Fox-tail-grass. H. 379, B, 
358.— F. July, Aug. P. 

Sides of streams among the Clova and Canlochen moun- 
tains frequent. Side of a stream descending from the Bassles 
into Glen Clova, rare, August 1842. Banks of Feula Burn 
above the falls, August 1842 ; more sparingly there July 
18-16. About water-falls, Loch Wharral, abundant, 1813 ; 
still plentiful, but little in flower, July 1846. Banks of the 
Glashie Burn, head of Caness, in abundance, and associated 
with Phleum alpinum. More or less plentiful about all the 
Canlochen streams. 

Prof. Balfour gathered this rare grass in the Loch Whar- 
ral station, (where it was first pointed out by Drummond to 
Sir TV. J. Hooker), in 1830 ; and also in immense profusion 
in marshy ground between Clova and Loch Lee, about two 
miles south from the head of the Loch ; as well as in several 
of the other stations mentioned above. Garry burn and Glen 
Phee, Clova, Mr White. Abundant on a stream leading in- 
to Glen Prosen from the hill to the south-west of the White 
Water, 1831, Dr Barry. 

A. agrestis, L. Slender Fox-tail grass. H. 380, B. 359. 
— F. June, July. A. 

Roadside between Rossie and the wood of Kinnoull, and on 
the old road leading to Marten's Den, Mr J. Cruhckskank. 
Dr Murray is of opinion that this grass is not indigenous : 
in the above stations it may be only naturalized. 

A. geniculatus, L. Floating Fox-tail-grass. H. 380, 
B. 358.— F. June, August. P.' 

Ditches and moist places, frequent. 

A.fulvus, Sm. Orange-spiked Fox-tail-grass. H. 380, 
B. 358.— F. June, July.' P. 

Angusshire, Hook, Br. Fl. 

1 



194 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Phalaris, L. Canary- Grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F . 1. 

P. arundinacea, L. Reed Canary-grass. H. 381, B. 
356. — F.June, Augt. P. (Baldingera, R.) 

Ditches and sides of lakes and streams frequent. 

Banks of the North and South Esk, Mr A. Croall. The 
var. /3 pic (a, with white -striped leaves, I have never noticed 
wild in this county, but it is common in gardens, bearing 
the name of" Gardeners'' Garters.'" 

Ammophila, Host. Sea-Reed. 

Br.sp.l.F. 1. 

A. arundinacea, Hort. Common Sea-reed, Marum, or 
Matweed. H. 381, B. 361.— F. July. P. (Arundo aren- 
aria, E. Bot. Ammophila armaria, Link., Bab. Psarkma 
arenaria, Beauv.) 

Very abundant on all sandy places along the coast, parti- 
cularly the sands of Barrie and Links of Montrose. It. 
is termed " Bent" and with Carex arenaria, and similar 
plants having extensively creeping roots, is valuable in bind- 
ing the loose sand, thereby preparing a soil for the growth of 
more useful vegetables. 

Phleum, L. Cat's-tail- Grass. 
Br. Sp. and v. 7. F. 5. 

P.pratense, L. Timothy- grass. H. 381, B. 357.— F. 
June. P. 

Fields and waysides, plentiful. 

/3. nodosum, L. Ninewells, Lawhill, Mains, &c. Mon- 
trose Links, Mr W. Smith. 

P. alpinum, L. Alpine Cat's-tail- grass. H. 382, B. 
357. F. July, Augt, P. 

Babington is inclined to coincide with Shuttleworth in 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 195 

considering our Scottish plant the P. commutatum of Gaudin, 
and distinct from the Lirmtean P. alpinum. In the numer- 
ous specimens gathered in Clova, Glen Isla, and Breadal- 
bane, I have found its height to vary from three to eighteen 
inches, and the spikes from half an inch to an inch and a-half 
in length. The awns are generally scabrous, but in some in- 
stances the scabrous processes towards their bases are so 
elongated as almost to become ciliae, so that some doubt is 
created as to whether Gaudin's plant is specifically different 
from P. alpinum, L. 

Plentiful on the banks of Feula Burn. Wash of the Cor- 
rie of Clova. The term " Wash" is applied in this district 
to those waterfalls that come down in a slanting manner over 
the rocks, washing them as it were with their foamy currents. 
The finest of these in Clova is the wash or Falls of Feula (pro- 
nounced Fi/alloch), which descends from the north side of 
Craig Maid into the White Water. Abundant in Canlochen 
Glen, and on the banks of the Glashie Burn at the head of 
Caness. 

Sides of the White Water a mile or two before it enters 
the head of Glen Dole in great quantity, moist rocks on the 
south side of Glen Phee, and rocks near Loch Brandy, Prof. 
Balfour. 

P. Michelii, All. Michelian Cat's-tail-grass. H. 382, B. 
357. — F. July, Augt. P. (Phalaris alpina, Heenke.) 

Rocky summits of the Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 

P. armarium, L. Sea Cat's-tail-grass. H. 382, B. 357- 
— F. June, July. A. [Phalaris arenaria, E. Bot.) 

Sands of Barrie, and Links of Montrose, frequent. 

Milium, L. Millet-Grass. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

M. effusum, L. Spreading Millet-grass. II. 383, B. 
359.— F. June. P. 

Not uncommon in the woods. Den of Airlie, abundant, 
Rev. J. S. Bart i/. 



196 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Calamagrostis, Adans. Small-Reed. 

Br. sp. 4. J". 1. 

C. stricta, Nutt. Narrow Small-reed. H. 385, B. 361. 
-^-F. June. P. (Arundo stricta, Schrad., Bab.) 

Discovered in the White Mire marsh, near Forfar, in 1807, 
by Mr G. Don, but subsequently the marsh was drained, and 
the plant lost there. Near Rescobie, Hook, Br. Fl. 

Agrostis, L. Bent-Grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 10. F. 6. 

A. canina, L. Brown Bent-grass. H. 385, B. 360. — F. 
June, Aug. P. (Trichodiwm» Schrad.) 

Mooryand heathy places, common. 

A. vulgaris, With. Fine Bent-grass. H. 386, B. 360. 
— F, June, Aug. P. 

Very abundant throughout the county in dry places. 

/S. aristata, Hook. (A. canina, With.) Clova mountains, 
frequent. 

y. pumila, Hook. (A. pximila, Lightf.) Glen Clova, 
plentiful by the waysides. 

A. alba, L. Marsh Bent-grass. H. 387, B. 360.— F. 
July, Aug. P. 

Banks of streams and wet places frequent. 

£. stolonifera, L. Between Broughty and Monifieth, and 
other places on the coast not uncommon. 

Catabrosa, Beauv. Whorl- Grass. 

Br.sp.andv.2. F.I? 

C. aquatica, Beauv. Water Whortl-grass. H. 387, B. 
366. — F. June, July. P. (Aira aquatica, L.) 

Plentiful near Restenet. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 19? 

Near Usan, Messrs Croall and M'Farlane. Near Montrose, 
Mr A. Kerr. Old Montrose, Mr J. Cruickshank. 



Aira, L. Hair-Grass. 

Br. Sp. and v. 0. F. 6. 

A. cristata, L. Crested Hair-grass. H. 388, B. 366. — 
F. June, July. P. (Koeleria cristata, Pers. Poa., L.) 

Sea-coast abundant, and extending to the mountain val- 
leys. From two to ten inches high, the spiked-panicle very 
variable in length. 

A. ccespitosa, L. Turfy Hair-grass. H. 388, B. 363. — 
F. June, Aug. P. (Deschampsia, Beauv.) 

Ditches and field borders common, and ascending to the 
summits of the mountains, where Mr G. Don has found it 
viviparous. It occurs from ten inches to between three and 
four feet high. 

A. alpina, L. Smooth Alpine Hair-grass. H. 388, B. 
363. — F. July, Aug. P. (Aira laevigata, E. Bot.) 

Clova mountains, not common. Rocks on the south side 
of Glen Dole, to the east of those on which Astragalus alpi- 
nus grows, Prof. Balfour. 

A.Jlexuosa, L. Waved Hair-grass. H. 389, B. 363. — 
F. July. P. 

Dry and moory ground common, from the coast to the 
summits of the mountains. 

A. caryophyllea,~L. Silvery Hair-grass. H. 389, B. 363. 
— F. May, July. P. (Avena, Koch.) 

Sides of fields on dry banks frequent, varying from two to 
twelve inches high. 

A.prcecox, L. Early Hair-grass. H. 389, B. 363.— 
F. Apr. June. P. (Avena, Koch.) 

Old walls, woods, and banks, frequent. Mr Croall justly 
observes that " this pretty little grass is very capricious in 



198 FLORA OF FOREAKSHIRJE. 

its habitat, often appearing in woods where the trees have 
been cut down, and in spots where the turf has been pared, 
but seldom reappearing in the same places the following sea- 
son." 

Melica, L. Melic- Grass. 
Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 4. 

M. nutans, L. Mountain Melic-grass. II. 389, B. 366. 
— F. May, June. P. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. Den of Airlie, on the left 
bank of the Isla, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

M. unifiora, L. Wood Melic-gras3. H. 390, B. 366. 
— F. May, July. P. 

Den of Airlie, in several places. Near Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

M. ccerulea, L. Purple Melic-grass. H. 390, B. 366. 
— F. July, Aug. P. (Molinia ccerulea, Mcench., Bab.) 

Wet and moory places, particularly among the hills and 
mountains. 

/S. alpina, Hook. (M. alpina, Don. M. depauperate/, 
Lindl.) 

On moist rocks, White Water, near the top of the ravine, 
above the falls. 

On rocks to the west of Glen Phee, and on the south side 
of Canlochen Glen, Prof. Balfour. 

Holcus, L. Soft-Grass. 
Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

H. mollis, L. Creeping Soft-grass. H. 390, B. 385.— 
F. July. P. 

Waysides, common, Mr A. Croall. 

H. lanatus, L. Meadow Soft-grass. H. 390, B. 365, — 
F. July. P. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 199 

Meadows, pastures, and waysides, abundant, from the coast 
To the mountain valleys. 

Arrhenatiierum, Becmv. Oat-like-Grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 2. 

A. avenaceum, Beauv. Common Oat-like-grass. H. 391, 
B. 365. — F. June, July. P. (Holcus avenaceus, Scop. 
A 'vena elatior, L.) 

This and var. /3. nodosum, Bab. (A. bulbosum, Dunal, 
and Lindl.) are common by waysides, on ditch banks, &c. 

Hierochloe, Gmel. Holy- Grass. 

Br. sp. 1 . F. 1. 

H. borealis, R. and S. Northern Holy-grass. H. 391, 
B. 356. — F. May, July ? P. [Holcus odoratus, L. Hol- 
cus borealis, Schrad.) 

Glen Cally, Mr G. Don. No other botanist, perhaps, 
has found this grass in the locality named, which is a long nar- 
row valley descending from the high mountains near the head 
of Caness into Glen Isla. It does not grow about the head 
of the glen, which was carefully examined in July 1843. 

PoA,i. Meadow-Grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 27. F. 16. 

P. aquatica, L. Reed Meadow-grass. H. 393, B. 369. — 
F. July. P. {Glyceria aquatica, Sm., Bab. Hyclrochloa, 
Hartm., Lindl.) 

Banks of the Carrity near Cortachy. Margin of a pool 
between Broughty and Monifieth. By the side of Forfar Lake, 
&c. 

F.fluitans, Scop. Floating Meadow-grass. H. 393, B 
369. — F. June, August. P. (Glyceria jiuitans, Br., Bab 
Fcstuca, L.) 

Wet and marshy places common. 

P. maritima, Huds. Creeping Sea Meadow-grass. H. 



200 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

393, B. 370.— F. June, Aug. P. (Sclerochloa, LindL, 
Bab. Glyceria, Sm.) 

Plentiful along the coast. 

P. distans, L. Beflexed Meadow-grass. H. 394, B. 
370. — F. June, Aug. P. (Sclerochloa distans, Rah.) 

Pool of salt water near Bedhead, Rev. J. 0. Haldane, and 
Rev. J. S. Barty. 

P. procitmbens, Curt. Procumbent Sea Meadow-grass. 
H. 394, B. 370.— F. June, Aug. A. (Sclerochloa, Beauv., 
LindL, Bab. Glyceria, Sin.) 

Near Wormiehills, Mr G. Don. Sea-side about Mon- 
trose, Mr A. Kerr. 

P . rigida,V. Hard Meadow-grass. H. 394, B. 370.— 
F. June. A. (Sclerochloa, Link., LindL, Bab., &c. Gly- 
ceria, Sm.) 

Ninewells. Sea-shore between Arbroath and East Haven, 
Mr John Lainy. 

P. compressa,Jj. Flat-stemmed Meadow-grass. H. 394, 
B. 368.— F. June, July. P. 

Not uncommon on wall -tops and dry places. 

P. alpina, L. Alpine Meadow-grass. H. 395, B. 36.9. 
— F. July, Aug. P. 

Bocks among the mountains of Clova and Canlochen, gen- 
erally viviparous, especially on those of Clova. It has estab- 
lished itself on some parts of the Isla as far south as the Den 
of Airlie, where the Rev. J. S. Barty finds it "plentiful 
along the verge of the stream," and remarks that there " it 
is never viviparous as upon the Esk." 

/3. glomerata occurs on the banks of the Esk, according to 
Mr G. Bon, and the stations given in his Herbarium, in the 
possession of the Rev. J. S. Barty, are " Corbie Craig near 
Tannadice, and Bocks near Forfar." 

P. laxa, Hsenk. Wavy Meadow-grrass. LI. 395, B. 369. 
— F. July. P. (P.Jlexuosa, E. Bob.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 201 

Clova mountains, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drummond, 
Bon. Glen Dole, Aug. 1846, with var. flexuosa, Parn., 
Prof. Balfour. 

P. trivialis, L. Boughish Meadow-grass. H. 395, B. 
367.— F.June, July. P. 

P. pratensis, L. Smooth-stalked Meadow-grass. H. 
396, B. 367.— F. June, July. P. 

Both species abundant in pastures, by waysides, and in 
woods. 

P. pratensis, y. subccerulea. (P. humilis, Ehrh. P. 
subccerulea, E. Bot.) 

On old walls and banks frequent. 

P. annua, L. Annual Meadow-grass. H. 396, B. 369. 
— F. nearly the whole year. 

Common every where from the sea-margin to the moun- 
tain-summits. 

P. nemoralis, L. Wood Meadow-grass. H. 396, B. 
367.— F. June, July. P. 

Frequent in woods and on shady banks. 

/3. glauca, Hook. (P. glauca and P. caisia, Sm.) 

Clova and Canlochen mountains, plentiful. 

P. Balfourii, Parn. Balfour's Meadow-grass. B. 367. 
— F. July. P. 

Near the Falls of the White Water, Clova, and Glen Isla, 
Prof. Balfour. 

Triodia, Br. Heath-grass. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

T. decumbens, Beauv. Decumbent Heath-grass. H.397, 
P. 365. — F. July, Aua. P. (Poa decumbens, E. Bot. 
Danthonia decu>nbens, DC. Festwa, L.) 

Sidlaw Hills. Glen Clova. Canlochen, frequent. 

i2 



'202 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Briza, L. Quaking-Grass. 

Br. sp.2. F.l. 

B. media, L. Common Quaking-grass. H.397, B. 371- 
— F. June, July. P. 

Frequent throughout the county, from the coast to the 
mountains. 

Dactylis, L. Cock's-foot-Grass. 

Br.sp.l. F.l. 

D. glomerate/,, L. Rough Cock's-foot-Grass. H. 397, 
B. 371.— F. June, July. P. 

Very abundant by waysides, margins of fields, woods, &c. 
Cynosurus, L. Dog's-tail-grass. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

, C. cristatus, L. Crested Dog's-tail-grass. H. 398, B. 
371.— F. July, Aug. P. 

Pastures and waysides, plentiful. 

Festuca, L. Fescue-grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 15. F . 11. 

F. ovina, L. Sheep's Fescue-grass. H. 398, B. 372. — 
F. June, Aug. P. 

The most abundant grass on the mountains, forming the 
chief part of the pasturage, and frequent from their summits 
to the sea-shore. The varieties are frequent : /3. rubra and 
§. tenuifolia are common on the Sands of Bari'ie, &c. <y. 
cceria occurs in woods, snd e. vivipara is plentiful on the 
mountains. 

F. duriuscula, L. Hard Fescue-grass. H. 399, B. 372. 
' — F, June, July. P. (F. ovina, 8. duriuscula, Bab.) 

Waysides near Montrose, north from Newbigging, Mr A. 
Croall. Near the Inch Bridge, Mr J. Cruickshank. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 203 

F. rubra, L. Creeping Fescue-grass. II. 399, B. 372. 
— F. June July. P. (F. duriuscula, Parn.) 

Plentiful on the sea-shore from Broughty to Arbroath, and 
frequent on the mountain rocks of Clova. 

F. bromoides, L. Barren Fescue-grass. H. 399, B. 372. 
— F. June, July. A. ? 

East from the Old Bottle-work, Dundee, Rev. J. 0. Hal- 
ftone, and Rev. J. S. Barty. Not unfrequent, but very ca- 
pricious in its appearance, showing itself occasionally where 
the ground has been abraided, but soon giving way to more 
permanent species, Mr A. Croall. 

F. Myurus, L. Wall Fescue-grass. H. 399, B. 372.— 
F. June, July. A. (F. bromoides, L. /3. nana, Parn. 

Babington considers it not the true plant of L.) 

Found in the county by Mr G. Don. 

F. loliacea, Huds. Spiked Fescue-grass. II. 400, B. 
373. — F. June, July. P. (Babington is disposed to think 
this merely a form of the following.) 

Observed, though sparingly, by Mr G. Don. 

F. elatior, L. Tall Fescue-grass. II. 400, B. 373.— F. 
June, Aug. P. (F. pratensis, Huds. Sehenodorus, 
Lindl.) 

Fiequent by the sides of streams, and in woods. 

Bromus, L. Brome-grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 17. F. 9. 

Yy.glgante.us, Vill. Tall Brome-grass. II. 401, B. 373. 
— F. June. (Festuca qigantea, E. Bot., Bab. Bucetum, 
Pain. 

Will's Braes, near the east end. Near Forfar, Mr G. 
Don. He also mentions /3. triflorus (Festuca trijlora, E. 
Bot.) as vare, by the sides of rivers, but no river or station is 
specified. 

B. asper. L. Hairy Wood Brome grass. II. 401, B. 
373.— F. June, July. A. ? or B. ? 



204 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Near Montrose, Mr A. Kerr. Den of Full'erton, and 
Burn, Mr A. Croall. 

B. sterilis, L. Barren Brome-grass. H. 401, B. 374. — 
F. June, Aug. A. 

Not uncommon by waysides to the east and west of Dun- 
dee. 

Near Langley gate on the Brechin road, Mr A. Kerr. 

B. mollis, L. Soft Brome-grass. H. 402, B. 375.— F. 
May, June. A. ? or B. ? (Serrafalcus, Pari., Bab.) 

Abundant from the sea-shore to the mountains. 

B. racemosus, L. ? Smooth Brome-grass. H. 402, B. 
375.— F. June, July. A. ? or B ? (Serrafalcus, Pari, 
Bab.) 

Waysides and waste places, frequent, often confounded 
with the above, from which it is scarcely distinct. 

B. arvensis, L. Taper Field Brome-grass. H. 403, B. 
375.— F. June, July. A. 

Wayside near Marykirk, and in a field by the side of the 
road leading south from the Upper North Water Bridge (on 
the North Esk), Mr A. Croall. 

B. velufiniis, Schrad. Downy Rye Brome-grass. H. 
402, B. 375.— F. June, July. A. ( B. muliiflorus, E. 
Bot. Serrafalcus mollis fi. velutinus, Bab.) 

B. commutatus , Schrad. Tumid Field Brome-grass. H. 
402, B. 374.— F. June, July. A. (B. pratensis, E. Bot, 
B. arvensis, Parn. Serrafalcus, Pari., Bab.) 

B. secalinus, L. Smooth Rve Brome-grass. H. 403, B. 
374.— F. July, Aug. A. (Serrafalcus, Pari., Bab.) 

These three species are enumerated by Mr G. Don as na- 
tives of the county, but no stations pointed out. 

A vena, L. Oat, or Oat- grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 5. 

A. strigosa, Schrad. Bristle-pointed Oat. H. 40-i, B. 
364.— F. June, Sept. A. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 205 

Montrose Links, Mr A. Croall. 

A. pratensis, L. Narrow-leaved Oat-grass. H. 404, B. 
364. -F. June, July. P. 

Reeky Linn and Clova. Banks of the North Esk, Mr A. 
Croall. 

A. alpina, Sm. Great Alpine Oat-grass. H. 404, B. 
365.— F. July. P. 

Rocks of Clova and Canlochen, frequent. Probably a 
mere var. of A. pratensis. 

A. pubescens, L. Downy Oat-grass. H. 405, B. 365. — 
F. June, July. P. {Triselum pubescens. Pers.) 

Rocks at Dysart, Mr A. Croall. 

A. fiavescens, L. Yellow Oat-grass. H. 405, B. 365. — 
F. July. P. (Trisetum fiavescens, Beauv., Bab.) 

Found in the county by Mr G. Don, but no station indi- 
cated. 

Arundo, L. Reed. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. .F. 1. 

A. Phragmites, L. Common Reed. H. 405, B. 362. — - 
F. July, Aug. P. {Phragmites communis, Trim, Bab.) 

Rescobie and Forfar Lakes, plentiful. 
Lunan, Littlemill, &c, Mr A. Croall. 

Elymus, L. Lyme-grass. 
Br. sp. 3. F.l. 

E. arenarius, L. Upright Sea Lyme-grass. H. 406, B. 
377-— F. July. P. 

Plentiful in several places on the sea-coast, as between 
Broughty and Monifieth, near Carnoustie, Lunan Bay, Mon- 
trose Links, &c. 



208 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Hordeum, L. Barley. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 2. 

H. murinum, L. Wall Barley. H. 407, B. 378.— F. 
July, Aug. A. 

Plentiful along the coast. 

H. maritimum, With. Sea-side Barley. H. 407, B. 378. 
F. July. P. 

On the coast. 

TriticuMj L. Wheat, or Wheat-grass. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 4. 

T. canhium, Huds. Fibrous-rooted Wheat-grass. F. 
July. P. (Elymus, L.) 

T. repens, L. Couch-grass. F. June, Auv. P. H. 408, 
B. 376. 

Both common by the sides of fields, and in waste places. 

T.junceum, L. Bushy Sea Wheat-grass. H. 408, B. 
376.— F. June, July. P. 

Sands of Barrie, and other parts of the coast, frequent. 

T. cristatum, Schreb. Crested Wheat-grass. H. 408, 
B. 376.— F. July. P. 

" On steep banks and rocks by the sea-side between Ar- 
broath and Montrose," Mr G. Don, who alone has found it. 

Brachypodium, Beauv. False Brome-grass. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 1. 

B. sylvaticum, Beauv. Slender False Brome-grass. II. 
409, B. 375.— F. July, Sept. P. {Festuca, Sm. Bro- 
mus, Poll.) 

Shady places, Will's Braes, &c. 

Near Usan, Mr A. Kerr. Dysart, Redhead, and inland, 
as at the Burn and Edzell Castle, Mr A. Croall. 



FLORA Of FORFARSHIRE. 207 

Lolium, L, Darnel. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 3. 

L. perenne, L. Perennial Darnel, or Rye-grass. H. 409, 
B. 376.— F. June, Aug. P. 

Waysides frequent, from the coast to the mountain- valleys. 

L. malt '/forum, Lam. Annual Many-flowered Rye -grass. 
H. 409, B. 377.— P. June. A. 

Fields occasionally. 

L. femulentum, L. Bearded Darnel. H. 410, B. 377- — 
F. July, Aug. A. 

Found by Mr G. Bon. 



Ord. XCIX.-CYPERACE^E. 

Gen. Br. 10. F. 7. Sp. and v. Br. {Hook. 98. Bab. 108.J F. 64. 

(Cladium Mariscus, Br. teas one of our county plants, be- 
ing found at Restenet by Mr G. Don, but now lost by drain- 
ing operations.) 

Rhynchospora, Vahl. Beak-rush. 

Br.sp.2. F.l. 

R. alba, Vahl. White Beak-rush. PL 414, B. 328.-- 
F. June, Aug. P. (Schcenus alba, L.) 

Near Rescobie, Prof. Balfour. 

Scirpus, L. Club-rush. 

Br. sp. and v. 16. F. 5. 

S. lacustris, L. Lake Club-rush, or Bull-rush. II. 415, 
B. 330.— F. June, Aug. 

Lakes of Forfar, Rescobie, Balgavies, &c, abundant. 

/3. glaucus (S. glaucus, E. Bot. S. Taberncemontani, 
G-mel.) is found with the other at Forfar and Balgavies, and 
by Mr Croall on the west side of the Montrose Basin, and 



208 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Mr Bousie a little below the Bridge of Dun on the banks of 
the South Esk. 

S. setaceus, L. Bristle-stalked Club-rush. H. 415, B. 
332. -F. July, Aug. P. (Isolepis setacea, Br.) 

In wet and marshy places, frequent. 

S. maritimus, L. Salt-marsh Club-rush. H. 416, B. 
329.— F. July. P. 

Invergowrie Bay, and other places along the coast. 
Montrose Basin, Messrs Kerr, G'roall, and Bousie. 

S. sylvaticus, L. Wood Club-rush. H. 416, B. 330.— 
F. July. P. 

On both sides of the South Esk, between Brechin and 
Montrose, frequent, Mr A. Bousie. Banks of the North 
Esk, a furlong or two below Marten's Den, and at the bridge 
on Vinney Water, Mr A. Croall. 

Blysmus, Panz. Blysmus. 
Br.sp.2. F.l. 

B. rufus, Link. Narrow-leaved Blysmus. H. 417, B. 
333. — F. July. P. (Schcenus, E. Bot. Scirpus, Schrad.) 

Banks of Montrose Basin, Messrs Croall and Laing. 
West from Ferryden, &c. Messrs Kerr and Croall. 

Eleocharis, Br. Spike-rush. 

Br. sp. 7. F. 5. 

E. palustris, Br. Creeping Spike-rush. H. 417, B. 329. 
F. June, July. P. (Scirpus, L.) 

Common in marshy places. 

E. multicaulis, Sm. Many-stalked Spike-rush. H. 417, 
B. 329. — F. July. P. (Scirpus, Sm. S. palustris, /8. 
Linn. Lapp. ed. 2d.) 

Banks of Forfar Lake, &c. 

E. pauciflora, Link. Chocolate-headed Spike-rush. H. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. i09 

418, B. 331. — F. June, Aug. P. (Scirpus pauciflorus, 
Liglitf. S. BwothryOn, Ehrh.) 

Moist ground on the Sands of Barrie, particularly abun- 
dant in a spot immediately to the west ot the old fir wood. 
Hare Craigs, west end. 

Moors of Guthrie, Mr A. Croall. Bcscobie, Balgavies, 
and Monroman Moor, Mr J. Gruickshank. Near the Kirk- 
ton of Clova, Mr H. C. Watson. 

E. ccespitosa, Link. Scaly-stalked Spike-rush. H. 418, 
B. 331. — F. June, Aug. P. (Scirpus carspitosus, L., 
Bab.) 

Abundant on moory places on the hills and mountains, 
known by the name of " deer's- hair." 

E. fluitans, Hook. Floating Spike-rush. H. 419, B. 
332. — F. June, July. P. (Scirpus fluitans, L. Isolepis, 
Br. Eleogiton, Link.) 

Found in the county by Mr G. Don, likely in some of the 
lakes. 

Eriophorum, L. Cotton-grass. 
Br. sp. and v. 8. F. 6. 

E. alpinum, L. Alpine Cotton-grass. H. 419, B. 333. 
— F. June. P. 

This can only be recorded as a former native of the county, 
the Moss of Bestenet, where it was originally discovered by 
Air Brown and Mr G. Don, being long since drained. 

E. vaffinaturri, L. Hare's-tail Cotton- Grass. H. 419, B. 
333.— F. May, June. P. 

Bogs and moist heaths, abundant on the bills and moun- 
tains to their summits. 

E. polystachion, L. Broad-leaved Cotton-grass. H. 240, 
B. 333. — F. May, June. P. (E. polystachion, y. elatius, 
Koch., Bab.) 

Frequent in bogs. 

E. pubescens, Sm. Downy-stalked Cotton-grass. H. 420, 
B. 334.— F. May, June. P. 



210 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

In a marsh a short distance below the foot of Glen Dole, 
Clova, Mr A. Croall. 

E. angustifolium, Roth. Common Cotton-grass. H. 
420, B. 333. (E. polystachion, L., Bab.) 

More common than the last, and in boggy places, ascend- 
ing to nearly 3000 feet. 

E. gracile, Roth ? Slender Mountain Cotton-grass. H. 

420, B. 334.— F. July. P. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. It is doubtful whether 
Don's plant is identical with that of Roth, or merely a slen- 
der state of E. angustifolium, common on the mountains. 

Carex, L. Carex, or Sedge. 
Br. sp. and v. (Hook. 65. Bab. 72.) F. 48. 

C. dioica, L. Creeping Separate-headed Carex. II. 

421, B. 334. F. May, June. P. 

Dun's Dish, Mr J. Cruickshank. In a springy spot at the 
foot of Marten's Den, north side, margin of the stream, Mr 
Croall. 

C. pulicaris, L. Flea Carex. H. 421, B. 335.— F. May, 
June. P. 

In wet places, from the coast, as at Hare Craigs, to shel- 
ving rocks high on the mountains. A tall slender form oc- 
curs in Baldovan Woods. 

C. rupestris, All. Rock Carex. H. 421, B. 335.— F. 
July, Aug. P. (C. petrcea, Wahl. C. attenuata, Br.) 

Glen Dole, Clova, abundant, Aug. 1846, the specimens 
unusually large, Prof. Balfour. 

C. pauciflora, Lightf. Few-flowered Carex. H. 422, 
B. 335.— F. June, July. P. (C. leucoglochin, Ehrh.) 

Clova mountains, sparingly, Mr G. Don. 

C. incurva, Lightf. Curved Carex. H. 422, B. 335.— 
F. May, June. P. (C. juncifolia, All.) 

Sea-shore, in several places between Monifieth and Bud- 
don Burn. 



FLORA OF EORFARSH1RE. 211 

Near tJsan, Messrs Kerr and Croall. 

C. stellulata, Good. Little Prickly Carex. II. 422, B. 
338.— F. May, June. P. 

Common in wet and marshy places from the coast to the 
mountains. 

C. ovalis, Good. Oval-spiked Carex. H. 422, B. 339. 
— F. July, Aug. P. 

Wayside near Bradooney, and near the Kirkton, Glen 
Clova, and near the shieling of Canlochen, at the foot of 
Mbnega. 

Rescobie, and ditch on the farm of Cothills, Guthrie, Mr 

A. Croall 

C. curia, Good. White Carex. II. 423, B. 339.— F. 
June. Aug. P. 

Marshy banks of Rescobie Lake, and among the Clova 
mountains, as on the Bassies, and above the Falls of Feula, 
from six inches to a loot high, the stems usually reclining. A 
small state frequent on the mountains is perhaps /3. alpicola, 
Wahl. 

C. intermedia, Good. Soft Brown Carex. H. 424, B. 
336.— F. June, Augt. P. 

Marshy banks of the Lakes of Rescobie and Balgavies, 
plentiful. 

Marshes near Montrose, and foot of Marten's Den, Mr A. 
Croall. Banks of the North Esk near Logie, Mr G. M' Far- 
lane. 

C. arenaria, L. Sea Carex. H. 424, B. 336. — F. June, 
July. P. 

Abundant on the coast on sandy downs. Its creeping 
roots (or perhaps underground stems) often extend in straight 
lines for three or four yards, throwing up flower-stems at 
intervals of a few inches, and frequently intersecting one 
another in such a manner as to form a net- work admirably 
adapted, with the intermixture of other plants, for binding 
the loose sand. 

C. divisa, Huds. Bracteated Marsh Carex. H. 424, 

B. 335.— F. May, June. P. 



112 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Wayside between Montrose and the North Water Bridge 
Mr G. Don. 6 

C. vulpina, L. Great Carex. H. 424, B. 336.— F. 
June. P. (C. nemorosa, Willd.) 

In a small den, banks of the Tay, at Will's Braes, now 
destroyed. 

Sea shore a little to the westward of Usan, and in a ditch 
near Rossie cottages, on the banks of Montrose Basin, Mr A. 
Croall. 

C. teretiuscula, Good. Lesser Panicled Carex. H. 425, 
B. 337— F. June. P. 

C. paniculate/,, L. Great Panicled Carex. H. 425, B. 
337.— F. June, July. P. 

Both plentiful on the marshy banks of Rescobie Lake ; 
and the latter, Mr J. Laing, found in a bog near Kinnaird. 

C. Vahlii, Schkh. Close-headed Alpine Carex. H. 425, 
B. 339.— F. Augt. P. (C. alpina Vahl.) 

Rare. Glen Phee, Clova, Prof. Balfour. 

C. atrata, L. Black Carex. H. 426, B. 340.— F. June, 
July. P. 

Rocks of Glen Dole and Canlochen, abundant. Spikes 
three to five, more or less approximate. 

C. Gooclenovii, Gay. Goodenow's Carex. H. 426, B. 
340. — F. May, July. P. (C. ccespitosa, Hook., Sm., Koch., 
&c. — not L.) 

In marshy places from the coast to the summits of the 
mountains. In specimens gathered from drains on the Sands 
of Barrie, many had no sterile spike, but the upper half of 
the highest, the third or fourth, was furnished with sterile 
flowers. In one specimen the lower spike was supported 
upon a stalk five inches long, with a bract the size of an ordi- 
nary leaf. 

C. rigida, Good. Rigid Carex. II. 426, B. 341.— F. 
June, July. P. (C. ccespitosa, /3. Hook. Scot. C. saxa- 
tilis, Schk.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 213 

On and near the summits of the mountains, rarely de- 
scending below 2000 leet. 

C. aquaiilis, Wahl. Straight-leaved Water Carex. H. 
427, B. 341— F. July, Augt. P. (C. rigida, /3. Hook. 
Br. Fl. ed. 2d.) 

Wet and marshy places on the table- lands of the Clova and 
Canlochen mountains, abundant; as banks of Feula Burn, 
foot of the Little Culrannoch, bog at the head of Glen Phee, 
banks of the Glashie Burn, and bog at the head of Canlochen, 
where it was first detected, with C. rarijlora, by H. C. 
Watson, Esq. 

H. elatior, Bab. B. 341. Banks of the South Esk, about 
half-way up Glen Clova, and at a short distance below the 
Inn. Two to three feet high. 

C. acuta, L. Slender-spiked Carex. H. 427, B. 341.— 
F. June, Augt. P. (C. gracilis, Curt.) 

Near Tealing, on the old Glammis road, rare. 
Marten's Den, and ditch a little to the south of the old 
church of Logie, Mr A. Croall. 

C. ccespitosa, L. Tufted Bog Carex. H. 427, B. 341. — 
F. June, Augt. P. (C. stricta, Good.) 

Plentiful in marshy ground on the summits of the Clova 
and Canlochen mountains. 

C. saxatilis, L. Russet Carex. H. 428, B. 342. — F. 
June, July. P. (C. pidla, Good.) 

Clova, Prof. Balfour. 

C.flava, L. Yellow Carex. H. 428, B. 342.— F. May, 
July. P. 

Wet places common, varying from one inch in height on 
the Sands of Barrie, to a foot on wet shelving rocks among 
the Clova mountains. A specimen picked on the Bassies, 
Clova, one foot high, had four fertile spikes, the three upper 
approximate, the lower fully two inches distant, with a long 
peduncle half included in its sheath, and the foliaceous bract 
overtopping the other spikes. The sterile one had an acute 
apex, and was almost sessile. On the banks of Rescobie 
Lake it occurs sixteen inches high, with the fertile spikes 



214 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

from half an inch to three inches distant from each other, and 
the sterile spike very distinctly stalked. 

C. (Ederi, Ehrh. (Ederian Carex. H. 428, B. 342.— 

F. May, June. P. (C. flava 0. Hook. Scot. C. ftava, p. 
(Ederi, Bab.) 

In wet places, but often confounded with the last very 
variable species, from which it is scarcely distinct. 

Bescobie and Bal^'avies, and marsh S.E. from Dun's Dish, 
Mr A. Croall. Moor of Edzell, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

C. fulva, Good. Tawny Carex. H. 429, B. 343.— F. 
June. P. 

Dun's Dish, and at the Burn. Mr J. Cruickshank . Guthrie 
Moors, &c, Mr A. Croall. 

C. pallescens, L. Pale Carex. H. 429, B. 343.— F. 
June, July. P. 

Not unfrequent in wet places in the Highland valleys. 
Pools sea-shore, near Usan, Mr A. Croall. 

C. distans, L. Loose Carex. H. 430, B. 343. — F. May, 
June. P. 

Sea-shore, Dysart, Mr John Laing. To the west of Usan, 
Mr A. Croall. Between Montrose and Usan, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. Montrose Basin, Mr G. M'Farlane. 

C. bimrvis, Sm. Green-ribbed Carex. H. 430, B. 344. 
— F. June, July. P. 

Moory ground frequent. Abundant on the Sidlaw Hills 
and Clova mountains. 

Bossie Moor, Edzell, and Caterthun, Mr A. Croall. 

C. panicea, L. Pink-leaved Carex. H. 430, B. 344. — 
F. June. P. 

Marshy places frequent. 

C. phwostachya, Sm. Short Brown-spiked Carex. II . 
430, B. 344.— F. July. P. (C. vaginata, Tausch., Bab. 
C. salina, Don. C. Mielichqferi, Sm. C. Scotica, Spreng. 
C. panicea, /3. Wahl.) 

About the Falls, head of Glen Phee, and in the ravine of 
the White Water, sparingly. 



FLORA Of FORFARSHIRE. 215 

C. depauperata, Good. Starved Wood Carex. II. 431, 
B. 345.— F. June. P. 

Near Forfar, Hook. Br. Fl. 

C. capillaris, L. Dwarf Capillary Carex. IT. 431, B. 
345.— F. June, July. P. 

Growing in tufts, from three to nine incites high, in marshy 
places and on wet rocks in Glen Dole and Glen Canlochen, 
plentiful. 

C. limosa, L. Mud Carex. II. 431, B. 345.— F. June, 
P. 

Marsh between the Lakes of Ilescobie and Balgavies, Dr 
William Reid. 

" Dr Beid is the son of Captain Beid, shipowner, Mon- 
trose. From his mother he seems to have inherited a strong 
predilection for the beauties of Nature, to the study of which 
he devoted his ardent and enthusiastic mind with a success 
seldom surpassed. He studied for the medical profession, 
and after obtaining his degrees, engaged to accompany some 
whalers on an expedition to the South Sea Islands. After 
spending three years among these island gems, he returned 
to his native home. But his eager mind soon yearned to 
enjoy again the glories of the sunny south in that paradise 
of Flora; and after some difficulty, he obtained permission 
from the Spanish Government to settle in one of the Spice 
Islands, to which he has returned, to seek fortune and fame, 
and it is hoped his unwearied perseverance will meet with an 
adequate reward." Mr A. Croall. 

C. rarijlora, Sm. Loose-flowered Alpine Carex. II. 
431, B. 345.— F. July. P. (C. limosa, y . Wahl.) 

Bog at the head of Gleu Dole, plentiful. The exnct 
station is a little to the west of a rock which appears con- 
spicuous from the shieling of Lunkar, and about half-way 
between the rock at the head of the ravine of the White 
Water and the " sky-ripgin," or boundary of vision towards 
the hill top to S.W., the shieling bearing E.N.E. This is 
the station where it was originally discovered, and few bota- 
nists visiting the district care for coming away without a. 
sample of it from that spot where so often it has been eaoerly 
sought for by many an ardent lover of Flora. Economising of 



216 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

time being indispensable in these mountain rambles, it is desir- 
able to have a definite direction to any particular locality, and 
if the above is adhered to, no one can fail to find this station. 
Bog on the south-east side of the Little Culrannoch, near 
to where the Culrannoch and Feula Burns join, plentiful, and 
associated with C. aquatilis. Bog at the head of Canlochen, 
between that and Glen Callater, abundant. 

C. st/lvatica, Huds. Pendulous Wood Carex. H. 432, 
B. 346.— F. May, June. P. 

Wood near Forfar, Dr W. Reid. 

C. recurva, Huds. Glaucous Heath Carex. H. 433, B. 
348.— F. June. P. (C. glauca, Scop., Bab.) 

From the coast to the mountains, frequent, and very vari- 
able in size. 

/3. (C. Micheliana, Sm.) and y. (C. stictocarpa, Sm.)were 
found on the Clova mountains by Mr G. Lon, but are con- 
sidered by some scarcely distinct even as varieties. 

C. precox, Jacq. Vernal Carex. PI. 433, B. 347. — F. 
April, May. P. 

Frequent on dry banks. 

C. pilulifera, L. Bound-headed Carex. PL 433, B. 347. 
— F. May, June. P. (C. montana, L.) 

Old wall Baldovan Woods, and in various places on the 
Sidlaw Hills. Rocks near Craig Wharral and on the Bassies, 
Clova. 

Moors of Dun, Craigo, &c, Mr A. Croall. 

C. filiformis, L. Slender-leaved Carex. H. 434, B. 
348.— F." May, June. P. 

Marshy hanks of Rescobie Lake, not common ; first dis- 
covered there by Prof. Balfour. Fertile spikes one to three, 
though generally two. 

C. hirta, L. Hairy Carex. II. 434, B. 348.— F. May, 
June. P. 

Banks of the North Esk and Balgavies Lake, Mr A. 
Croall. 



FLORA OF FORt'ARSIIIRF.. 217 

C. (impullacea, Good. Slender-beaked Buttle Carex. 
H. 434, B. 349.— F. June, July. P. 

Marshes and by sides of streams, plentiful. Rescobie, 
Sidlaws, Clova, &c. 

C. hordeiformis, Walil. Barley Carex. II. 435, B. 348. 
— F. June. P. (C. secalina, Sm., not Willd.) 

" Small valley about three miles west of Panmure," Mr 
T. Drummond. 

A day in June, 1846, was entirely devoted to searching 
tor the locality of this rare plant, without success. Every 
little hollow, nook, and crannie, in the direction indicated, 
was carefully examined, enquiries made about such a spot at 
many residents of the district, and the Den of Pitairlie ex- 
plored from one end to the other, but no trace of the Barley 
Carex met with. Some future search may prove more for- 
tunate, if, in these days of alteration and improvement, the 
station may not be destroyed. 

C. paludosa, Good. Lesser Common Carex. II. 435. 
B. 349.— F. May, June. P. (C. acuta, Curt.) 

Marshy places, frequent. 

C. riparia, Curt. Great Common Carex. H. 485. B. 
349.— F. April, May. P. (C. acuta, Huds.) 

Logie, near Montrose, Mr G. M'Farlane. Lakes of Res- 
cobie and Balgavies, Mr A. Croall. 

(C. remota, Icevigata, pendvla, sylvatica, and pallescenf;, 
are mentioned being found in fir-woods near Forfar, by 
JIG. Bon.) 



218 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

CLASS III.— ACOTYLEDONES, CELLULAR, OR 
CRYPTOGAMIC PLANTS. 

Okd. I.-FILICES. 
Subord. I. — PolypodiacejE. True Ferns. 

Gen. Br. 16. F. 12. Sp. and v. Br. 49. F. 29. 

Polypodium, L. Polypody. 

Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 8. 

P. vulgare, L. Common Polypody. H. 437, B. 383, 
N. 20. 

Common on old walls, in woods, rocky dens, &c. very va- 
riable in size. The sori, though generally confined to the 
upper part of the frond, are frequently dispersed over the 
whole of the pinnae. 

P. Phrgopteris, L. Pale Mountain Polypody. H. 437, 
B. 384, N.24. 

Near waterfalls, sides of streams, rocky places, and by way- 
sides, Clova and Canlochen, &c. plentiful. The fronds vary 
from two to ten or twelve inches in length, usually six or 
seven inches. 

P. Dryopteris, L. Tender Three-branched Polypody. 
II. 437, B. 384, N. 26. 

In woods and among rocks and debris on the Sidlaw Hills 
and Clova mountains abundant. Panmure, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. Guthrie Woods, Mr A. Croall. 

Wooosia, Br. "Woodsia. 

Br. Sp. and v. 3.1 F.2.? 

W. Ilvensis, Br. Oblong Woodsia. H. 437, B. 384, N. 
29. (Achrostlchum, L. &c.) 



FLORA. OF FORFARSHIRE. 219 

On the rocks near the stream which runs into Glen Phee 
on the west side, Prof. Balfour. 

W. hyperborca, Br. Round-leaved Woodsia. H. 437, 
B. 384, N. 29. (Polypodium hyperborcum, Sw.) 

In small quantity above the station of Oxytropis campes- 
fris, Bradooney, Clova, 1831, Mr Brand. 

Aspidium, Sw. Shield-fern. 

Br. sp. and v. 14. F. 10. 

A. Lonchitis, Sw. Rough Alpine Shield-Fern. H. 438, 
B. 387, N. 13. (Polystichum, Roth., Bab., Polypodium, 
L.) 

Shady clefts of rocks plentiful in Glen Dole, on Carlowie, 
and near Loch Brandy, &c, Clova. Canlochen Glen abun- 
dant. The fronds vary from two inches to two feet in height. 

A. lobatum, Sw. Close-leaved Prickly Shield-fern. H. 
438, B. 386, N. 37. (Polystichum, Roth., Bab.) 

Not unfrequent,'with var. /3. lonchitidoides, Hook., in shady 
dens, as those of Airlie, Glammis, Foulis, Pitairlie, &c. 

A. Oreopteris, Sw. Heath Shield-fern. H. 439, B. 385, 

1ST. 47. (Lastrcea, Presh, Bab.) 

Abundant on the Clova mountains, and the Sidlaw Hills, 
but in finest condition in lower woods, as those of Baldovan. 

A. Thelypteris, Sw. Marsh Shield-fern. H. 439, B. 
385, N. 45. (Lastrcea, Presl., Bab.) 

Rescobie and Restenet, in marshes, not common. 

A. Filix-mas, Sw. Blunt Shield-fern. H. 440, B. 385, 

!N. 50. (Lastrcea, Presh, Bab.) 

Plentiful throughout the county, especially in woods and 
shady places, very variable in size and breadth of frond, as 
well as amount of fructification, some fronds having their in- 
ferior surface entirely covered with son", while others have 
only a few scattered on the upper pinnse. 

A.spinulosum,dilatatum, and dumetorum of Smith, (Hook. 



220 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

440) are referred by Babington, 386, and Newman, 58, to 
Lastrcea dilalata, Presl., and are, with many intermediate 
forms, plentiful throughout the county, especially in woods 
and in rocky places on the mountains. The var. recurvum, 
Bree., has been found in the woods of Baldovan, Kinnordy, 
&c, but is not common. 

Cystopteris, Bernh. Bladder-fern. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 2. 

C. dentata, Hook. Toothed Bladder-fern. H. 441, B. 
387, N. 32. (Ct/stea dentaia, Sm. C. fragilis, Bernh., 
Bab., Newm.) 

C.fragilis, Bernh. Brittle Bladder-fern. H. 441, B. 
387, N. 33. 

The former of these is frequent among the mountains, as 
Ben Red, Bassies, Craig Maid, Canlochen, &c, with fronds 
from two to eight inches high ; the latter is abundant in 
shady dens, as those of Airlie, Glammis, Bonnington, Fuller- 
ton, Foulis, Pitairlie, &c, from three inches to upwards of a 
foot high. Both love moisture and shade, and thrive best in 
the crevices of wet rocks, yet I have found the fragilis asso- 
ciated with Asplenium Trichomanes among loose stones on 
the summits of the Sidlaw Hills. The extreme forms of 
these beautiful and delicate ferns appear distinct enough to 
the eye, but fronds with pinnae and pinnules of all interme- 
diate shapes occur, so that one feels it often difficult which 
name to apply. 

Asplenium, L. Spleenwort. 

Br.sp.andv 11. F. 7. 

A. septentrionale, Hull. Forked Spleenwort. H. 442, 
B. 389, N. 73. 

" On rocks," Mr G. Don. I am not aware in what part 
of the county these rocks are situated, or whether any other 
botanist has found them. Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, 
and Stenton Bock, near Dunkeld,are perhaps the only Scot- 
tish stations known at present. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 221 

A. Trichomanes, L. Common Spleenwort. H. 442, B. 
389, N. 80. 

In shady and rocky places from the coast to the mountains, 
frequent. It is abundant in mostly all our dens. 

A. viride, Huds. Green Spleenwort. H. 442, B. 389, 
N. 78. 

Crevices of moist rocks, plentiful on most of the Clova and 
Canlochen mountains, in dense tufts, the fronds from two to 
ten inches in height. 

A. marinum, L. Sea Spleenwort. II. 442, B. 389, N. 
75. 

Caves and crevices of rocks, sea-shore about Auchmithie. 
Redhead, Messrs Croall and Kerr. Dysart, Mr A. Kerr. 

A. Ruta-muraria, L. Wall-rue Spleenwort. H. 442, 
B. 388, N. 70. 

Not unfrequent on rocks and old buildings, as Hare Craigs, 
Lundie Craigs, Broughty Castle, old Steeple Dundee, &c. 

A. Adiantum-nigrum, L. Black-stalked Spleenwort. H. 
443, B. 388, N. 68. 

Frequent in rocky places ; fronds from an inch to a 
foot high, sometimes forked, which is also the case with Cys- 
topteris, and other ferns. 

A. Filix-fasmina^ Bernh. Lady Fern. II. 443, B. 388. 
N. 62. (Atkyrium, Both., Bab., Newra.) 

This very graceful species adorns many of our woods, banks 
of streams, shady dens, and rocky places among the Sidlaw 
Hills and Clova mountains. Scott most truthfully says, — 

" Where the copse-wood is the greenest, 
Where the fountain glistens sheenest, 
Where the morning dew lies longest, 
There the lady fern grows strongest.'' 

Scolopendrium, Sm. Hart's-tongue. 
Br.sp.l. F.l. 
S. vulgare, Sym. Common Hart's-tongue. H. 443, B. 



222 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

389, N. 82. ( Asplenium Scolopendrium, L. Scolopendri- 
tim officinarum, Sw.) 

Abundant in the caves and among the maritime rocks of 
Auchmithie. 

Den of'Fullerton, Messrs J. Laing, and M'Farlane. Den 
of Airlie, Rev. J. S. Barty. 

In the Auchmithie station, the fronds vary exceedingly 
in their forms. In the normal type they are linear or linear- 
lanceolate, from six inches to two feet long, entire, acute at 
the apex, and somewhat narrowed towards the cordate base. 
The outline is usually wavy, and frequently very irregular, 
the veins delicate dichotomous and anastomosing. In some 
specimens the midrib is branched upwards, dividing the frond 
into two, three, or four parts. The midrib commonly disap- 
pears below the apex, but occasionally projects beyond it, 
and then the apex is bifid with a blunt outline, indeed almost 
cordate. When the midrib does not extend beyond the 
naked portion of the rachis, the frond is reniform ; and some- 
times there are two reniform fronds from one rachis, and in 
one specimen a reniform and lanceolate frond are on the same 
rachis. All bear fructification, but the normal form in greatest 
regularity and abundance. 

Pteris, L. Brake. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

P. aquilina, L. Common, or Eagle Brake. H. 444, B. 
3.90, N. 13. 

The Bracken is abundantly distributed over the whole 
county. 

Cryptogamma, Br. Rock Brake. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

C. crispa, Br. Curled Rock Brake. H. 444, B. 383, K. 

17. (Allosorus crispus, Bernh., Bab., Newm. Pteris 
crispa, L. ?) 

Among debris and in rocky hollows near the summit of 
the White Hill plentiful, and on others of the Sidlaw range. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 228 

Ring of Catterthun, Messrs Croall and M'Farlane. Clova 
mountains, Mr G. Don. 

Blechnuai, L. Hard-fern. 
Br. sp. l: F.l. 

B. forazfo, Sw. Northern Hard-fern. H. 444, B. 390, 
N. 11. (Lomaria Spicant, Desv., Nevvm.) 

Plentiful in the woods, and ascending to nearly the summits 
of the Clova mountains, where its fronds become much smaller. 

Hymexophyllum, Sm. Filmy-fern. 
Br.sp.2. F.l. 

H. Wilsoni, Hook. Scottish Filmy-fern, or Wilson's 
Filmy-fern. H. 446, B. 391, N. 94. 

On mossy rocks Reeky Linn, and near a waterfall about 
half-way up the stream a little to the west of Whitehauo-h, 
on the Bassies, Clova, not plentiful. 

Sub-Ord. II.-OSMTJNDACE.3E. 
Gen. Br. 3. F. 2. Sp. Br. 3. F. 2. 

Botrychium, Sw. Moonwort. 
Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

B. Lunaria, Sw. Common Moonwort. H. 447, B. 391 
N. 100. (Osmunda, L.) 

Sands of Barrie, frequent. Banks of Forfar Lake. Sum- 
mit of Craig Owl, Sidlaw Hills. Rocks of Clova and Can- 
loch en. 

Old pastures Kinnaird, June 1844, Mr A. Bousie. In 
one of his specimens there are two stalks from the same root, 
and in another, eight inches high, several capsules on the 
upper margin of the lower pinnae. The pinna? are generally 
from three to five pairs. Old pastures Kinnordy, Mr James 
Donald. Montrose Links, Messrs M'Farlane and Kerr. 
Old quarries on the Hill of Stracathro, abundant, some of 
the specimens a foot high, Mr A. Kerr. Near Usan, and 
sandy shore between Arbroath and Carnoustie, Mr A. Croall. 



224 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

OphIoglossum, L. AddeVs-Tongue. 

Br.Sp.l. F.l. 

O. vulgatum, L. Common Adder's-Tcngue. H. 447> 
B. ,391, N. 103. 

Sands of Barrie, Mr G. Don. Not to my knowledge re- 
found, but may yet be detected in some of the marshy spots 
that abound on these sands. 

Sue-Ord. III.— LYCOPODIACE^E. 
Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. Br. 6. F. 6. 
Lycpodium, L. Club-moss. 

Br. sp. 6. F. 6. 

L. davatum, L. Common Club-moss. H. 448, B. 393, 
N. (Phytologist, I. 1.) 

Our most common species, abundant on the Sidlaw Hills, 
and ascending to upwards of 2000 feet on the Clova moun- 
tains. 

It is known here as " Tod's-tail," and frequently manu- 
factured into door-basses. Moors of Bossie, Dun, &c, Mr A. 
C'roall. 

L. annotinum, L. Interrupted Cub-moss. H. 448, B. 
393, N. (Phyt., I. 17-) 

Glen Dole, Clova, bearing fruit abundantly araono; the 
rocks of Craig Maid. Loch Esk and Loch Brandy, Mr A. 
Groall. 

L. inundatum, L. Marsh Club-moss. H. 448, B. 393, 
N. (Phyt., I. 49.) 

" Marsh by the side of a burn, on the south side of the old 
Forfar road, in Ardovie Wood, Monroman Moor," Mr Reid, 
Farnell. 

L. selaginoides, L. Lesser Alpine Club-moss. II. 448, 
B. 393, N. {Phyt., I. 65.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 220 

Moist«places on the Sands of Barrie and near Monitieth. 
Den of Pitairlie. Sidlaw Hills in various places. Not tin- 
frequent on marshy banks and among wet rocks on most of 
the Clova and Canlochen mountains. 

Banks of the Esk at the Burn, Messrs G. M'Farlane and 
Croall. 

L. alpinum, L. Savin-leaved Club- moss. H. 448, B. 393, 
N. (Phyt., I. 33.) 

Abundant on the Sidlaw Hills and on the higher moun- 
tains to their summits. 

L. Selago, L. Fir Club-moss. H. 448, B. 393, N. 
(Phyt., I. 81.) 

Plentiful on the Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains to their 
summits, and in several parts of the low grounds, as Restenet 
moss. 

Sub-Ord. IV.— MARSILEACE^E. 
Gen. Br. 2. F. 2. Sp.Br.S? F. 2. 

Isoetes, L. Quill-wort. 

Br. sp. 2 ? F. 1. 

I. lacustris, L. Quill-wort. H. 449, B. 392 5 N. (Phyt., 
I. 153.) 

Abundant in the small loch at the south-west corner of 
Loch Brandy, Clova. 

Loch Feithy between Forfar and Arbroath, Mr G. Don. 
Near Kettins, Mr James Gibb. 

Pilularia, L. Pill- wort, 
Br.sp.l. F.l. 

P. globulifera, L. Pill-wort. H. 449, B. 392, N. (Phyt 
I. 209.) 

In marshes, Mr G. Don, but no station indicated, and I 
have only seen it in shallow pools on the moor of Alyth on 
the confines of the adjacent county, Perth. 

Parish of Kettins, Mr James Gibb. Marsh, Monroman 
Moor, on the north side of the Forfar road, Mr J. Cruick- 
shank. 

k 2 



226 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Sub-Ord. V.— EQUISETACE2E. 

Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 11. F. 10. 

Equisetum, L. Horse-tail. 

E. Jiuviatile, Huds. Great Water Horse-tail. H. 450, 
B. 379, 1ST. (Phyt. I. 721. E. Telmateia, Ehrh.) 

Ditch, north side of Montrose Basin, Mr A. Croall. Banks 
of the South Esk, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

E. Drummondii. Drummond's Horse-tail. H. 450, B. 
380, N. (Phyt. I. 697.) (E. umbrosum, Willd., Newman. 
Hooker doubts its identity with the plant so named by Will- 
denow and Linnseus.) 

This beautiful species is one of the many interesting disco- 
veries of the acute and interprising Mr Thomas Dmmmond, 
who first met with it on the banks of the Esk and Isla, and 
where it has subsequently been gathered by Prof. Balfour, 
&c. In Canlochen Glen, a little distance above the shieling, 
it was picked by Prof. Balfour, and I there found it in July 
1846, but of course without catkins as these appear in April. 
E. arvense and sylvaticum were associated with it in this lo- 
cality, from both of which it was evidently distinct at a glance. 
It has been also found in woods near Forfar by Dr Greville. 

Sir W. J. Hooker named the plant in compliment to Mr 
Drummond, and no Scotchman will care to see such a well- 
merited honour thrown into the shade, especially as there is 
a shade of doubt about the continental plant being the same 
as ours. 

Mr Drummond was perhaps the most enthusiastic practi- 
cal botanist that Britain has produced, and with this county 
especially his name will ever be honourably associated. In 
the little Elysian botanic garden of " Dove-hill," at Forfar, 
he was successor to Mr G. Don, and, while there, published 
his Musci Scotici, a volume of specimens probably unequalled 
by any similar publication in this country. His researches 
in his native county were attended with the greatest success, 
especially among the cryptogamic tribes, and one beautiful 
moss, Orthotrichum Drummondii, has been dedicated to him 
as a testimony of the value of his labours in that department. 
The frequent record of his name in the pages of the British 
Flora, in connection with some of our rarest plants, affords 
ample proof of his zeal, and the valuable results of its appli- 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



227 



cation to 'his favourite pursuit. The mountains, the inland 
woods, lakes, rivers, dens, and the sea- shore, were alike his 
field of exploration, and, with unwearied assiduity, he sought 
out and made known their floral treasures. He was an 
early riser, and, when botanizing about Auchmithie, he was 
frequently to be seen, scrutinizing with curious eye the caves 
and rocks of that picturesque shore, before the sun's earliest 
beam was mirrored in the German Ocean ; and no doubt 
these early perambulations, when the mind, fresh from the 
night's repose, is open to all the sweet influences of Nature, 
tended in no small degree to nurse that enthusiasm which 
afterwards led him to investigate distant shores. The moun- 
tains were peculiarly his delight, and he frequently accom- 
panied parties to those of Clova, whose numerous and beau- 
tiful alpine rarities richly rewarded their exertions. 

Much as he did, however, to promote a knowledge of the 
vegetation of his native country, his fame rests more upon his 
labours in the " far west." He was engaged as assistant na- 
turalist to Dv Richardson, in Franklin's Second Overland 
North American Expedition, and a very interesting account 
of his discoveries in botany and zoology, the nature of the 
country, and his perilous adventures among the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and on the Columbia River, is given from his own pen, 
in Hooker's Botanical Miscellany , first series, vol. i. pp. 178 
to 219. The following sketch of an encounter with a grisly 
bear, will give some idea of the danger of his undertaking, 
and furnish a sample of the graphic style in which he de- 
scribes such an occurrence : — 

" Having crossed the Assinaboyne River, the party halted 
to breakfast, and I went on before them for a few miles, to 
procure specimens of a Jungermannia, which I had previ- 
ously observed in a small rivulet on our track. On this oc- 
casion I had a narrow escape from the jaws of a grisly bear ; 
for, while passing through a small open glade, intent upon 
discovering the moss of which I was in search, I was sur- 
prised by hearing a sudden rush, and then a harsh growl, 
just behind me ; and, on looking round, I beheld a large bear 
approaching towards me, and two young ones making off in 
a contrary direction as fast as possible. My astonishment 
was great, for I had not calculated on seeing these animals 
so early in the season, and this was the first 1 had met with. 
She halted within two or three yards of me, growling and 
rearing herself on her hind feet, then suddenly wheeled about, 



228 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

and went off in the direction the young ones had taken, pro- 
bably to ascertain whether they were safe. During this mo- 
mentary absence, I drew from my gun the small shot with 
which I had been firing at ducks during the morning, and 
which, I was well aware, would avail me nothing against so 
large and powerful a creature, and replaced it with ball. The 
bear, meanwhile, had advanced and retreated two or three 
times, apparently more furious than ever ; halting at each 
interval within a shorter and shorter distance of me, always 
raising herself on her hind legs, and growling a horrible de- 
fiance, and at length approaching to within the length of my 
gun from me. Now was my time to fire : but judge of my 
alarm and mortification when I found that my gun would not 
go off! The morning had been wet, and the damp had com- 
municated to the powder. My only resource was to plant 
myself firm and stationary, in the hope of disabling the bear 
by a blow on her head with the butt end of my gun, when she 
should throw herself on me to seize me. She had gone and 
returned ten or a dozen times, her rage apparently increasing 
with her additional confidence, and I momentarily expected 
to find myself in her gripe, when the dogs belonging to the 
brigade made their appearance ; but, on beholding the bear, 
they fled with all possible speed. The horsemen were just 
behind, but such was the surprise and alarm of the whole 
party, that though there were several hunters, and at least 
half-a-dozen guns among them, the bear made her escape un- 
hurt, passing one of the horsemen (whose gun, like mine, 
missed fire), and apparently intimidated by the number of 
the party. For the future, I took care to keep my gun in 
better order, but I found, by future experience, that the best 
mode of getting rid of the bears when attacked by them, was 
to rattle my vasculum, or specimen box, when they immedi- 
ately decamp. This is the animal described by Lewis and 
Clark in their Travels on the Missouri, and so much dreaded 
by the Indians. My adventure with the bear did not, how- 
ever, prevent my accomplishing the collecting of the Junger~ 
mannia. It is No. 17 of the ' American Mosses.' " 

The American Mosses, Musci Americani, referred to 
above, is a collection made during this expedition, and pub- 
lished in two quarto volumes. This valuable work, together 
with his admirable collections, and what he had previously 
proved himself capable of accomplishing, induced Sir W. J. 
Hooker and Dr Graham to make arrangements for sending 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



229 



liim out to investigate the botany and zoology of some parts of 
the Southern and Western United States of North America ; 
and, accordingly, in 1831, he was fully equipped for the expedi- 
tion, by the liberality of a large circle of British botanists and 
naturalists, who felt a deep interest in the success of his en- 
terprise. Their hopes were fully realized by the splendid 
collections he made in all departments of botany and zoo- 
logy. These were not, however, made with ease ; many a 
deprivation of comfort had to be experienced, seemingly in- 
surmountable difficulties overcome, and formidable dangers 
encountered, to accomplish the object he had in view. In his 
letters we read of many hair-breadth escapes. At one time 
he narrowly escaped destruction in a small boat, exposed to 
the fury of the ocean during a tremendous thunder-storm ; 
at another he was on the point of joining a surveying party, 
all of whom were shortly after murdered by savage Indians. 
He was attacked by cholera and fever, and at times suffered 
greatly from hunger and fatigue, as well as the severity of 
winter frosts, and the broiling heat of summer. Yet, in the 
last letter save one, which he wrote from Texas to his kind 
patron, Sir W. J. Hooker, he says : — " But amidst all these 
difficulties there is one blessing, for which I cannot be too 
thankful. I enjoy excellent health ; and, I can assure you, 
that it has been tried with such fatigue as would have broken 
down thousands." Too soon was he destined to be broken 
down by these exertions ; for, early in the following year 
(1835), at Havanna, in Cuba, death put an end to his useful 
labours, and deprived the botanical world of one of its most 
ardent votaries. Had he been spared to follow out his inten- 
tions to their full extent, the result would have been of vast 
importance to all lovers of Flora throughout the world ; but, 
as it is, he has earned a deathless fame ; for in our gardens 
he has reared living monuments of surpassing beauty to per- 
petuate his memory ; and so long as the JEquisetum and Or- 
thotrichum, bearing his name, continue to flourish on our na- 
tive hills, his enthusiastic devotion to the cause of botany, and 
self-sacrifice in its promotion, will be warmly remembered by 
his fellow-countrymen. 

E. arvense, L Corn Horse-tail. H. 450, B. 380, K 
(Phyt. I. 727.) 

Abundant by the sides of fields, and on banks, from the 



230 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

coast to nearly the head of Canlochen ; ft. ripe unsually in 
April. 

E. sylvaticum, L. Wood Horse-tail. H. 450, B. 380, 
N. (Phyt. I. 693.) 

Abundant throughout the county, loving especially moist 
woods and the banks of rivers. The catkins appear in May 
and June, and in July the sterile fronds, full-grown and scat- 
tered in myriads through some of the woods, as those of Bal- 
dovan, Balkemnock, &c, afford an enchanting spectacle. 
With the author of the elegant " History of British Ferns," 
one may say, — " Altogether I could have fancied it a magic 
scene, created by the fairies for their especial use and plea- 
sure, and sacred to the solemnization of their moon-lit revels. 
It was a forest in miniature, and a forest of surpassing 
beauty." 

E. limosum, L. Smooth Naked Horse-tail. H. 450, 
B. 380, N. (Phyt. I. 689, and at 532 he shows the branched 
form to be E. ftiwiatile, L.) 

Plentiful in pools and lakes, both the forms, branched and 
simple. 

E. palustre, L. Marsh Horse-tail. H. 451, B. 380, N. 
(Phyt. I. 529.) 

Common in marshy places from the coast to the mountain 
summits, very variable in size, in ramification, and in the 
number of angles on the stem, and teeth in the sheath. The 
alpine form (£. alpinum, Hook.), is plentiful about the head 
of Glen Dole, and other parts of Clova, as well as Canlochen. 
The var. nudum, Gibs. (Phyt. 628.), is not unfrequent on 
the Sands of Barrie, a little to the eastward of Monifieth, 
where it is simple or sparingly branched, and from two to 
ten inches high, growing on sand banks. It has also been 
found on these sands by Dr Greville. The usual form is 
abundant on the marshy banks of Kescobie Lake. 

E. hyemale, L. Rough Horse-tail, or Dutch Rushes. 
II. 251, B. 380, N. (Phyt. I. 273.) 

Margin of the Isla in the Den of Airlie, and near Reeky 
Linn ; in both localities bearing catkins in April. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 231 

E. varlegatum, Schleich. Variegated Rough Horse-tail. 
H. 451, B. 381, N. (Phyt. I. 337.— £. hyemale, y.) 

Moist places, sands of Barrie, its procumbent stems from 
three to ten inches in length, and bearing catkins from 
April to Sept. It is a beautiful and distinct species, and was 
first detected as a native of Britain on these sands by Mr G. 
Don. 



Ord. II.-MUSCI. MOSSES. 
Gen. Br. 45. F. 36. Sp. and v. Br. 460. F. 277. 

AndRjEA, Ehrh. Andrsea. 

Br. sp. and v. 4. F. 3. 

A. alpina, Hedw. Alpine Andrsea. H. 1. 

Clova and Canlochen mountains, on wet rocks, frequent. 
The fructification of this and the other species is abundant 
in the summer and autumn months. 

A. rupestris, Hedw. Rock Andraea. H. 1. 

Plentiful near the summits of the Sidlaw Hills, and on the 
mountains of Clova. Rossie Moor on stones, Mr A. Bousie. 

A. Rothii, Mohr. Black falcate Andrsea. PI. 1. 

Clova, frequent on rocks, as in Glen Dole, on the Bassies, 
and Carlowie, near Loch Brandy, &c. Catterthun and Glen- 
esk, Mr A. Croall. 

Phascum, L. Earth-moss. 
Br. sp. and v. 21. F.7. 

P. serratum, Schreb. Serrated Earth-moss. H. 2. 

Stobswell, near Dundee. Grounds north from Kinnaird 
garden, Messrs Bousie and Laing. 

P. dlicrnifolium, Dicks. Alternate-leaved Earth-moss. 
II. 2. 

Near Menzies'-hill, a little above Invergowrie. Near 



232 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Kinnaird, where it was first detected in the county by Messrs 
Bousie and Laing. 

P. subulatum, L. Awl-leaved Earth-moss. H. 3. 
Dry banks frequent. 

P. axillare, Dicks. Lateral- fruited Earth-moss. H. 3. 
Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

P. muticum, Schreb. Common Dwarf Earth-moss. H. 3. 

On hedge banks, Stobswell, Dundee. Near Kinnaird, Mr 
A. Bousie. 

P. cuspiclatum, Schreb. Cuspidate Earth-moss. H. 4. 
Fields and banks common. 

/3. piliferum, Hook. 

Rocks on the Hill of Turin. 

Sphagnum, L. Bog-moss. 

Br. sp. and v. 10. F. 8. 

(The species of this beautiful genus are exceedingly vari- 
able, and it is difficult to fix their limits as such. Linnasus 
supposed that all the forms constituted only one species, 
Bridel enumerates 16, Hooker 4 with 2 vars., and Wilson 10. 
Through the kindness of Dr Walker- Arnott, who has studied 
these plants minutely, I have been enabled to affix, the pro- 
per names to those species found in the county, and full de- 
tails of their distinctive characters will be published by Mr 
Wilson in the " Manual of British Bryology") 

S. cymbifolium, Dill. (S. obtusifolium, Ehrh. H. 5.) 
Blunt-leaved Bog-moss. 

Common in bogs, and y.fiuitans, Hook, in boggy pools. 

Dr Arnott observes that this may always be distinguished 
from its allies by the outer cellules of the ramuli containing 
spiral fibres. 

S. compactum, Brid. (S. obtusifolium, /3. mimes, Hook.) 

Heaths frequent, but rare in ft. Similar in habit to the 
last, though smaller, and without spiral fibres. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



233 



S. squarrosum, Pers. Spreading-leaved Bog-moss. II. o. 

Marshy banks of Itescobie Lake plentiful, bearing ft. 
abundantly. 

S. subsecundum, Nees. (Identical with S. contortum, 
Schultz, according to Dr Arnott.) 

Rescobie. Its stem is rigid, of a compact texture, and 
dark colour, covered with only a single roiv of pellucid cel- 
lules. The cells in the leaves too are minute. 

S. intermedium (of authors — Arnott.) 

Our most common species, usually considered as S. acuti- 
folium. 

On the Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains it occurs in 
dense masses, bearing capsules plentifully, sometimes much 
tinged with red. 

S.jfimbriatum, Wils. MSS. (The true S. acutifolium of 
Ehrhart.) Slender Bog-moss. H. 5. 

Rescobie plentiful, rare in ft. It is probably not uncom- 
mon, but may have been counfounded with some of the other 
species. The leaves on the stem are without any membrane 
or "cellules between the net-work, so that the open ends of 
the latter projecting present a fimbriated appearance. It is 
the S. acutifolium of Drummond's Mnsci Scotici. 

S. cuspidatum, Ehrh. Lone-leaved Slender Boo--moss. 
H.5. 8 

Bogs common. Sparingly in ft. in a peat-bog east side of 
the Wbite Hill, Sidlaw. The margins of the leaves in this 
species are undulated and slightly recurved, and of a whitish 
colour, as if a nerve or vein had run along it. 

GEdipodium, Schaegr. Club-stalked Mess. 

Br.sp. 1. F.l. 

(E. Griffithianum, Sch. Griffithian Club-stalked Moss. 
H. 6. 

Craig Mellon, and mountains bounding Glen Dole, Clova, 
ft. rare. 



234 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Glyphocarpa, Wils. Glyphocarpa. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 
G. cernua, Wils. MSS. Drooping Glyphocarpa. 

On the mountain between the Dole and White Water, a 
little above their junction, and facing the glen, Sept. 1840, 
Mr A. Croall. This beautiful little moss was found by Mr 
Croall scattered over the shoulder of the mountain where the 
heath and grass had been burned in the spring, its stems 
spreading in a radiated manner, and together with the fruit 
gracefully drooping. It is an interesting addition to our 
county list. 

Gymnostomum, Hediv. Beardless-Moss. 

Br. sp. and v. 20. F. 12. 

G. lapponicum, Hedw. Lapland Beardless-moss. 14. 7. 

Mountains in Glen Dole, and other parts of the Clova 
range. 

G. carvirostrum, Hedw. Curve-beaked Beardless-moss. 
H.7. 

Mr G. Don. Mr Don enumerates in his list many species 
as natives of the county without giving localities, but on his 
authority I insert them, believing it a good one, and that they 
will likely be refound. 

G. ovatum, Hedw. Hairy-leaved Beardless-moss. H. 8. 

This and /3. gracile, Hook, are frequent on old walls, as at 
Blackness, Dighty Bridge, &c. 

G. truncatulum, Hoffm. Blunt-fruited Beardless-moss. 
H. 8. 

Banks and walls frequent. 

£. intermedium, Hook. Stobswell Dundee, &c. 

Gr. Wilsoni, Hook. Wilson's Beardless-moss. H. 8. 

Near Forfar, Mr Drummond. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 235 

Gr. Heimii, Hedw. Long-stalked Beardless-moss. H. 9. 

Side of a drain near Carnoustie, and in a salt marsh at 
Ninewells. Coast near Torrenshaven, Mr G. Don. Mon- 
trose Basin, Mr A. Croall. Grounds, Kinnaird Castle, Mr 
A. Bousie. 

G. fasciculate, Hedw. Blunt Pear-shaped Beardless- 
moss. H. 9. 

Glen Clova, near the foot, beyond the "smithy" on the 
west side. About Kinnaird, Mr John Laing. Mud fence 
on Guthrie Hill, Mr A. Croall. Near Farnell, Mr A. 
Bousie. 

G. pyriforme, Hedw. Sharp Pear-shaped Beardless- 
moss. H. 9. 

Hare Craigs. Restenet, and east end of Forfar Lake, Mr 
A. Croall. Moist banks north from Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

G. Donianum, Sm. Donian Beardless-moss. H. 10. 

Sandstone rocks Den of Airlie, Messrs Don and Drum- 
mond. Noran Water, Mr Drummond. This minute moss 
was first detected by the keen eye of Mr G. Don in the Den 
of Dupplin, Perthshire, and was named in compliment to him 
by his distinguished patron Sir J. E. Smith. 

G. microstomum, Hedw. Small-mouthed Beardless-moss. 
H. 10. 

Hare Craigs. 

Anictangium, Hedw. Branched Beardless-moss. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F.J. 

A. cilia turn, Hedw. Hoary Branched Beardless-moss. 
H. 11. 

Rocks, stones, and walls frequent, most plentiful on the 
hills. 

Diphyscium, Mohr. Diphyscium. 
Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

D.foliosiun, Mohr. Leafy Diphyscium. H. 13. 



236 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Sidlaw Hills frequent, as White Hill on rocks east side, 
Kinpurny, near the Castle, &c. Hill of the Balloch, Glen Pro- 
sen, and on Carlowie and other of the Clo?a mountains. 

Tetraphis, Hedw. Tetraphis. 
Br.sp.2. F.l. 
T. pellucida, Hedw. Pellucid Tetraphis. H. 14. 

Den of Airlie, below the Castle, and Invergowrie Thicket, 
with gemmiferous cups, but no ft. Bassies, and Glen Dole, 
Clova, frequent, and in ft. Plentifully in ft. on decayed tree- 
roots near Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

Splachnum, L. Bottle-moss. 

Br. sp. and v. 9. F. 8. 

S. sphcericum, L. fiL Globe-fruited Bottle-moss. H. 14. 

Frequent on the summits of the mountains on the drop- 
pings of cattle. Rare in the low grounds. Rossie Moor, Mr 
J. Laing. Near a spring west end of Bestenet marsh, Mr 
A. Croall. 

S. tenue, Dicks. Slender Bottle-moss. H. 15. 

Clova, July 1824, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drummond. 
Mr G. Don. 

S. mnioides, L. fil. Brown Tapering Bottle-moss. H. 15. 

Clova mountains frequent (with /3. majus, Hook., 'which is 
scarcely distinct). Sidlaw Hills, but rare. Rossie Moor, Mr 
J. Laing. 

S. angustatum, L. fil. Narrow-leaved Bottle-moss. H. 15. 
Mr G. Bon. 

S. ampullaceum, L. Flagon-fruited Bottle-moss. H. 15. 

In a marsh at the east end of a small lake near Pitcur, 
June 1832. Mr Bon also found it, but gives no station. 

S. vasculosum, Hedw. Large-fruited Bottle-moss. H. 16. 

Clova, Mr Drummond. I have found this elegant species 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 237 

in the following stations in the Clova district : — Feula burn 
above the falls. Near Loch Brandy, just below the " Loch- 
hillock," west side. Near the large stone at the mouth of the 
Corrie of Clova. Near the foot of Ben Red. Near the 
" spring-well " at the top of the " eastern stripe of Raggs," 
on the ascent to Loch Wharral. In two places top of the 
" western stripe (rivulet) of Baggs." Corrie of North Inch- 
dowrie. Eastern Craigie-bowies. Back of White Bent, in 
great profusion and very richly fruited. In all these places 
the plant grows in dense masses in what is called a " well-ee," 
or marshy source of a spring, and is commonly associated 
with Bartramia fontana and Dicranum squarrosum, whose 
bright green foliage render these spots conspicuous at a dis- 
tance. 

Catlaw near Kinnordy, Arnott and Hooker. 

Conostomum, L. Conostomum. 
Br.sp.l.F.l. 
C. boreale, Sw. Northern Conostomum. H. 17. 
Mountains of Glen Dole, Loch Brandy, Bassies, &c, Clova ; 
and on those of Canlochen, always near their summits. 

Encalypta, Hechv. Extinguisher-moss. 
Br. sp. 5. F. 2. 
E. vulgaris, Hedw. Common Extinguisher-moss. H. 18. 

On walls at Blackness west from Dundee, at Mains Den, 
and near Mains church, plentiful. Walls east side of Kin- 
noul Woods, Mr A. Croall. 

E. ciliata, Hedw. Fringed Extinguisher-moss. H. 18. 

Reeky Linn. Bassies and Glen Dole, Clova, frequent. 
Den of Fullerton, Mr A. Croall. 



Weissia, Hedw. Weissia. 
Br. sp. and v. 19. F. 11. 
W. nigrita, Hedw. Black-fruited Weissia. H. 19. 



238 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Sands of Barrie in several places, both to the east and west 
of the Lighthouses, bearing fruit abundantly in summer and 
autumn. 

W. lanceolata, Hook, and Tayl. Lance-leaved Weissia. 
H. 20. 

Bank near the beach at Ninewells, associated with Tortula 
convoluta, but the station now destroyed by the railway. 

W. latifolia, Schwaegr. Broad-leaved Wessia. H. 20. 
In crevices of rocks, Glen Dole, Clova, Mr Drummond. 

W. striata, Hook, and Tayl. Striated Weissia. H. 21. 

Rocks east side of the White Hill of Auchterhouse ; Reeky 
Linn; Hill of the Balloch, Glen Prosen; Bassies, Clova, &c. 

W. cirrata, Hedw. Ciud-leaved Weissia. H. 21. 
Mr G. Don. 

W. curvirostra, Hook and Tayl. Curve-beaked Weissia. 
H. 22. 

Rocks and walls frequent. Craig Owl, west side, near a 
small waterfall. Reeky Linn, Glen Dole, &c. 

W. crispula, Hedw. Curled Weissia. H. 22. 
Rocks on all the Clova mountains, plentiful. 

W. confroversa, Hedw. Green-cushioned Weissia. PI. 
22. 

Shady banks very common. 

W. recurvata, Hook, and Tayl. Recurved Weissia. H. 
23. 

On the old red sandstone, Den of Airlie. 

W. verticillata, Schwaegr. Whorled Weissia. H. 23. 

W'et rocks and caves on the coast near Auchmithie, with- 
out ft. 

W. acuta, Hedw. Sharp-pointed Weissia. H. 24. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 239 

Wet rocks, Sidlaw Hills, banks of the Isla and Esk, and 
abundant anions: the mountains. 



Grimmia, Ehrh. Grimmia. 
Br. sp. and v. 17. F. 12. 
G. apocarpa, Hedw. Sessile Grimmia. H. 24. 
Walls and rocks abundant. 

/S. stricta. (G. stricia, Turn.) 

Sidlaw Hills, Reeky Linn, and Clova mountains, frequent. 
Den of Foulis. 

y. alpicola. (G. alpicola, Sw.) 

Summits of the Sidlaw Hills, and not uncommon on the 
mountains of Clova. 

8. rioularis. (G. rivularis, Brid.) 

In streams, as the Isla, Esk, Melgum, &c. 

G. maritirna, Turn. Sea-side Grimmia. H. 24. 

Rocks along the margin of the Tay, abundant. Carnoustie, 
Arbroath, Auchmithie, and indeed general along the coast 
where there are rocks. 

G. pulvinata, Sm. Grey Cushioned Grimmia. H. 25. 
Our most common species, on walls and rocks. 

G. tricophylla, Grev. Hair-pointed Grimmia. H. 25. 
Old wall, Woods of Baldovan, rare. 

G. spiralis, Hook, and Tayl. Spiral-leaved Grimmia. 
H. 26. 

G. torta, Hornsch. and Nees, Twisted-leaved Grimmia. 
H. 26. 

Both species frequent on rocks on most of the Clova moun- 
tains, especially those of Glen Dole, and in Canlochen. G. 
torta also occurs about the Reeky Linn. 

G. ovata, Web. and Mohr. Ovate Grimmia. H. 26. 
Hare Craigs, Rev. J. G. M l Vicar. 



240 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

G. Doniana, Sm. Donian Grimmia. H. 27. 

Rocks and stones on the north side of the White Hill of 
Auchterhouse, in ft. April and May. Sparingly on the sum- 
mit of Craig Owl, 1700 feet. Cat'erthun, Mr A. Croall. 

G. unicolor, Hook. Dingy Grimmia. H. 27. 

" Abundant on the steep, almost perpendicular, face of an 
exposed rock above Bachuagairn," Mr Drummond. Bachna- 
gairn is a shooting lodge of the Hon. Donald Ogilvy of Clova, 
and is situated in a very picturesque spot near the head of 
Glen Bradooney, about a mile to the eastward of Loch Esk, 
the source of the river South Esk. There is a beautiful 
waterfall in the vicinity, 60 feet high, surrounded by steep 
wooded rocks. 

(The G. atrata, which I have found on Ben-Lawers, grows 
also above Glen Callater, and should be carefully sought for 
among the higher rocks of Canlochen.) 

Didymodon, Hediv. Didymodon. 

Br.sp.and v. 18. F. 10. 

D. purpureas, Hook, and Tayl. Purple Didymodon. 
II . 28. 

Abundant from the sea- shore to the mountain summits, on 
banks, rocks, and sandy-downs. 

D. inclinatus, Sw. Inclined-fruited Didymodon. H. 28. 

Sands of Barrie to the east and west of the Lighthouses, 
in broad dense patches, in ft. throughout the summer and 
autumn. It grows with Weissia nigrita and Bryum trichodes, 
and the three rarities were first found there by Mr Don. 

D. glaucescens, Web. and Mohr. Glaucous Didymodon. 
H. 29. 

In crevices of rocks, Glen Dole, Clova, Don, Drummond, 
Greville, Hooker. 

D. Bruntoni, Arn. Brunton's Didymodon. H. 29. 

Sidlaw Hills. Pteeky Linn. Carlowie and Glen Dole, 
Clova. It generally grows on the perpendicular faces of 
rocks in broad patches, fruiting freely. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 241 

D. rir/idiilus, Iledw. Rigid-leaved Didymodon. H. 29. 

Sands of Barrie. Loch Brandy, Clova. Hare Craigs, Rev. 
J. G. M< Vicar. 

D. trifarius Svv. Three-ranked Didymodon. H. 30. 
Mr G. Don. 

D. capillaceus, Schrad. Fine-leaved Didymodon. H. 30. 

In dense tufts in the crevices of rocks near the small wa- 
terfalls on the Clova streams, as those of the Bassies, Loch 
Brandy, Glen Dole, &c. Canlochen. Reeky Linn. /3. ithy- 
phylla. In drier places on the mountains, smaller, but 
scarcely distinct. 

D. flexicaulis, Schleich. Long-beaked Didymodon. H. 
31. (D. longirestrisl Web. and Mohr.) 

Hill south-west from Newtyle, Reeky Linn, Glen Dole, 
&c, without ft. 

D. keteromallus, Hook, and Tayl. Curve-leaved Didymo- 
don. H. 31. 

East banks of Rescobie Lake, margin of the wood next the 
marsh. Shaded banks near Logie Pert, Mr A. Bousie. 

Trichostomum, Hedw. Fringe-moss. 

Br. sp. and v. 17. F. 10. 

T. patens, Schwaegr. Spreading Fringe- moss. H. 32. 
Common on the higher mountains. 

T. funale, Schwaegr. Cord-like Fringe-moss. H. 32. 
Clova, Mr Drummond. 

T. lanuginosum, Hedw. Woolly Fringe-moss. H. 32. 
Heaths plentiful, to the summits of the highest mountains. 

T. canescens, Hedw. Hoary Fringe-moss. H. 33. 
Not uncommon. Fair-moor, Dundee, and Sands of Bar- 
rie, abundant. 

0. (T. ericoides, Schrad.) Walls and banks frequent, as 
about Baldovan, Auchterhouse, &c. 



242 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

T. heterostichum, Hedw. Serrated Hoary Fringe-moss. 
H. 33. 

Rocks and stones, common on the hills and mountains. 

T. microcarpum, Hedw. Small-fruited Hoary Fringe- 
moss. H. 33. 

On the higher mountains plentiful. Sidlaw Hills, rare. 

T. aoiculare, Beauv. Dark Mountain Fringe-moss. H. 
34. 

Wet rocks and in streams frequent. 

T. fasciculare, Schrad. Beardless Hoary Fringe-moss. 
H. 34. 

Plentiful on rocks on the hills and mountains. 

T. polyphyllum, Schwaegr. Many-leaved Fringe-moss. 
H.34. 

Near Auchterhouse ; foot of Craig Owl, on old walls south 
side ; Beeky Linn ; Clova, &c. 



Fissidens, Hedw. Fern-like Fork-moss. 
Br. sp. and v. 8. JP. 4. 

F. bryoides, Hedw. Small Fern-leaved Fork-moss. H. 
35. 

Shady banks, common. 

F. osmundioides, Hedw. Larger Fern-leaved Fork-moss. 
H. 35. 

Baldovan Woods, Forfar Loan, near Mains Castle, &c. 
F. adiantoides, Sw. Adiantum-like Fork-moss. H. 36. 

Frequent on wet and marshy banks throughout the county, 
varying from half an inch to four inches in height, capsules 
not uncommon. 

F. taxifolius, Hedw. Yew-leaved Fork-moss. H. 36. 
Will's Braes and Ninewells. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 243 

Dickanum, Hedw. Fork-moss. 

Br. sp.andv. 31. F. 26. 

D. qlaucum, Hedw. Glaucous Fork-moss. H. 37, 

In dense masses like those of Sphagna on the hills and 
mountains abundant, but sterile. 

D. cerviculatum, Hedw. Red-necked Fork-moss. H. 37. 
Mr G. Don. 

D.Jlexuosum, Hedw. Zig-zag Fork-moss. H. 38. Mr 
G. Don. The var. j3. nigro-viride, Hook., is frequent on the 
Sidlaw Hills and CI ova mountains on wet stones, without ft. 

D. virens, Hedw. Green Spur-fruited Fork-moss. H, 
38. 

Bassies, Clova, rare. 

D. strumiferum, Ehrh. Strumose Fork-moss. H. 39. 

Near Loch Brandy, Clova ; and Hill of the Balloch, Glen 
Prosen. 

D. polgcarpon, Ehrh. Many-headed Fork-moss. H. 39. 
Glen Dole and Carlowie, Clova. 

D.falcatum, Hedw. Sickle-leaved Fork-moss. H. 39. 

D. Starkii, Web. and Mohr. Starkian Fork-moss. H. 
39. 

Both on the rocks of Clova and Canlochen, frequent. 

D.flavescens, Sm. Yellowish Fork-moss. H. 40. 
Sandy banks of the Isla, Reeky Linn. 

D. squarrosum, Schrad. Drooping-leaved Fork-moss. 
H. 40. 

Plentiful from the coast to the mountain summits, in marshy 
places, ft. rare. In ft. marshy banks of a small lake, west 
side of White Hill. Glen Phee, Clova, Mr A. CroalL 

D. pellucidum, Sw. Pellucid Fork-moss. IT. 40. 

Dryburn rivulet, Sidlaw Hills, ft. Sept. 1836. Den of 
Fothringham, ft. Dec. 1836, Mr J. Donald. Rocks, Gnn- 
nachy Bridge, Mr A. Bousie. 



244 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

D. spurium, Hedw. Spurious Fork-moss. H. 40. 
Moss of Kinnordy, C. Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. 

D. crispum, Hedw. Curl -leaved Fork-moss. H. 41. 
Moist places, Hare Craigs, rare. 

D. flagellar e, Hedw. Upright-fruited Fork-moss. H. 41. 
D. Scottianum, Turn. Scottian Fork-moss. H. 41. 
Mr G. Don ; the latter, he remarks, rare. 

D. undulatum, Ehrh. Waved-leaved Fork-moss. H. 41. 
Fir woods near Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

D. scoparium, Hedw. Broom Fork-moss. H. 42. (/3. 
majus, Hook.) 

Woods and banks frequent. 

D. Dillenii, Tayl. Dilleniam Fork-moss. H. 41. (sco- 
parium, a. Hook.) 

Woods, walls, and banks, more common than the last. 

D. fuscescens, Turn. Brownish Fork-moss. H. 42. 
(scoparium, y. Hook.) 

Common on the higher mountains. 

D. varium, Hedw. Variable Fork-moss. H. 42. 

Fields near Strathmartin, and wet banks between New- 
tyle and Meigle by the wayside. Marytown, near Montrose, 
Mr A. Croall. Moist banks near Farnell, Mr A. Bousie. 
IS. rufescens, Hook, Mr G. Don. 

D. hcteromalium, Hedw. Silky-leaved Fork-moss. H. 
42. 

Sidlaw Hills frequent, to their summits. Clova. Besco- 
bie. Wood between Arbroath and Auchmithie, &c. Guthrie 
Woods, Mr A. Croall. 

D. subulatum, Hedw. Awl-leaved Fork-moss. H. 43. 
Frequent on the higher mountains. 
~D. fulvellurn, Sm. Tawny Fork-moss. H. 43. 
Head of Canlochen. Summit of the Bassies, Mr A. 
Croall. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 245 

Tortula, Hedto. Screw-moss. 
Br. sp. and v. 29. F. 12. 
T. rigida, Turn. Aloe-like Screw-moss. H. 43. 

Sands of Barrie, frequent. Rocks in the Bridge-end 
quarry, Brechin, Mr J. Laing. 

T. convoluta, Sw. Convolute Screw-moss. H. 44. 
Bank, Ninewells, but the spot now destroyed. 

T. muralis, Hedw. Wall Screw-moss. H. 44. 
Walls common. 

T. nivalis, Sw. Great Hairy Screw-moss. H. 45. 
Walls, rocks, and sandy sea-shoro frequent. 

T. subulata, Hedw. Awl-shaped Screw-moss. H. 45. 

This, with /3. obtusa, Hook., is common on walls and 
banks. 

T. unguiculata, Hook, and Tayl. Bird's-claw screw-moss. 
H.45. 

Walls frequent, and on the Sands of Barrie. 

T. tortuosa, Hedw. Frizzled Mountain Screw-moss. H. 
46. 

Reeky Linn, Glen Dole, Glen Prosen, &c, sterile. 
T.fallax, Sw. Fallacious Screw-moss. H. 46. 

Common on banks, y. brevicaulis, Hook. PowrieBrae, 

Invergswrie, &c. 

T. gracilis, Hook, and Grev. p. viridis, Hook. 3fr G 
Don. 

Cinclidotus, Beauv. Lattice-moss. 
Br.sp.l. FA. 
C. fontinaloides, Beauv. Fountain Lattiee-moss. H.47. 
In the Isla, Den of Airlie, plentiful. 



246 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Polytrichum, L. Hair-moss. 

Br. sp. nd v. 17. F. 12. 
P. undulatum, Hedw. Undulated Hair-moss. H. 48. 
Shady banks, ditches, woods, abundant. 

P. hercynicum, Hedw. Hercynian Hair-moss. H. 48. 

Clova mountains frequent, as Bassies, Loch Brandy, Craig 
Maid, &c. 

P. piliferum, Schreb. Bristle-pointed Hair-moss. H. 48. 
Frequent on rocky banks from the coast to the mountains. 

P. juniperinum, Willd. Juniper-leaved Hair-moss. H. 
49. 

Hare Craigs,* Balgay, Ballutheron, and other places on 
banks and walls. 

/3. gracilius, Hook. (P. strictum, Menz.) Peat-bog, Sid- 
law Hills. Bassies, and Corrie of Clova, in ft. 

P. commune, L. Common Hair-moss. H. 49. 

Woods, and on the hills and mountains abundant. The 
stems are variable in height, in moist shady situations often 
exceeding a foot. 

P.gracile, Menz. Slender Hair-moss. H. 49. (P. com- 
mune, /3. attenuatum, Hook.) 

Restenet Moss, plentiful. 

P. alpinum, L. Alpine Hair-moss. H. 50. 

The most common species on the mountains, from two to 
five inches high, and with from one to twelve capsules. Old 
wall, Baldovan Woods, and summit of the White Hill of 
Auchterhouse, sparingly. 

P. urnigerum, L. Urn-bearing Hair-moss. H. 50. 

Abundant by the side of the Newtyle Railway, about Bal- 
beuchly and Pitpointie. Den of Mains. Rescobie. Kin- 
noul Wood, Mr A. CroalL West from the Den of Fuller- 
ton, Mr A Bousie. 

* Specimens were found in this station with two capsules enclosed in 
one calyptra. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE- 247 

P. aloides, Hedw. Dwarf Long-headed Hair-moss. H. 50. 

Wet banks, common. Variable in size ; at the Hare Craigs 
I have picked it with setse two to three inches long. y. sub- 
globosum, Tayl., with shorter capsules, is not uncommon. 

P. nanum, Hedw. Dwarf Hair-moss. H. 51. 
Banks frequent, especially on the Sidlaw Hills. 

Funaria, Schreb. Cord-moss. 
Br. sp. 3. F. 2. 
F. hygrometrica, Hedw. Hygrometric Cord-moss. H. 52* 
Banks and walls, common. 

F. Muhlenbergii, Turn. Muhlenberg's Cord-moss. H. 
52. 

Baldovan, on walls near the Forfar road ; Ninewells ; Hare 
Craigs ; sandy ground near Monifieth ; probably not uncom- 
mon. 

Zygodon, Hook, and Tayl. Yoke-moss. 

Br. sp. 2. F.l. 

Z. Mougeotii, Bruch. and Schimp. Mougeot's Yoke- 
moss. 

Crevices of moist rocks in large pulvinate masses frequent? 
as east side of White Hill, Sidlaw, Hatton Den, Dens of 
Glammis, Airlie, &c. ; Glen Dole, Glen Prosen, and Can- 
lochen, but always sterile. 

Orthotrichum, Hedw. Bristle-moss. 

Br. sp. and v. 25. F. 13. 

O. cupulatum, Hoffm. Single-fringed sessile-fruited 
Bristle-moss. H. 53. 

Trees and rocks Balgay Wood, Baldovan, Will's Braes, 
Reeky Linn, &c. Near Balgavies, Mr A. Croall. 

O. anomalum, Hedw. Anomalous Bristle-moss. H. 53. 
Near Usan, Mr A. Croall. 

0. Drummondii, Hook. Drummond's Bristle-moss H. 
54. 

Trunks of old birch-trees, Glen Dole, Clova. 



248 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

0. affine, Schrad. Pale straight-leaved Bristle-moss. H. 
54. 

Walls and trees, common. 

O. pumilum, Schwaegr. Lesser pale straight-leaved 
Bristle-moss. H. 54. (6. affine, /S. Hook.) Spruce, Lond. 
Journ. Bot., iv. 185. 

Not uncommon, as at Will's Braes, Fothringham, Reeky- 
Linn, &c. 

O. rupincola, Funck. Rock Bristle-moss. H. 54. 

Old walls Auchterhou'se and Pitpointie, plentiful. Reeky- 
Linn. Den of Foulis. Gannachy Bridge, Mr J. Laing. 

0. diaphanum, Schrad. Diaphanous-pointed Bristle-moss. 
H.54. 

Old walls frequent, as at Will's Braes, Baldovan, &c. 

0. striatum, Hedw. Common Bristle-moss. H. 55. 

On trees frequent. Hunters' Hill, Reeky Linn, Loups of 
Kenny, Baldovan, &c. 

0. speciosum, Nees. Showy Bristle-moss. H. 55. 

Clova, July 1824, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drum- 
mond. Near Montrose, Mr Reid. Den of Fullerton (pro- 
bably Mr Reid's station), Mr J. Cruickshank. Near For- 
far, Mr Drummond. 

0. crispum, Hedw. Curled Bristle-moss. H. 56. 
On trees frequent. 

0. coarctation, Beauv. (Spruce, Lond. Journ. Bot., iv. 
183.) 

Trees, Den of Glammis, Reeky Linn, &e. Probably not 
uncommon in the county, but generally taken, like the fol- 
lowing, for O. crispum. 

0. stramineum, Hornsch. (Spruce, Trans. Ed. Bot. Soc 
ii. 82.) 

Trees, Glen Dole, Clova, among Pterogonium gracile. 

O. pulchellum, Sm. Elegant Bristle-moss. H. 56. 
Trees, Den of Glammis, Reeky Linn, and more abundantly 



FLORA OJF FORFARSHIRE. 249 

about the Loups of Kenny on the Melgum. On pales Hill- 
side, and on a large boulder near Marten's Den, Mr A . 
Croall. 

Bryum, L. Thread-moss. 
Br. sp. and v. 54 F. 33. 
B. androgynum, Hedw. Narrow-leaved Thread-moss. 
H. 57. 

Den of Airlie, near the foot, on roeky banks, with gem- 
miferous heads but no ft. 

B. palustre, Sw. Marsh Thread-moss. H. 57. 

Marshes frequent. Sidlaw Hills, Kinnordy, and Clova, 
in ft. 

B. Irichodes, L. Capillary Thread-moss. H. 57. 

Sands of Barrie in several places abundant, especially to 
the eastward of the larger lighthouse. 

B. dealbatum, Dicks. Pale-leaved Thread-moss. H. 58. 

Deerhill Wood, Tealing, in ft. Fothringham Hill, sterile, 
Mr J. Donald. 

B. julaceum, Schrad. Slender-branched Thread-moss. 
H. 58: 

Beeky Linn, in ft. Clova frequent, with ft. on the Bassies. 

B. crudum, Huds. Transparent green Thread-moss. H. 
58. 

Crevices of rocks and shady places frequent. Dens of 
Mains, Glammis, Hatton, Airlie, &c. Deerhill Wood. Loch 
Brandy, Ben Bed, Bassies, Glen Dole, and other places in 
the Clova district, ft. not common. 

B. carneum, L. Soft-leaved Thread-moss. H. 59. 

Moist rocks Ninewells, and side of the Newtyle Bailway 
between Baldovan and Dundee, in the latter station observed 
in 1836. 

Fields near the Bridge of Dun, and side of the Montrose 
Basin, Mr A. Croall. Grounds of Kinnaird, and banks of the 
South Esk near Brechin Castle, Messrs Boitsie and Lainq, 
l 2 



250 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

B. Wahlenberqii, Schwaegr. Pale-leaved Thread-moss. 
H. 59. (B. albicans, Wahl.) 

This beautiful moss, which was first found in the county by 
Charles Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy, occurs on a wet bank by 
the wayside between Newtyle and Meigle ; and among the 
Clova mountains, as Loch Brandy, Glen Dole, &c. Woods, 
Kinnaird, and east gate of Carreston, Mr A. JBousie. 

B. Ludwiffii, Spreng. Ludwig's Thread-moss. H. 59. 

Clova mountains, Arnott, Drummond, Greville, Hooker. 
Principally in marshy spots on the table-lands, and more fre- 
quent in the adjoining district of Braemar. 

B. argenteum, L. Silvery Thread-moss. H. 60. 
Banks and walls, frequent. 

B. Zierii, Dicks. Zierian Thread-moss. H. 60. 
Clova and Glen Prosen, not common. 

B. capillare, L. Greater matted Thread-moss. H. 60. 

B. cazspititium, L. Lesser matted Thread-moss. H. 61. 

Both common on walls, rocks, and thatched cottages. 

B. turbinatum, Sw., B. pallens, B. and S., B. aliginosum, 
B. and S., and B. inclinatum, B. and S., occur frequently 
(the latter abundantly on the Sands of Barrie) in various 
parts of the county from the coast to the mountains, but are 
often confounded with each other, so that few recorded sta- 
tions can be depended upon. B. pallens and uliginosum 
are found in Glen Dole, and the latter on the Sidlaw Hills. 

B. nutans, Schreb. Silky pendulous Thread-moss. H. 
61. 

Woods and mountains frequent. 

B. cernuum, B. and S. Drooping-fruited Thread-moss. 
(Spruce, Trans. Ed. Bot. Soc. ii. 73.) 

Clova mountains. 

B. elonqatum, Dicks. Long-necked Thread-moss. H. 
62. 

Glen Dole near the falls, and other places in Clova. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 251 

B. alpiiium, L. Red Alpine Thread-moss. H, 62. 

Summit of Hunters' Hill, Glammis, and on the Clova 
mountains frequent, rare in ft. 

B. ventricosum, Dicks. Swelling Bog Thread-moss. H. 
62. 

Marshy places frequent, from the coast to the mountains. 

B. bimum, Schreb. 
Mr G. Don. 

B. roseum, Schreb. Rosaceous Thyme Thread-moss. H. 
63. 

Den of Bonnington, Mr J. Cruickshank. Den of Ful- 
lerton, Mr A. Bousie. In neither place has this fine species 
been found with capsules. 

B. ligulatum, Schreb. Long-leaved Thyme Thread-moss. 
H. 63. 

Woods and shady banks frequent. The ft. is scarce, but 
has been found at Kinnaird, Kinnordy, Dens of Glammis, 
Pitairlie, &c. 

B. punctatum, Schreb. Dotted Thyme Thread-moss. 
H. 63. 

Glen Ogilvy, Den of Glammis, Reeky Linn, Clova, in ft. 
Woods near Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. Guthrie Woods, and 
Werron Hill, Mr A. Croall. 

/3. aquaticum, Hook. 

Clova, Mr Drummond. Catlaw, Arnott, Hooker. 

B. mnioides, Wils. MSS. 

Rescobie marsh, and west end of Hare Craigs, with ft. in 
both places. First discovered in Yorkshire by that inde- 
fatigable muscologist, Mr John Nowell, whose specimens of 
this I have extensively distributed. 

B. rostratum, Schrad. Long-beaked Thyme Thread-moss. 
H. 64. 

Den of Glammis near the foot. Reeky Linn. Loups of 
Kenny, Mr J. Donald. Den of Fullerton, Mr A. Croall. 



252 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

B. marginatum, Dicks. Thick-edged Thyme Thread- 
moss. H. 64. 

Den of Airlie, and Clova mountains, frequent. Den of 
Fullerton, Mr A. Kerr. 

B. hornum, Schreb. Swan's-neck Thyme Thread-moss. 
H, 64. 

Woods, dens, and shady places from the coast to the moun- 
tains. 

B. cuspidatnm, Schreb. Pointed-leaved Thyme Thread- 
moss. H. 64. 

Carlowie, and Glen Dole, Clova ; sterile, with creeping 
shoots rooting at the extremity. 

Timmia, Hediv. Timmia. 
Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

T. megapolitana, Hedw. Mecklenburg Timmia. H. 66. 

" Rocks on the banks of the Isla, above Airlie Castle, dis- 
covered there by Mr Drummond in 1824." 

Bartramia, Hediv. Apple-moss. 

Br. Sp. and v. 9. F. 8. 

B. pomiformis, Hedw. Common Apple-moss. H. 66. 

Old walls and banks frequent. (B. major, Hook. On the 
mountains, and in some of the shady dens, as Airlie, Glam- 
mis, &c. 

B. ithyphylla, Brid. Straight-leaved Apple-moss. H. 
66. 

Plentiful on the mountains. 

B. gracilis, Floerke. Slender Apple-moss. H. 67- 

Cramb's Wood, Reeky Linn, and Clova. Den of Fullerton, 
Mr J. Laing. In ft. in all the stations. 

B.fonlana, Sw. Fountain Apple-moss. H. 67. 
Marshy places common, bearing ft. abundantly. On the 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 253 

Bassies, Clova, a form occurs four or five inches high, with 
slender fasciculated branches overtopping the ft. /3. mar* 
chica has been found by Mr G. Don, but no station given. 

B. Halleriana, Hedw. Hallerian Apple-moss. H. 67. 

Eeeky Linn. Bassies, and Craig Maid, Clova, in ft. 

B. arcuata, Brid. Curve-stalked Apple-moss. H. 67. 

Abundant on the Sidlaw Hills, and not unfrequent on the 
higher mountains. Rare in ft. In April 1840 I picked 40 
fruited specimens on the margin of a small marsh on the 
north-west side of the White Hill of Auchterhouse ; and Mr 
Croall has met with it in that state in Guthrie Woods, half 
a mile west from the Brechin road. 

Buxbaumia, L. Buxbaumia. 
Br. Sp. 1. F. 1. 

B. aphylla, L. Leafless Buxbaumia. H. 68. 

This interesting little plant, esteemed alike for its rarity 
and curious structure, I had the pleasure of detecting on the 
White Hill of Auchterhouse, one of the Sidlaws, in May 
1840, and have gathered it fifteen times since. The White 
Hill derives its name from the encrustation of its rocky front 
with various white lichens, as Variolaria lactea, Isidium 
paradoxum, &c. It rises with a peaked-like summit behind 
the village of Auchterhouse to the height of 1400 feet above 
the sea-level. On its northern slope there is a secondary 
hill, and here the plant was first found sparingly scattered 
in small bare hollows among the heath, where the snow had 
lain longest in the spring. In these spots its associates were 
small Polytricha and Scyphopkori, which rendered its de- 
tection more difficult. In June, the same year, two more 
specimens were obtained, and several in April 1841. In 
May 1841 seventy-two specimens were picked, and forty- 
three in May 1842. In May 1843 sixteen specimens were 
met with in the old ground ; and in April a single plant 
under the shade of heath at the south-west corner of Deer- 
hill Wood, nearly three miles distant. In 1844 ten speci- 
mens were gathered in March, forty in April, and fifty in 
May. One was procured in March, and twenty in May, 
1845. In 1846 seven were picked in February, and three 



254 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

in April ; and in March 1847 five specimens, — making in 
all nearly 300, which have been distributed to botanists 
throughout Scotland, England, and Ireland. Thirty of these 
in May 1844, and thirteen in May 1845, were obtained from 
a third station, the east shoulder of the White Hill. 

As a curious coincidence, it may be mentioned, that in the 
same month and year that the Buxbanmia was noticed as a 
native of this county, my friend, G. J. Lyon, Esq., of Glas- 
gow, found it on hills near that place ; and subsequently he 
gathered it on Benledi and the Campsie Hills. 

A great extent of ground, similar to the White Hill sta- 
tion, has been examined on the Sidlaws and the Clova range 
in search of other stations for this rarity, but hitherto with- 
out success. 

Hedwigia, Hook. Hedwigia. 
Br.sp.l: F.l. 
H. (estiva, Hook. Summer Hedwigia. H. 68. 
Reeky Linn. 

Pterogonium, Sw. Pterogonium. 
Br. sp. 3. F. 2. 
P. gracile, Sw. Slender Pterogonium. H. 69. 
Den of Glammis, Reeky Linn, Loch Brandy, Glen Dole, 
&c. Rare in ft. Den of Fullerton, Mr A. Bousie. 

V.JHiforme Schwaegr. Filiform Pterogonium. H. 70. 
Clova mountains, not common. 

Neckera, Hedw. Neckera. 
Br. sp. 3. F . 3. 

N. pumila, Hedw. Small Neckera. H. 71- 

Mr G. Don. On a beech-tree, Kinnaird Deer-park, 
sterile, 1844. Mr J. Laing. 

'N.pennata, Hedw. Feathered Neckera. H. 71. 

On the trunk of a beech at Fothringham, Mr T. Drum- 
inond, who alone has found it. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 255 

N. crispa, Hedvv. Crisped Neckera. H. 71- 
In the crevice of a rock between the White Hill and slate 
quarries, Sidlaw, sterile. Reeky Linn, in ft. plentiful. Glen 
Dole, Clova, sterile. Rocky bank of the N. Esk above the 
Burn, Mr A. Croall. 



Anomodon, Hook and Tayl. Anomodon. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

A. curtipendulum, H. and T. Pendulous Anomodon. 
H. 72. 

Old wall, Baldovan; heaths, White Hill of Auchterhouse ; 
and birch-trees, Glen Dole, sterile. In ft. on trunks of trees 
Hunters' Hill, Glammis. Wall near the old castle of Mel- 
drum, abundantly in ft. Mr A. Croall. 

A. viticulosum,TL. and T. Cylindrical Anomodon. H. 72. 
Dens of Fullerton, Hatton, Airlie, &c. Ft. rare. 

Daltonia, Hook, and Tayl. Daltonia. 
Br. sp. 1. F.l. 

D. heteromalla, H. and T. Lateral Daltonia. H. 72. 

Kinnordy, July ] 824, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drum- 
mond. ' On a tree about 300 yards east of Craigo Manse, 
May 1842, Mr A. Kerr. On trees in the garden of Old 
Montrose, July 1847, Mr J. Laing. On trees in the Deer- 
park, Kinnaird, Mr A. Boitsie. 

Fontinalis, L. Water-moss. 
Br. sp. 3. F. 1. 
F. antipyretica, L. Greater Water-moss. H. 73. 

Rivulets and ditches frequent, ft. rare. A slender alpine 
form occurs in most of the Clova streams, and in those of 
Feula and Loch Brandy it was fructifying freely in July 
1846. 



256 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Hookeria, Sm. Hookeria. 
Br. sp. 3. F. 1. 

H. lucens, Sm. Shining Hookeria. H. 74. 

Rather rare, and seldom fructifying. Drains in Baldovan 
and Strathmartin Woods. Cramb's Wood, Glammis. Woods 
of Ardovie, Mr J. Cruickshank. Banks of the N. Esk be- 
low, and in the Burn Woods above Gannachy Bridge, in ft. 
Messrs Bousie and Laing. It occurs in Den Finella, in the 
neighbouring county of Kincardine, where Mr Kerr gathers 
it annually in ft. 

Hypnum, L. Feather-moss. 
Br. sp. and v. 99. F. 62. 

H. trichomanoides, L. Blunt Fern-like Feather-moss. 
H. 75. 

Banks and trees frequent. In ft., Dens of Fullerton and 
Foulis. 

H. complanalum, L. Flat Feather-moss. H. 75. 

Shady banks and trees, frequent, ft. not common, Sidlaw 
Hills, Dens of Fullerton, Airlie, &c. 

H. riparium, L. Short-beaked Water Feather-moss* 
H. 76. 

Shady dens, as Glammis, Airlie, &c. 

H. undulatum, L, Waved Feather-moss. H. 7.6; 

Woods, and on the mountains plentiful, ft. not common. 

H. denticulatum, L. Sharp Fern-like Feather-moss. H. 76. 

Woods and walls, frequent, ft. plentiful. /3. ohtusifolium , 
Hook, is common on the mountains. 

H. tenellum, Dicks. Tender awl-leaved Feather-mos.^. 
H. 77. 

Wet sandstone rocks and caves near Auchmithie, sterile. 

II. serpens, L. Creeping White-veiled Feather-moss. 
H. 77. 

Plentiful on stones, banks, walls, and trees, ft. common. 



flora op Forfarshire. 257 

H. populeum, Hedw. Matted Feather-moss. H. 78. 
Old walls frequent, generally in ft. 

H. molle, Dicks. Soft Water Feather-moss. II. 78. 

In the " deaf-burn," Loch Brandy, Clova, growing in 
dense masses in the stream from half-way up to its top, with 
few capsules. The leaves of those branches that rise above 
the water are somewhat secund and paler. Stream on Craig 
Maid, Glen Dole, in ft. sparingly. 

H. stramineum, Dicks. Straw-like Feather-moss. H. 79. 

Feula, and other streams in the Clova district, sterile. 
Rescobie marsh, dark-coloured, slender, and sterile. Mr 
Drummond found it in ft. " on moist sandy places near Dun- 
dee," but the station has not been refound,— probably, in- 
deed, destroyed. 

H. purum, L. Neat Meadow Feather-moss. H. 80. 

Woods plentiful, ft. rare. In ft. Woods of Balgay and 
Strathmartin. 

H.piliferum, Schreb. Hair-pointed Feather-moss. H. 80. 
Den of Fullerton, without ft., Mr A. Croall. 

H. Schreberi, Willd. Schreberian Feather-moss. H. 80. 

Woods and heaths plentiful. In ft. in Baldovan and 
Deer-hill Woods. 

H. mtenulatum, Schwaegr. Catenulated Feather-moss. 
H. 81. 

Dens of Glammis and Airlie, Ben Red, Clova, &c. 
without ft. 

H. plumosum, L. Busty Feather-moss. H. 81. 

Reeky Linn. Woods, Deer-park of Kinnaird, Mr A, 
Bousie. 

H. pulchellum, Dicks. Elegant Feather-moss. 11.82. 

Hatton Den. Reeky Linn. Bassies, Clova. In ft. in 
the three stations named. 

H. rufescens, Dicks. Red mountain Feather-moss. H. 82. 



258 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Glen Dole and Glen Phee, Clova, without ft., and smaller 
than the Glen Callater specimens. 

H. polyanthos, Hook. Many-fruited Feather-moss. H. 82. 
Rocks and trees about Forfar, Mr Drummond. 

H. sericeum, L. Silky Feather-moss. H. 83. 
Walls and rocks abundant, less frequent on trees. 

H. salebrosum, Hoffm. Smooth-stalked yellow Feather- 
moss. H. 83, 

Near the Loch of Forfar, Mr Drummond. 

H. lutescens, Huds. .Rough-stalked yellow Feather-moss. 
H. 83. 

Baldovan Woods, sterile. Sands of Barrie, abundant, and 
in ft. 

H. albicans, Neck. Whitish Feather-moss. H. 84. 
Sands of Barrie, in ft. abundant. 

H. alopecurum, L. Fox-tail Feather -moss. H. 84. 

Dens of Linlathen and Airlie. Den of Fullerton, with 
var. j3. aquaticum, Hook. Mr A. Croall. 

H. dendroides, L. Tree-like Feather-moss. H. 84. 

Frequent in marshy and wet places, ft. rare. Wet sandy 
ground near Monifieth, with from five to seventy setse on 
each plant, most of them bearing capsules. In ft. near For- 
far, Mr G. Don. In ft. Balgavies and Bestenet, Mr A. 
Croall. 

H. curvatum, Sw. Curved Feather-moss. H. 85. 
On shady rocks frequent, as Balgay Wood, Beeky Linn, 
&c. 

H. myosuroides, L. Mouse-tail Feather-moss. H. 85. 
Beeky Linn. Clova. Marten's Den, Mr A. Croall. 

H. splendens, Hedw. Glittering Feather-moss. H. 85. 
Woods, banks, and wall-tops, common, ft. copious. 

H. proliferum, L. Proliferous Feather-moss. H. 85. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



259 



Abundant in woods and on banks, rarely fructifying. In 
ft. sparingly, Cramb's Wood. Den of Airlie and Loups of 
Kenny, Mr J. Donald. 

H. prcelongum, L. Very long Feather-moss. H. 86. 

Shady places frequent. 

H.Jiagellare, Dicks. Flagellate Feather-moss. H. 86. 

Clova, July 1824, Hooker, Greville, BurcheU, Drum* 
mond. 

H. abietinum, L. Spruce- tree Feather-moss. H. 87. 
Sands of Barrie frequent, but sterile. 

H. rutabulum, L. Common Rough-stalked Feather-moss. 
H. 88. 

Hedge-banks, walls, &c. common. 

H. velutinum, L. Velvet Feather-moss. H. 89. 

Banks frequent. 

H. ruscifolium, Neck. Long-beaked. Water Feather- 
moss. H. 89. 

In streams, ft. not uncommon. Small cascade, Den ot 
Mains. Rivulet by the side of the old Glammis road west 
from Tealing. Den of Glammis. Invergowrie. Den of 
Fullerton, Mr A. Croall. Den of Bonnington, Mr A. 
Bousie. 

H. striatum, Schreb. Common striated Feather-moss. 
H. 89. 

Glammis, Reeky Linn, &c. with £. minus, Hook. 

H. confertum, Dicks, Clustered Feather-moss. H. 89. 

Banks common. 

H. cuspidatum, L. Pointed Bog Feather- moss. H. 90. 

Banks of a rivulet near a chalybeate spring, between 
Broughty and Monifjeth, ft. April. Marshes Rescobie, plen- 
tiful, ft. June. Reeky Linn, ft. May. 



260 flora of Forfarshire; 

H. cordifolium, Hedw. Heart-leaved Feather-moss. 
H. 90. 

Rivulets, Sidlaw Hills, sterile. Marshes, Rescobie, in ft. 

H. votymorphitm, Hedw. Variable-leaved Feather-moss. 
H. 90. 

Sands of Barrie, in moist places, ft. rare. 

H. stellatum, Schreb. Yellow Starry Feather-moss. 
H. 90. 

Sidlaw Hills, in ft. Turin Hill. /J. minus, Hook. Sands 
of Barrie, a little to the east of the light-houses, sterile. 

H. loreum, L. Rambling Mountain Feather-moss. H. 

Hills and woods abundant, ft. frequent. 

H. triquetrum, L. Triquetrous Feather-moss. H. 91. 

Abundant in woods, not common in ft. Loups of Kenny, 
Den of Foulis, &c. with four or five setae from the same peri- 
cheetium bearing ripe capsules, May, October. Woods north 
from Kinnaird, ft. March, Mr A. Bousie. 

H. squarrosum, L. Droopingf-leaved Feather-moss. H. 
92. 

Banks and woods frequent, ft. not uncommon. 

H. filicinum, L. Lesser golden Fern Feather-moss. H. 
92. 

"White Hill, Sidlaw, and Reeky Linn, with ft. in both places. 

H. atro-virens, Dicks. Dark-green Feather-moss. H. 93. 

Den of Airlie, on rocky banks below the Castle, and in 
Hatton Den, near Newtyle, sterile. 

H. palustre, L. Marsh Feather -moss. H. 93. 

Wet places and banks of streams frequent, very variable in 
size. 

H.Jluitans, L. Floating Feather-moss. H. 93. 

Pools and rivulets frequent, ft. rare. With ft. in Kinnordy 
Moss, and Dryburn rivulet, which descends from the Sidlaws 
into Glen Ogilvy. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 261 

H. aduncum, L. Claw-leaved Feather-moss. H. 94. 

Bogs common, /3. rugosum, Hook. Sidlaw Hills. 

H. lycojJodioides, Schwaegr. Lycopodium-like Feather- 
moss. 

Sands of Barrie to the east of the light-houses, sterile. 

H. uncinatum, Hedw. Sickle-leaved Feather-moss. 
H. 94. 

Old walls and rocks from the coast to the mountains, ft. 
common. 

H. commutatum, Hedw. Curled Fern Feather-moss. 
H. 94. 

Spring, Ninewells, sterile. In ft. near Auchmithie, Den 
of Glammis, and Reeky Linn. Near Marten's Den, and 
rocks near Dysart, Mr A. Croall. 

H. scorpioides, L. Scorpion Feather-moss. H. 95. 

Bogs and marshy banks of streams, ft. rare. With ft. 
near Dun's Dish, Mr A. Croall, 

H. Silesianum, Beauv. Silesian Feather-moss. H. 95. 

Loch Brandy, among rocks and boggy hollows, just where 
the " loch stream" issues from the Lake, in ft. 

H. cupressiforme, L. Cypress-leaved Feather-moss. H. 
95. 

This and /3. compression, Hook., are common on walls, &c # 

H. Crista-castrensis, L. Ostrich-plume, or Prince's- 
feather-moss. H. 96. 

Abundant on the rocks below the Falls of the White Water, 
Glen Dole, in ft. sparingly. (Plentiful in ft. Augt. 1838, 
Mr A. Croall.) Fir-wood north-east from Forfar ; Deer- 
hill Wood, southside ; and Bald o van Woods, in several places ; 
sterile. Guthrie Woods, rare, Mr A. Croall. 

H. molluscum, Hedw. Plumy-crested Feather-Moss. 
H. 96. 

Baldovau Woods. Reekv Linn. Banks below Marten's 



262 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Den, Mr A. Croall. Old wall west from Brechin, Mr A. 
Bousie. 



Obd.III.— HEPATICJE. LIVERWORTS. 
Gen. Br. 10. F . 5. Sp. and v. Br. 152. F. 66. 

Riccta, L. Riccia. 

Br. sp. and v. 5. F. 1. 

It. crt/stallina, L. Crystalline Riccia. H. 98. 

Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. Garden, Hillside, Montrose ; 
and Moor of Guthrie, on clay, Mr A. Croall, who remarks 
that " the plant is at first of a glaucous green colour, with a 
thick fleshy texture, eventually becoming thinner, transpa- 
rent, and of a yellowish hue." 

Anthoceros, L. Anthoceros. 

Br. sp. and v. 2. F. 1. 

A. punctatus, L. Dotted Anthoceros. H. 100. 

South side of Montrose Basin, ft. rare, Mr A. Croall. 
Banks of the Pow (or lint-pond), Kinnaird, and moist places 
by the North Esk at Stracathro, Mr A. Bousie. 

Marchantia, Mich. Marchantia. 

Br. sp.2. F. 1. 

M. polymorpha^li. Polymorphous Marchantia. H. 102. 

In ft. Den of Mains. Small marsh, in a fir wood north-east 
from Forfar, side of a rivulet south from Lumley Den, Dens 
of Foulis and Liff, and banks of Feula Burn, Clova, above the 
falls, with dioecious fructification. Rivulets Sidlaw Hills, not 
uncommon with gemniferous cups on the fronds. Moist 
shaded places, deer-park, Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

Fegatella, Cwsalp. Fegatella. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

F. conica, Tayl. Conical-fruited Fegatella. H. 103. 

Reeky Linn, plentiful in ft. Mill-dam in the moor above 
Bonnington, Mr A. Croall. Not uncommon, sterile. 






FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 263 

F. hemispherica, Tayl, Hemispherical-fruited Fegatella. 
H. 104. 

Abundant in moist places on the Sands of Barrie and among 
the Clova Mountains. Hare Craigs. Reeky Linn. Den of 
Fullerton, Mr A. Bousie. 

Jungermannia, L. Jungemiannia. 
Br. sp. and v. 133. F. 61. 

J. ffookcri, Sm. Hookerian Jungermannia. H. 107- 
Kinnordy Moss, C. Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. 

J. asplenioides, L. Spleenwort J. H. 107- 

Balgay, Rescobie, Airlie, Sidlaw Hills, &c, sterile. In 
ft. Guthrie Woods, Mr A. Croall, and Kinnaird Woods, Mr 
A. Bousie. 

J. Dillenii, Tayl. Dillenian J. {Trans. Ed. Bot. Soc. ii. 
116.) 

Banks of Rescobie Lake, and other places, sterile. 

J, spinulosa, Dicks. Prickly-leaved J. H. 107. 
Shady places frequent : with calyces at Reeky Linn. 

J. Doniana, Hook. Donian J. H. 108. 

Glova, July 1824, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drummond. 
Calyces found by Dr Greville. 

J. pumila With. Dwarf J. H. 108. 
Moist places, Sidlaw Hills, frequent in ft. 

J. cordifolia, Hook. Heart-leaved J. H. 108. 

Streams, Sidlaw Hills and Clova Mountains, frequent. Ca- 
lyces have been found by C. Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. 

J. crenulata, Sm. Crenulated J. H. 109. 

Hare Craigs, Sidlaw Hills, Reeky Linn, ft. common. 

J. comprcssa, Hook. Compressed upright J. H. 109. 
Clova, 1843. 

J. emarginata, Ehrh. Notched J. H. 110. 



264 FLORA Of FORFARSHIRE. 

Abundant on the rocks of Clova and Canlochen, very vari- 
able in size. Baldovan, Sidlaws, Reeky Linn, &c. Calyces 
and capsules occur, but are not common in any of the stations. 

J. concinnata, Lightf. Braided J. H. 110. 

Bassies, Loch Brandy, Glen Dole, &c. Canlochen. Not 
uncommon among the mountains, but rare in ft. 

J. Orcadensis, Hook. Orkney J. H. 110. 
Frequent on the Clova Mountains, sterile. 

J. inflata, Huds. Inflated J. H. 110. 
Hare Craigs, and Lawhill, Dundee. 

J. excisa, Dicks. Small notch-leaved J. H. 111. 

White Hill of Auchterhouse/ ft. plentiful. Moist banks 
west from Kinnaird, Mr A. Bousie. 

J. ventricosa, Dicks, Tumid J. H. 111. 
Boggy places, Clova, sterile. 

J. bicuspidata, L. Bicuicpidate J. H. 111. 

Old tree roots Invergowrie Thicket, sterile. 

J. byssacea, Both. Byssus-like J. H. 112. 

Clova Mountains, Mr G. Don. Guthrie Moors, Mr A. 
Croall. 

J. curvifolia, Dicks. Curve-leaved J. H. 112. 
Clova Mountains, Mr G. Don. 

J. incisa, Schrad. Jaey-leaved J. H. 113. 
Old wall foot of White Hill of Auchterhouse. 

J.pusilla,li. Dwarf J. H. 113. 

Den of Foulis in ft. Moist banks frequent. 

J. nemorosa, L. Wood J. H. 113. 

Sidlaw Hills and Clova Mountains, in rivulets and marshy 
places frequent. 

/3. purpurascens, Hook. Clova. 

J. undulata, L. Wavy-leaved J. H. 114. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 265 

Reeky Linn, in ft. Clova, Mr J. Cruickshank. 

J. resit pinata, L. Curled J. H. 114. 

Clova Mountains, July 1846. 

J. albicans, L. Whitish J. H. 114. 

Moist woods, heaths, dens, old walls, &c., ft. not common. 

/3. procumbcns, Hook. Mountains frequent. 

J. Dlcksoni, Hook. Bicksonian, J. II. 115. 
Castle-hill, Kirriemuir, and Kinnordy, C. Lyell, Esq. 

J. cochlear if ormis, Weis. Hollow-leaved J. H. 115. 
Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 

J. complanata, L. Flat J. H. 116. 
Trees common, less so on walls, ft. plentiful. 

J. Taylori, Hook. Taylorian J. H. 116. 

Moist rocks foot of Craig Maid, Glen Dole, plentiful. West 
Werron, Mr A. Croall. 

J. scalaris, Schrad. Ladder J. H. 116. 
Reeky Linn and Clova, frequent. 

J. poh/anthos, Jj. Many-flowered J. H. 117. 

Lead near Dryburn, Glen Ogilvy, and stream?, Clova, 
sterile. Sidlaw Hills in ft. 

J. Trichomanis, Dicks. Fern J. II. 117. 
Moist banks frequent. 

J. bidentata, L. Triangular-sheathed J. H. 118. 

Woods and on walls frequent, ft. not uncommon. 

J, barbata, Schreb. Toothed J. H. 119 

Frequent on the Sidlaw Hills, ft. rare. /3. minor, Hook. 
Clova. 

.T. Lyoni, Tayl. Lyon's J. (Trans. Bot. Soc. Ed. i. 116.) 

Deerhill Wood, White Hill, Reeky Linn, &c. First dis- 
covered at Dunoon near Glasgow by G. J. Lyon, Esq. 

M 



268 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

J. albescens, Hook. Small pale J. H. 

Clova, July 1824, Hooker, Greville, Burchell, Drummond. 

J. reptans, L. Creeping J. H. 119. 
Clova mountains, Mr G. Bon. 

J. trilobate/, L. Three-toothed J. H. 119. 
Rocks, base of Craig Maid, Glen Dole. 

J.juniperina, Sw. Juniper-leaved J. H. 120. 
Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. Glen Phee, &c. 

J.julacea, L. Silvery alpine J. H. 120. 

Glen Dole and Glen Phee frequent, ft. rare. Plentiful on 
Lochnagar, in the neighbouring county of Aberdeen. 

J. tricophylla, L. Hairy J. H. 121. 
Reeky Linn, rare. 

J. setiformis, Ehrh. Four-lobed J. H. 121. 

Ben Red, Glen Phee, Glen Dole, and other places in 
Clova, frequent, in broad cushioned tufts on rocks, sterile. 

J. platyphylla, L. Flat-leaved J. H. 121. 

Dens of Airlie, Glammis, Foulis, Linlathen, Fullerton, &c. 

/3. major, Hook. Reeky Linn. 

J. ciliaris, L. Ciliated J. H. 122. 

Sidlaw Hills plentiful, but sterile. Bassies, Clova, with 
calyces, 1840, among Dicrana ; and in spreading flaky patches 
on old birches foot of Craig Maid, Glen Dole, 1846, bearing 
abundance of capsules. Hooker says, " This beautiful species 
has never, so far as I am aware, been seen with capsules in 
this country. Even the calyces are rare." The discovery of 
its fructification is therefore interesting, and various botanists 
will have an opportunity of examining it. The mountain 
form is very different in appearance from that of the lower 
hills and woods, being small and procumbent ; but the struc- 
ture of the leaves and their colour are the same. 

J. iomentella, Ehrh. Spongy J. H. 122. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 267 

Near the pond of Kiimaird, and by the side of the N. Esk, 
a little above Gannachy Bridge, Mr A. Bousie. 

.1. serpgllifolia, Dicks. Thyme-leaved J. H. 123. 
Den of Air lie, and Clova, sterile. 

J. di la lata, L. Dilated J. H. 125. 
Walls and trees common, ft. frequent. 

J. Tamarisci, L. Tamarisk J. II. 125. 

Old walls, trees, and banks, plentiful, ft. not uncommon. 

J. multifida, L. Many-lobed J. 125. 

Moist places frequent. Monifieth, Sands of Barrie, Strath- 
martin, &c. 

J. Blasia, Hook. Flask-bearing J. H. 126. 

Reeky Linn, with ft. in April 1812. Milltown of Moni- 
fieth, west side of the railway bridge at the mouth of the 
Dighty, ft. young, Feb. 1847. Mericmoor Wood (now de- 
stroyed). Glen Dole, Clova. 

J. epiphylla, L. Broad-leaved J. H. 126. 

Sides of springs and shady banks, frequent. In ft. Foth- 
ringham, Deerhill, and Baldovan Woods, March to June. 

/3. longifolia, Hook. 

In ft. near a small waterfall west side of Craig Owl, Sid- 
law, April. Side of a small rill between Broughty and Moni- 
fieth. Moist places on the " terrace " or steep rocks on the 
north banks of the Esk, west from Brechin Castle, April 
1847, Mr IV. Anderson. 

J. calycina, Tayl. (J. epiphylla, y. furcigera, Hook. 
127.) 

Wet rocks, Den of Pitlyall, sterile. 

3. /areata, L. Forked J. H. 127. 
Rocks and ti'ees frequent, ft. not common. 

y. aruginosa, Hook. 

Reeky Linn, and on trunks of trees between the marsh of 
Rescobie and the lake, investing them with dense spreading 



268 FLORA Of FORFARSHIRE. 

masses of a yellowish-green colour, the small upright fronds 
assuming a verdigris-green hue after drying. 

J. pubescens, Schrank. Downy J. H. 127. 

Den of Airlie, plentiful. Loups of Kenny, Mr J. Donald. 

J. Lyellii, Hook. Lyell's J. H. 127. 

Drumly Airy, a waterfall on the Noran ; and /3. Hiber- 
nica, Hook. Catlaw, G. Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. 



Ord.'IV.— LICHENES. LICHENS. 
<?<»)i. Br. 39. F. 38. Sp. and v. Br. 472. F. 181. 

BjEOMYCES, Pers. Bseomyces. 

Br. sp. 3. F. 3. 

B. roseus, Pers. Rose-coloured Mushroom Bsomyce.*. 
H. 137. 

Old walls Baldovan, Sidlaw Hills, and Clova. 

B. rufus, Wahl. Brown Mushroom Bseomyces. H. 137. 
Walls and rocks, Baldovan ; Sidlaw Hills, &c. 

B. placophyllus, Wahl. Thick-crusted Bseomyces. H. 
137. 

Sidlaw Hills fz-equent, ft. not common. 

Calicium, Ach. Calicium. 
Br. sp. and v. 20. F. 1. 

C. furfuraceum, Pers. Sulphureous Calicium. H. 142. 

Cramb's wood, near Glammis, in ft. rare. (Future obser- 
vation will undoubtedly increase our county list of these and 
other minute lichens. C. sessile has been found by Mr 
Bousie in the Carse of Gowrie.) 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 269 

Arthonia, Ach. Arthonia. 

Br.sp. 3. FA. 

A. Swartziana, Ach. Swartzian Arthonia. II. 143. 
On trees Will's Braes. 

Opegrapha, Ach. Opegrapha. 
Br.sp. andv. 17. FA. 
0. atra, Pers. Black Opegrapha. H. 145. 
Trees frequent. 

Verrucaria, Pers. Verrucaria. 
Br. sp. and v. 32. F. C. 
V. biformiSf Borr. Deceptive bark Verrucaria. H. 150. 
Trees near Camperdown, rare. 

V. inaura, Ach. Black-moor Bock Verrucaria. H. 154. 

On porphyretic rocks banks of the Tay, but most abun- 
dant on the Fife side. Its usual associate, the bright yellow 
Squamaria elegans, is rendered more conspicuous hy the 
black hue which this lichen gives to the rocks. 

V. nitida, Schrad., cinerea, Pers., epidermis, Ach., and 
nigrescens, Pers, are enumerated in Don's Clova list. 

Endocarpon, Hedw. Endocarpon. 
Br. sp. and v. 17. F. 4. 

E. miniatum, Ach. Grey cloudy Endocarpon. H. 156. 

Bridge of Milna-craig above Beeky Linn. Don'slist includes 
this species and the following : — E. miniatum, /3. complicatum. 
Hook., y. aquaticum, Hook., and E. smaragdulum, Ach. 

Pertusaria, Ach. Pertusaria. 
Br. sp. 5. F. Q,. 
P. communis, DC. Common Pertusaria. H. 160. 
Den of Glammis, Beeky Linn, and Clova, on trees. 



270 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

V.fallax, Ach. Doubtful Pertusaria. H. 160. 
Mr G. Don. 

Lepraria, Ach. Lepraria. 
Br. sp. 9. F. 2. 

L.flava, Ach. Bright Yellow Lepraria. H. 163. 
On trees Den of Mains, and rocks on the Bassies, Clova. 

L. alba, Ach. White Lepraria. H. 163. 

On mosses, Sidlaw Hills, Reeky Linn, and Clova. 

Spiloma, Ach. Spiloma. 
Br. sp. and v. 19. F. ] . 

S. sphierale, Ach. Globose parasitic Spiloma. H. 165. 
On Isidium paradoxtim, Sidlaw Hills, frequent. 

Variolaria, Pers. Variolaria. 
Br. sp. and v. 17. F. 3. 
V. globulifei-a, Turn. Globuliferous Variolaria. H. 169. 
On rocks, Sidlaw Hills. 

V. discoidea, Pers. Insipid zoned Variolaria. H. 169. 
On trees, Den of Mains. 

V '. faginea, Pers. Bitter zoned Variolaria. H. 169. 

Trees, Deerhill, and Hunters' Hill Woods. Kinnaird, 
Mr J. Laing. 

Urceolaria, Ach. Urceolaria. 
Br. Sp. and v. 7. F . 6. 
U. scruposa, Ach. Common Urceolaria. H. 172. 
Den of Mains, Auchterhouse, and Sidlaw Hills. 

U. gibbosa, Ach. Gibbous-fruited Urceolaria. H. 172. 
Sidlaw Hills, on rocks. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 271 

U. calcarea, Ach. Calcareous Urceolaria. II. 172. 
Lawhill, Dundee; Baldovan ; Sidlaw Hills, &c. 

U. cinerea, Ach. Grey Urceolaria. II. 172. 
Sidlaw Hills. 

U. Ackarii, Wahl. Acharian Urceolaria. H. 172, and 
var. /3. cyrtaspis, Hook., with the others named above, are 
recorded in Don's Clova list. 

Lecidea, Ach. Lecidea. 

Br. sp. and v. 73. F. 25. 

L. atrata, Wahl. ? Inky-crusted Lecidea. PI. 174. 
Granitic rocks in Glen Esk, Mr G. Don. 

L. cechumena, Ach. Confused black and olive Lecidea. 
II. 175. 

Coast ; Lawhill ; Sidlavvs ; Clova. 

L. petraea, Ach. Rock Lecidea. H. 175. 
Walls and rocks frequent. 

L. confluens, Ach. Confluent-shielded Lecidea. H. 175. 

Rocks and walls plentiful, apothecia very variable in form, 
size, and disposition. 

L. eleochroma, Ach. Common black-shielded Lecidea. 
H. 176. (L. parasema, Acb.) 

On trees common. 

L. geographica, Hook. Map Lecidea. II. 178. 

Plentiful on theprimitive rocks from the coast to the highest 
mountain summits. 

L. silacea, Ach. and L. CEderi, Ach. H. 178. 

On the Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains frequent, asso- 
ciated with L. confluens, from some states of which they are 
scarcely to be distinguished except by the colour of the 
thallus, and that is variable. Not unfrequently, indeed, the 
grey, yellow, and red hues are blended in one specimen, and 



272 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

the apothecia being alike, it is difficult to say which of the 
reputed species it should be referred to. 

L. albo-atra, Borr. Black and white Lecidea. H. 180. 
Bocks on the coast, frequent. 

L. fused- lutea, Ach. Brownish-yellow Lecidea. IT. 183. 
Clova mountains. 

L. ferruginea, Hook. Busty-shielded Lecidea. H. 184. 
Bocks on the coast; Lundie Craigs; Turin; Sidlaws; Clova. 

L. icmadophila, Ach. Heath Lecidea. H. 184. 

Sidlaw Hills, and Clova mountains plentiful, on the earth 
or coating mosses, ft. common. 

L. polytropa, Ach. Horn-coloured Lecidea. H. 185. 
White Hill, Sidlaw. Clova, Mr G. Don. 

L. erythrella, Borr. Orange stone Lecidea. H. 186. 
Lundie Craigs, in ft. rare. 

The following are inserted on the authority of Mr G. Don, 
who gives them in his list of Clova lichens : — 

L. atro-alba, Ach., L. fusca-atra, Ach., L. muscorum, 
Hook., L. viridi-atra, Ach., L. rivulosa, Ach., L. pruinosa, 
Ach., L. expallens, Borr., L. quadricolor, Borr., L, pezi- 
zoides, Dicks., L. riipestris, Ach., L. vernalis, Borr., and 
L. marmorea, Ach. 

Lecanora, Ach. Lecanora. 

Br. sp. and v. 33. F. 14. 

L. atra, Ach. Black-shielded Lecanora. H. 186. 
Walls and rocks, ft. plentiful. 

L. glaucoma, Ach. Wall-eyed Lecanora. H. 189. 

Bocks and walls frequent. On the Lawhill, Dundee, and 
the Sidlaw Hills, ft. plentiful. 

L. subfusca, Ach. Brown-shielded Lecanora. H. 189. 
Common on trees, less so on rocks and walls. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 273 

L. ventosa, Ach. Red-spangled Lecanora. H. 189. 

White Hill, Sidlaw, rare; common on rocks on all the 
Clova mountains. The crust varies in colour, being greenish, 
grey, or pale pink. 

L. Hcematomma, Ach. Blood-specked Lecanora. H. 
190. 

Lundie Craigs, but less plentiful than at West Water on 
the south banks of the Tay. Clova, Mr G. Don. 

L. crenulata, Hook. Little crenulated Lecanora. H. 190. 
Rocks, Will's Braes, &c. 

L. varia, Ach. Variable-shielded Lecanora. H. 190. 

Ben Red, Clova, not common. 

L. albella, Ach. Cream-coloured Lecanora. H. 191. 

On trees, Baldovan, Camperdown, &c. Apparently a 
mere var. of /3. subfusca. 

L. Parella, Ach. Crab's-eye Lecanora. H. 191. 
Walls and rocks frequent. 

L. tartar ea, Ach. Tartareous Lecanora, or Cudbear. 
H.191. 

Rocks, Clova, plentiful. Rare on the Sidlaw Hills, and at 
Reeky Linn. /3. Upsaliensis, Hook., on the summits of 
most of the Clova mountains, spreading over the heaths and 
mosses. 

L. vitellina, Ach. Yolk-of-Egg Lecanora. H. 192. 
Rocks, Will's Braes ; Kinpurny, Sidlaw ; and Clova. 

The following species are enumerated by Don as natives of 
the Clova mountains : L. cerina, Ach., L. crenulata, Hook., 
and L. Hcematomma, Ach. 

Psora, Hoffm. Psora. 

Br. sp. 6. F. 3. 

P. coerulea-nip-escens, Hook., and P. alro-rufa, Hook., are 
in Don's list of Clova species. 
m 2 



274 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

P. scalaris, Hook. Olive and black imbricated Psora. 
H. 192. 

Reeky Linn. 

Squamaria, Hook. Squamaria. 

Br. sp. andv. 21. F. 7. 

S. hypnorum, Hook. Spreading ground Squamaria. H. 
194. 

Glen Dole, Clova, not common. 

S. candelaria, Hook. Yellow candle Squamaria. H. 194. 

Walls and rocks, not common. Clova ; Balbeuchly ; In- 
vergowrie. 

S. elegans, Hook. Elegant orange Squamaria. H. 195. 
Rocks on the coast frequent. 

S. gelida, Delise. Flesh-coloured alpine Squamaria. H. 
195. 

Clova mountains near their summits. It also occurs near 
the summit of Ben Lawers, Perthshire, and at the Linn of 
Dee, Aberdeenshire, as in Clova, always upon the micace- 
ous schist. 

S. affinis, Hoek. Spongy Squamaria. H. 196. 
On trees, Glen Dole, Clova, not common, in ft. 

S. circinata, Hook. Circinate Squamaria. H. 196. 
Clova, Mr G. Don. 

S. saxicola, Hook. Radiated wall Squamaria. H. 197. 

"Walls and rocks frequent. Clova ; Reeky Linn ; near 
Brechin ; Balbeuchly ; Broughty Castle ; Hare Craigs ; 
Ninewells ; and on the " Paddock Stane" near Invergowrie — 
a large boulder of gneiss which is probably the remaining; 
pillar of a Druidical temple. 

Placodium, Fee. Placodium. 
Br.sp.L F.2. 

P. canescens, DC. Greytree Placodium. H. 197 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



275 



On trees frequent ; and not uncommon on walls and rocks, 
as Broughty Castle ; Blackness ; Will's Braes ; Mains ; 
Auldbar, &c. 

P. plumbeum, Hook. Lead-coloured spongy Placodium. 
II. 197. 

Clova, Mr G. Don. 

Parmelia, Ach. Parmelia. 

Br. Sp. 32. F. 18. 

P. glomulifera, Ach. Glomuliferous Parmelia. H. 198. 
Lundie Craigs, rare. Clova, Mr G. Don. 

P. cajjerala, Ach. Wrinkled sulphur Parmelia. H. 198. 

Baldovan and Peerhill Woods ; Hare Craigs. Clova, Mr 
G. Don. Old walls west from Kinnaird Castle, Mr J. Laing. 

P. conspersa, Ach. Greenish chesnut-shielded Parmelia. 
II. 198. 

Walls and rocks frequent from the coast to Clova. It is 
particularly abundant on the Hare Craigs west from Broughty 
Perry, and bearing ft. copiously. 

P. saxatilis, Ach. Grey stone Parmelia. H. 199. 

Walls and rocks abundant from the coast to the mountains, 
ft. not uncommon. 

P. omphalodes, Ach. Purple rock Parmelia. H. 199. 

Sidlaw Hills, and more abundant on the Clova mountains, 
i't. common. 

P. perlata, Ach. Pearly Parmelia. H.200. 
Walls, Pitponitie, rare, sterile. 

P. herbacea, Ach. Bright-green Parmelia. H. 200. 

Old walls near Auldbar, sterile. Old elms near Kinnaird, 
Mr A. Croall. Clova, Mr G. Don. 

P. olivacea, Ach. Olive-coloured Parmelia. H. 200. 

Walls, rocks, and trees, common, ft. rather rare. In ft. 
Beeky Linn, Airlie, Camperdown, Hare Craigs, and Clova. 



276 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



P. pulverulenta, Ach. Green powdery Parmelia. H. 
201. 

Walls plentiful, ft. frequent. 

P. pityrea, Ach ? Scurfy imbricated Parmelia. H. 201. 
Marten's Den, rare, sterile, Mr A. Croall. 

P. stellaris, Ach. Black-shielded stellated Parmelia. 
H. 201. 

Walls, trees, and old pales, frequent, with ft. 

P. Fahlunensis, Ach. Flat black Parmelia. H. 202. 
Rocks on most of the Clova mountains, ft. abundant. 

P. stygia, Ach. Stygian Parmelia. H. 202. 
Rocks, Clova, in ft., but not common. 

P. aquila, Ach. Sun-burnt Parmelia. H. 203. 

Bocks on the coast plentiful, and on Turin Hill and Lundie 
Craigs, ft. common. 

P. ambiqua, Ach. Yellowish powdery Parmelia. H. 
203. V 

Kinnordy, sterile, H. B. F. 

P. parietina, Ach. Yellow wall Parmellia. H. 204. 

Walls, rocks, and trees, plentiful, the thallus from pale 
yellowish green to deep orange, ft. abundant. 

P. physodes, Ach. Inflated Parmelia. H. 204. 

Walls and trees common, ft. rather rare. In ft. on trees 
in Baldovan and Deerhill Woods ; and on walls, Baldovan, 
Camperdown, Auchterhouse, Auldbar, &c. Near Kinnaird, 
Mr A. Boasie. 

P. erosa, Bort. MSS. Corroded Parmelia. Walls, Will's 
Braes, and Auldbar, sterile. 

Sticta, Ach. Sticta. 

Br. sp. 8. F. 4. 

S. pulmonaria, Hook. Lungwort Sticta. H. 206. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 277 

Old birch trees, Glen Dole. Craigs of Lundie ; Hill of 
Turin ; Reeky Linn. North face of the Rock of St Skae, 
near Usan, Mr A. Croall. No ft. 

S. scrobiculata, Ach. Pitted Sticta. H. 206. 

Clova ; Reeky Linn ; Lundie Craigs ; Sands of Barrie, 
sterile. In the latter station it grows on the bare sand, in 
the others on rocks and trees. 

S. limbata, Ach. Mealy-bordered Sticta. H. 206. 
Clova, Mr G. Don. 

S. syhatica, Ach. Pitted wood Sticta. H. 207. 
On rocks, Reeky Linn, sterile. 

Collema, Ach. Collema. 
Br. sp. and v. 33. F. 9. 

C. nigrescens, Ach. Bat's- wing Collema. H. 211. 

Reeky Linn ; Den of Glammis ; Glen Dole, &c, mostly 
on rocks. 

Cflaccidum, Ach. Flaccid Collema. H. 211. 
Reeky Linn. Clova, Mr G. Don. 

C. lacerum, Ach. Jagged Collema. H. 213. 

Among mosses in shady places frequent, as the Dens of 
Glammis, Airlie, Glen Dole, &c, in ft. at Reeky Linn. 

C. subtile, Ach. Fine-spun Collema. H. 213. 
Reeky Linn. 

C. tenuissimum, Ach. Fine-cut Collema. 

C. spongiosum, Ach. Spongy Collema. H. 213. 
Both on the sands of Barrie. 

Mr G. Don enumerates the following species : C. satur- 
ninum, Ach., C. crispum, Borr., and C. fasciculare, Ach., 
and probably many others will be added by future observation. 



£ / O FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Solorina, Ach. Solorina. 

Br. sp. 2. F. 2. 

S. crocea, Ach. Saffron Solorina. H. 214. 

Summits of the Bassies, White Bent, &c., Clova ; in ft. 

S. saccata, Ach. Socket Solorina. H. 214. 

Crevices of rocks, Glen Dole ; Canlochen ; Glen Prosen ; 
Reeky Linn, &c, in ft. 

Peltidea, Ach. Peltidea. 

Br. sp. 8. F. 6. 

P. venosa, Ach. Black-veined Peltidea. H. 215. 

Rocky hanks Reeky Linn ; and on an old wall foot of the 
White Hill, a little above the village of Auchterhouse, ft. 
West Water, near the old Castle of Edzell, Mr A. Croall. 

P. scutala, Ach. Target-fruited Peltidea. H. 215. 

Clova, not common. 

P. horizontalis, Ach. Brown horizontal Peltidea. H. 
215. 

Banks and rocky places frequent. 

P. aphihosa, Ach. Thrush Peltidea. H. 215. 

Rocky places frequent, but the ft. rare. In that state on 
the Sands of Barrie, and on the west side of the White Hill. 

P. canina, Ach. Canine Peltidea. H. 215. 
Woods, heaths, and banks plentiful. 

P. polydactyla, Ach. Many-fingered Peltidea. H. 216. 
Waysides frequent. 

Nephroma, Ach. Nephroma. 

Br.sp.2. F.l. 

N. resupinata, Ach. Resupinate Nephroma. H. 216. 

Rocks and trees, in ft., not common. Reeky Linn ; Lun- 
die Craigs ; Turin Hill; Glen Dole. Between Usan and 
Lunan Bay, Mr A. Croall. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 2?9 

Gyrophora, Ach. Gyrophora. 

Br. Sp. and v. 8. F. 6. 

G. polyphylla, Hook. Many-leaved Gyrophora. H. 217. 

G. proboscidea, Ach. Proboscis Gyrophora. H. 217- 

G. dettsia, Ach. Burnt Gyrophora. H. 218. 

G. erusa, Ach. Corroded Gyrophora. H. 218. 

G. cylindrica, Ach. Fringed Gyrophora. H. 218. 

G. pellita, Ach. Fleecy Gyrophora. PI. 219. 

These all occur more or less abundantly on stones and 
rocks on most of the higher mountains ; and the first one has 
also been picked on the Sidlaw Hills and Hare Craigs, 
though rarely. 

Umbilicaria, Fee. Umbilicaria. 
Br. sp. 1. F.I. 
U. puslulata, Schrad. Blistered Umbilicaria. 11.219. 
Clova mountains, Mr G.Don. 

Cetraria, Ach. Cetraria. 
Br. sp. and v. 7. F. 6. 

C. juniperina, Ach. Golden Cetraria, fi. pinastri, Hook. 
H. 220. 

Trees, Kinnordy, C. Lyell, Esq. 

C. sepincola, Ach. Fence Cetraria. H. 220. 

Deerhill Wood, plentiful on the trunks and branches of 
fir trees, the apothecia rare. Old wall, foot of White Hill, 
seldom, however, found on stone. Kinnordy, C. Lyell, Esq. 

C. glauca, Ach. Glaucous Cetraria. H. 220. 

Trunks and branches of trees, especially firs, and on rocks 
and the ground, Clova mountains, frequent. Frequent in ft. in 
Deerhill Wood, and sterile fronds very much ciliated occur in 
Baldovan Woods, and on the l'ocks of Clova. The underside 
is usually brown or blackish, but often chequered with white, 



280 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

and when almost wholly white is (Z.fallax, Hook. (C.fal- 
lax, Ach.) 

C. nivalis, Ach. Snow Cetraria. H. 221. 

Bassies ; Ben Red; Loch Brandy ; and other of the Clova 
summits, never descending much below 3000 feet, always 
sterile. 

C. Islandica, Ach. Iceland Cetraria, (the Iceland Moss 
of commerce.) Sidlaw Hills frequent ; but more abundant 
on the Clova mountains. Moors around Forfar, Mr A. 
Croall. The ft. is rarer on the Clova mountains than on 
those of Braemar ; I picked several specimens on a hill near 
Loch Wharral, known as the " Cat's-tae." 

Dr Davidson of Glasgow states, on the authority of Berze- 
lius, that this lichen in 100 parts comprises the following in- 
gredients : — 



Chlorophylle, 


1.6 


Bitter principle, 


3.0 


Uncrystallizable sugar, 


3.6 


Gum, 


3.7 


Apothem of extractive, 


7.0 


Starch, 


44.6 


Bilichinates of potass and lime, &c. 


1.9 


Amylaceous fibrin, . . 


36.2 



When deprived of the bitter principle by boiling, a fine 
jelly is procured, which, when mixed with wheaten flour, 
forms, it is said, a " perfectly sweet bread." It is much used 
in medicine. 

Borrera, Ach. Borrera. 
Br. Sp. 7. F . 3. 
B. ciliaris, Ach. Larger ciliated Borrera. H. 222. 

Old walls frequent, as Baldovan, Mains, Auldbar, Foulis, 
&c, apothecia not uncommon. In profusion, in ft., on old 
trees at the Castle of Melgund, and on old walls half way 
between Forfar and Kirriemuir, Mr A. Croall. 

B. tenella, Ach. Lesser ciliated Borrera. H. 222. 
Old walls, ft. common. 

H./urfuracea, Ach. Branny Borrera. H. 223. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 281 

On trees common, the segments of the fronds very variable 
in breadth and the amount of their farinaceous covering. 
The ft. is found sparingly in Deerhill and Baldovan Woods. 

Evernia, Ach. Evernia. 

Br. Sp. aridv- 2. F. 1. 

E. prunastrij Ach. Ragged hoary Evernia. H. 224. 
Woods and pales abundant. The ft. is frequent in the 
Deerhill and other woods on the Sidlaws. 

Ramalina, Ach. Ramalina. 
Br. Sp. 6. F. 4. 

R.frcnvinea, Ach. Ash Ramalina. H. 225. 

Trees plentiful, and exceedingly variable in the size and 
ramification of its fronds. 

R. fastigiaia, Ach. Fastigiate Ramalina. H. 225. 
Woods common. 

R. scopulorum, Ach. Rock Ramalina. H. 225. 

Rocks on the banks of the Tay, frequent. Lundie Craigs ; 
and Turin Hill. " Druidical monuments at Clova," Mr A* 
Croall. 

R.farinacca, Ach. Narrow meally Ramalina. H. 225. 
Walls, rocks, and trees frequent. Ft. Deerhill Wood, 



Usnea, Ach. Usnea. 
Br. Sp. and v. 5. F. 2. 
V.Jlorida, Ach. Flowery Usnea. H. 226. 

Trees common, ft. not so. With apothecia occasionally 
in Deerhill Wood. Kinnoul Wood, Mr A. Croall. Kin- 
naird, Mr J. Laing. 

U. barbata, Ach. Jointed Usnea. H. 226. 
Deerhill and other woods plentiful, but rare in ft. 



282 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



Alectoria, Ach. Alectoria. 

A. jubata, Ach. Wiry Alectoria, or Rock-Hair. H. 
227. 

Woods plentiful, depending from the branches of the trees 
in loose tufts, often a foot long, varying in colour, from grey- 
ish white through various shades of olive and brown, to 
nearly black. The true apothecia I have had the pleasure 
of finding for the first time in Britain, in Deerhill Wood, 
and have distributed many specimens. They are usually met 
with from March to May, but are not abundant. The Deer- 
hill Wood is spread over the Hill of Tealing, one of the 
southern slopes of the Sidlaws, and is composed mainly of 
firs. Its undulated interior is a pleasant rambling-place on 
a summer day, when the Vaccinium Myrtillus is in full 
bloom, and the voice of the cuckoo is heard at intervals amid 
the innumerable warblings of forest birds; and to the lover 
of Flora it is ever interesting. In summer it presents a luxu- 
riance of woodland flowers ; in autumn beautiful ferns and 
mosses ; and in winter and spring the exuberance of lichens 
on the trees, especially in the northern part, will give a charm 
to the place though he is compelled to gather them knee- 
deep in snow. 

/3. chalybeiformis, Hook. Common on rocks on the Clova 
mountains. 

Cornicularia, Ach. Cornicularia. 

Br. Sp.andv.7. F.b. 

C. tristis, Ach. Dark radiated Cornicularia. H. 228. 

Rocks and stones, Clova, common. 

C. aculeata, Ach. Aculeated Cornicularia. This and £. 
hispida are found in heathy places from the coast to the 
mountain summits, ft. frequent. 

C. bicolor, Ach. Black and Grey Cornicularia. H. 228. 
Clova mountains, but not common. More frequent in 
Braemar. 

C. lanata, Ach. Black woolly Cornicularia. H. 229. 
Rocks on most of the Clova mountains, ft. not rare. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIKK. 283 

Isidium, Ach. Isidium. 
Br. sp. and v. 10. F. 3. 

I. Westringii, Ach. Speckled Isidium. H. 231. 
Clova, Mr G. Don. 

I. paradoxum, Ach. Dubious Isidium. H. 231. 
Abundant on the Sidlaw hills, often whitening the rocks. 

I. corallinum, Ach. White Isidium. H. 231. 
Baldovan ; Sidlaw Hills ; Clova, &c, on rocks and walls. 

Sph.erophoron, Ach. Sphaerophoron. 

Br. sp. and v. 3. F. 3. 

S. coralloides, Turn, and Borr. Coral-like Sphaeropho- 
ron. H. 232. y. laxum, Hook. 

Walls and rocks frequent, from the coast to the moun- 
tains ; ft. not common, the branches lax, and often tinged 
with a tawny hue. 

j8. ccesjyitosum, Hook. (S. fragile, Ach.) 

In dense rounded very casspitose masses on rocks upon the 
higher mountains, common ; ft. not uncommon. The branches 
straight, regularly dichotomous, and generally pure white, or 
tinged with a leaden grey. 

S. compressum, Ach. Compressed Sphoerophoron. H. 
232. 

Clova mountains, Mr G. Don. 

Stereocaulon, Ach. Stereocaulon. 

Br. sp. 8. F. 6. 
S. iomentosum, Laur. 

" Podetia (stems) lax, taper, very much branched, clotlied 
with the densest spongy whitish woolliness, scales roundish 
cut and notched, cinereous-csesius, apothecia minute lateral, 
at length globose. 

'■ Horizontal thallus none: podetia free at the base, and 
only gently sticking by its wool, which distinguishes it from 



284 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

all the following species. Apothecia constantly lateral." 
Fries. 

In several places on the Sands of Barrie, and on heaths 
about the head of Canlochen. 

S. corallinum, Schreb. 

" Podetia lax, slightly compressed, smooth, very much 
branched, scales fibrillose, digitated-branchy, cinereous-cae- 
sius, apothecia scattered or clustered, subglobose. 

" Horizontal thallus none. Podetia clustered into a dense 
tuff, united at the base, and sticking like a Gyrophora to the 
rock. Scales splitting into coral-like branches, which make 
this species very like Sphaerophoron coralloides." 

Churchill Babington, Esq., who has kindly translated for 
me the characters of the various species of this genus from 
Fries, remarks that this is the S. paschale of E. Bot. 

Sidlaw Hills frequent. Old wall Balgay. Clova and 
Canlochen. 

S. paschale, L. 

" Podetia lax, slightly compressed, very much branched, 
smoothish, scales leaf-like granular, notched, clustered, glau- 
cous, apothecia nearly terminal dilated flat. 

" Horizontal thallus crustaceous, soon evanescent. Podetia 
crowded below but not centrally united (like S. corallinum.) 
Young podetia a little downy, soon smooth, densly incrusted ; 
scales thicker than in the rest of this series, roundish, glau- 
cous." 

Old walls Strathmartin. 

S. condensatum, Laur. 

" Podetia erect taper subdivided, clothed with thin whit- 
ish flesh-coloured woolliness, scales roundish taperish and 
confluent, glaucous. Apothecia terminal dilated flat, some- 
what peltate. 

" Horizontal thallus persistent. Podetia nearly simple 
distinct, erect, when old smooth. Apothecia almost solitary 
very much dilated, margin at length reflexed." 

Old walls near Auchterhouse, and Balkemnock. 
S. denudatum, Florke. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 285 

" Podetia lax, taper branched, smooth ; granules roundish, 
somewhat cinereous, then flattened lobed and crenulated oli- 
vaceous edged with white; apothecia lateral minute flattish." 

Abundant on the Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains, ft. 
rare. 

S. nanum, Ach. 

" Podetia erect, very slender, fastigiate-branchy, below- 
naked blackish, above most delicately pulverulent; granules 
wart-shaped minute pale-greenish Jloccose. ' Apothecia la- 
teral convex.' 

" Quite different from all the rest by its floccose granules, 
which are usually ochre mixed with verdigris-green. The 
most typical specimens have the thallus very granular, and 
resemble a miniature of the preceding species." 

This occurred in considerable abundance on the rocks on 
the north banks of the Isla, a little to the west of the Reeky 
Linn. It is the true plant of Acharius, different from that 
previously considered so, and quite new to our Flora. I first 
detected it on rocks at West Water, on the south banks of 
the Tay, and Mr Babington determined it. 

Cladonia, Fee. Cladonia. 

Br. sp. andv. 8. F. 7. 
C. vermicularis, DC. Vermicelli Cladonia. II. 234. 

Frequent on the summits of the higher mountains, spread- 
ing over mosses, heath, and the bare ground, sterile. 

C. ancialis, Hook. Short perforated Cladonia. IT. 234. 
Heaths plentiful. 

/3. turgida, Hook. Sidlaw Hills and Clova not uncom- 
mon. 

C. rangiferina, Hoffm. Rein-deer Cladonia, or Rein-deer 
Moss. H. 235. 

Moors, heaths, and w r oods throughout the county abun- 
dant, ft. not scarce. 

C. furcata, Hoffm, Forked Cladonia. H. 236. 

This variable species is found on the Sands of Barrie, and 



288 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

on walls, banks, rocks, &c, from thence to the summits of the 
Clora mountains, ft. frequent. 

/3. subulata, Hook. Old walls, Baldovan ; Auchterhouse, 
&c. 

y. spinosa,, Hook. Kinnoi'dy ; Sidlaw Hills; Clova, &c. 

Scyphophorus, Fee. Cup-Lichen. 
Br. sp. and v. 19. F. 13. 
S. sparrasiis, Hook. Torn-coated Cup-Lichen. H. 237- 
Reeky Linn ; Sidlaw Hills ; Clova, &c. 
S. alcicornis, Hook. Elk's-horn Cup-Lichen. H. 238. 
Sands of Barrie and Sidlaw Hills, ft. rare. 

S. anomcEus, Hook. Confused brown-headed Cup-Lichen. 
H. 238. 

Sidlaw Hills, in ft., rare, 

S. endivif alius, Hook. Endive-leaved Cup-Lichen. H- 
238. 

Sidlaw Hills, rare. 

S. cervicornis, Hook. Buck's-horn Cup Lichen. H. 238. 

Common on heaths and rocky banks from the coast to the 
mountains, often proliferous. 

S. pyxidatus, Hook. Common Cup-Lichen. H. 238. 

Old walls and banks frequent. Var. neglecta, Fries. On 
botrcry heaths, Clova. 

S. fimbriates, Hook. Fringed Cup-Lichen. H. 239. 
Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains, not common. 

S. gracilis, Hook. Slender Cup-Lichen. H. 239. 
Plentiful on the Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains. Kin- 
noul Wood, Mr A. Croall. 

S. Jiliformis, Hook. Thread-shaped Cup-Lichen. H. 
239. 

Sidlaw Hills and Clova mountains, frequent. Kinnoul 
Wood, Mr A. Croall. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 287 

S. deformis, Hook. Clumsy indented Cup-Lichen. H. 
240. 

Sidlaw Hills and Clova. Kinnoul Wood, Mr A. Croall. 

S. cocci/ems, Hook. Scarlet Cup-Lichen. H. 240. 
Our most common species on the hills and mountains. 

S. bellidifiorus, Hook. Daisy-flowered Cup-Lichen. If. 
240. 

Frequent on the mountains, chiefly on boggy heaths on the 
table-lands. 

Pycnothelia, Dufour. Pycnothelia. 

Br. sp.l.F. 1. 
P. Papillaria, Hook. Papillary Pycnothelia. H. 241. 
Clova, Mr G. Don. 

Ord. V.— CHARACE^E. 

Gen. Br. 1. F. 1. Sp. and v. Br. 9. F. 3. 

Chara, Vaill. Chara. 

C.Jlexilis, L. Flaccid Chara. H. 245. 

Restenet, Mr A. Croall. Ditches near the South Esk, 
east from Kinnaird, Mr J. Laing. 

C. vulgaris, L. Common Chara. H. 246. 

Boggy pools Sidlaw Hills, frequent. Pool near the Life- 
boat house, Sands of Barrie. Ptestenet, Mr A. Croall. 

C. hispida, L. Hispid Chara. H. 246. 

Pools Eestenet marsh. In a small pond, wayside between 
Brechin and Carreston, with C. vulgaris, Mr A. Bousie. 

Ord. VI.— ALG.E. SEA-WEEDS, &c. 

(So far as I am aware, no one has devoted such attention 
to the Alga and Fungi of this county as to render the lists of 
these tribes complete, and on that account the comparative 



288 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



numbers of British and Forfarshire genera and species are 
omitted. The following lists must therefore be considered 
merely as a contribution to the Algology and Mycology of 
the county, embracing such plants as have been satisfactorily 
ascertained to be natives. Most of the Fungi collected by 
myself have been examined and confirmed or named by the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, our best British authority ; and those 
species of algse and fungi marked with a * are given solely on 
the authority of Mr G. Don. Many species of fresh-water 
alo-ge and not a few of the smaller marine ones, will undoubt- 
edly 'reward future research ; and perhaps not a tithe of our 
mushrooms are yet ascertained.) 



Div. i.— Inarticulate. 
Halidrys, Lyngb. H. 266. 
siliquosa, Lyngb. 
/3. minor, Hook. 
Fucus, Ag. H. 266-9. 
vesiculous, L. 

* )3. spiralis, Hook. 
y. linearis, Hook. 

* ceranoides, L. 
scrratus, L. 
nodosus, L. 
canaliculatus, L. 

Himantholia, Lyngb. H. 269. 

lorea, Lyngb. 
Lichina, Ag. H. 270. 

* pytjmcea, Ag. 
Alaria, Grev. H.271. 

esculenla, Grev. 
Laminaria, Lamour. 
digitata, Lamour. 

* bidbosa, Lamour. 

* saccharina, Lamour. 

* Phyllitis, Lamour. 
Desmarestia, Lamour. 

* ligulata, Lamour. 
aculeata, Lamour. 

Sporochnus, Ag. H. 274. 

* villosus, Ag. 

C hordaria, Ag. H.275. 

* flagelliformis, Ag. 

Corda, Stackh. H.276. 
Filum, Lamour. 
lornentaria, Grev. Mr A. Croall. 



H. 271. 



H. 273. 



Asperococcus, Lamour. IT. 270. 
Jistulosa, Hook. 

Dictyosiphon, Grev. H. 279. 

fceniculaceus, Grev. 
Furcellaria, Lamour. H. 283. 

fastiyiata, Lamour. 
Polyides, Ag. H. 283. 

rotundas, Grev. 
Delesseria, Lamour. II. 285. 

sanquinea, Lamour. 

sinuosa, Lamour. 

alata, Lamour. 

* Hypoglossum, Ag. 

* ruscifolia, Lamour. 

Bhodomeniu, Grev. H.288. 
bifida, Grev. 
laciniata, Grev. 

* jubata, Grev. 
palmata, Grev. 

Plocamium, Lamour. H. 292. 

coccineum, Lyngb. 
Odonihalia, Lyngb. H. 293. 

dentala, Lyngb. 

rhodomela, Ag. H. 294. 

lycopodioides, Ag. 

subfusca, Ag. 

* scorpioides, Ag. 

Laurencia, Lamour. H. 295. 

pinnaiifida, Lamour. 
Chylocladia, Grev. H. 297. 

* ovalis, Hook. 
kaliformis, Hook. 

* articulata, Hook. 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



289 



Gigartina, Lamour. H. 298. 
purptirascens, Lamour. 
coiifervoides, Lamour. 
plicata, Lamour. 

Chondrus, Stackh. H. 301. 
mammillosiis, Grev. 
crispus, Lyngb. and Vars. 
membranifolius, Grev. 

Phyllophora, Grev. H. 303. 
rubens, Grev. Usan, Mr A. 
Croall. 

Gelidium, Lamour. H.304. 

rostratum. 
Ptilota, Ag. H. 307. 

plumosa, Ag. 
j3. capillaris, Hook. 

Jridea, Bory. H. 307. 

* edulb, Bory. 
Bumontia, Lamour. H. 308. 

* filiformis, Grev. Mr A. Croall. 
Catenella, Grev. H.309. 

* Opuntia, Grev. 
Porphyra, Ag. H. 310. 

laciniata. Ag. 
Ulva, L. H. 311. 
latissima, L. 
Lactuca, L. 
Lima, L. 

Enteromorpha, Link. H. 313. 
intestinalis, Link. 
compressa, Grev, 

Vaucheria, DC. H. 319. 

* Dillwynii, Ag. 

Lemania, Bory. H. 321. 

Jluviatilis, Ag, 

(In streams.) 

DlV. II. — CoNFEBVOIDEjE. 

Cladostephus, Ag. H. 322. 
verticillatus, Lyngb. 
spongiosus, Lyngb. 

Sphacelaria, Lyngb. H. 328. 
scoparia, Lyngb. 
olivacea, Ag. 
velutina, Grev. 

Eclocarpus, Lyngb. H. 325. My 



littoralis, Lyngb. 
Polysiphonia, Grev. H. 327. 
fibrata, Hook. 

* atro-rubescens, Grev. 
nigre&cens, Grev. 
fastigiata, Grev. 
elongata, Grev. 

Dasya,Ag. H. 334. 
coccinea, Ag. 

Ceramium, Adans. H. 336. 
rubnim, Ag. 
diaphanym, Roth. 
ciliatum, Ducluz. 

Calitfiamnion, Lyugb. H. 338, 
Rothii, Lyngb. 
repens, Lyngb. 

Conferva, Ag. H. 350. 

* bombycina, Ag. 
Jioccosa, Ag. 

vesicata, Ag. 
rivularis, L. 

* capillaris, L. 
implexa, LMllw. 
area, Dillw. 

fucciola, Velley. 
Jlavescens, Roth. 

* fracta, Fl. Dan - 

* p.Jlexuosa, Hook. 
glomerala, L. 
rupestris, L. 
albida, Huds. 
arcto, Dillw. 

* aeruginosa, Huds. 

Zygnema, Ag. H. 362. 

* nitidum, Ag. 

quininum, Ag. A/> 4. Croall. 

Stigonema, Ag. H. 363. 

* atrovirens, Ag. 
Calothrix, Ag. H. 366. 

* confervicola, Ag. 

Lyngbya, Ag. H. 369. 

muralis, Ag. 

(Common on damp walls, giving 
them a green colour.) 

Oscillatoria, Vauch. H. 372. 

* tenuis, Ag. 

* decorticans, Grev. 

* nigra, Vauch. 

* ochracea, Grev. 

inema, Ag. H. 379. 
N 



290 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 



M. * rubifjinosum, Ag. 
Chroolepus, Ag. H. 380. 

aureus, Hook. 

Jul ilhus, Ag. 

lichenocolus, Ag. 

(,On trees and rocks, the first about 
Beeky Linu abundant, the se- 
cond Clova, and the last on trees 
near Kinnaird, Mr J. Laing.) 

IVentepohlia, Ag. H. 882. 

* purpurea, Ag. 

Protoncma, Ag. H. 383. 

Orthotrichi, Ag. 



(On. Orthotrichvm crispitm, Hun- 
ters' Hill, Glammis.) 

Batrachospermum, Both. 
moiiiliforme, Ag. 

* (3. detersum, Hook. 
Diatoma, Ag. 

obliquatum, Lyngb. 

marinum] Lyngb. 

(The former is frequent on various 
marine algae; the latter I have 
found on Ptilota plumosa, var. 
j3. capillaris.) 

Schizonema, Ag. 

* comoides, Ag. 

Most of the above-named algae are found on the coast, either 
upon the rocks or thrown ashore from deep water. Several 
species are eaten in the crude state, as the Hen-ivare, Alaria 
esculenta ; the Dulce, Ehodomenia palmata ; the Pepper- 
dulce, Laurentia pinnatifida ; and the Tangle, or stems of 
the various species of Laminaria. The Chondrus mammillo- 
sus and Fucus canaliculars bear the name of Crow-dulce, 
being not quite so palatable as the others. The Chondrus 
crispus is often found on the beach bleached white, and is then 
the Carrageen, or Irish moss, used for the same purpose as 
the Cetrai'ia Islandica, or Iceland moss. 



Ord. VII. -FUNGI. MUSHROOMS. 

Agaricus, L. 

nivalis, Grev. H. 3. Alpine pastures frequent. 
muscarius, L. H. 4. Woods not uncommon. 
asper, Pers. H. 6. Balgay Wood. 
melleus, Vahl. H. 11. Kincaldrum Woods. 
vaccinus, Schoeff. H. 17. Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 
Columbetta, Fries. H. 19. Balgay Wood. 
luteus, Huds. H. 21. Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 
emeticus, Schceff. H. 21. Balgay Wood. 
adustus, Pers. 

* j3. elephantinus, Grev. H. 23. Woods of Burnside. 
zonarius, With. H. 25. Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 
acris, Bolt. H. 25. Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 

* deliciosus, L. H. 26. Woods of Burnside, near Forfar. 
phillophilus, Pers. H. 34. Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 



ifcO 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 291 

A. nebular is, Batsch. H. 34. Balgay "Wood. 

rmulicans, Pers. H. 36. Balgay Wood. 
Xanthopus, Fries. H. 46. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 
arcades, Bolt. H. 48. Meadows common. 
ocellatus, Fries. H. 51. Kinnordy, Klotzsch, 
androsaceus, L. H. 53. On dead beech and fir leaves, 

common. 
galericulatus, Scop. var. H. 58. Baldovan Woods. 
Adonis, Bull. H. 60. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 
vmb ellif cms, L. H. 65. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 
sti/pticus, Bull. H. 73. Balgay Wood. 
chali/beus, Pers. H. 80. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 
violaceus, L. H. 85. Near Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 
varius, Schceff. H. 87. Balgay Wood. 
* cinnamomeus, L. H. 88. Fir woods near Forfar. 
mutabilis, Schoeff. H. 92. Balgay Wood. 
fastibilis, Pers. H. 94. Balgay Wood. 
scaber, Mull. II. 96. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 
reclinus, Fries. II. 96. Kinnordy, Klotzsch. 
Cucumis, Pers. H. 99. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 
campestris, L. H. 106. Pastures and woods, frequent. 
semiglobatus, Batsch. H. 108. Balgay Wood. 
lateritius, Schoeff. H. 110. 
fascicularis, Huds. H. 111. Baldovan Woods. 
stipatus, Pers. var. c. Klotzsch MSS. H. 113. Kirrie- 
muir, Klot. 
plicatilis, Sowerb. H. 122. Damp places frequent. 

Pohjporus, Mich, 

squamosus, Huds. H. 134. Balgay Wood. 
perennis, L. Mr G. Don. 
adustus, Willd. H. 139. Balgay Wood. 
amorphics, Fries. H. 139. Baldovan Woods. 
velutinus, Pers. H. 141. Baldovan Woods. 
suaveo lens, L. H. 140. Mr G. Don. Balgay Wood. 
versicolor, L. H. 141. Woods, common. 
abietinus, Pers. H. 141. Trees, Baldovan Woods and 

Auchterhouse. 
igniarius, L. H. 144. Mr G. Don. 

Boletus, Dill. 

Grevillei, Klotzsch. DT. 148, Woods, common. 
piperatiis, Bull. H. 150. Kinnordy, Klotzsch, 



292 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Fistulina, Bull. 

hepatica, With. H. 154. On the back pillars, Ham- 
mermen's Hall, Dundee, Aug. 1833. 

Hydnum, L. 

imbricatum, L. H. 155. 
repandum, L. H. 155. 

auriscalpium, L. H. 156. All three in fir woods east 
from Forfar, Mr G. Don. 

Sistotrerna, Pers. 

confluens, Pers. H. 160. Fir woods east from Forfar, 
Mr G. Don. 

Thelephora, Ehrh. 

palmata, Scop. H. 163. Baldovan Woods. 

laciniata, Pers. H. 165. Baldovan Woods. 

terrestris, Ehrh. H. 165. Baldovan Woods. Burn- 
side Woods, Mr G. Don. 

purpurea, Pers. H. 166. On tree roots in Den of 
Linlathen and Balgay Wood. 

ockracea, Fries. H. 170. Den of Airlie. 

spadicea, Hillier. Balgay Wood. 

Clavaria> Vaill. 

abietina, Pers. H. 174. Baldovan Woods. 

rugosa, Bull. H. 175. Baldovan Woods. 

helvola, Pers. H. 176. Old walls, Baldovan Woods. 

Calocera, Fries. 

viscosa, Pers. H. 177- Baldovan Woods. Kinnordy, 
Klotzsch. 

Geoglossum, Pers. 

hirsutum, Pers. H. 178. Sands of Barrie, frequent, 
especially about the east end. 

glabrum, Pers. H. 178. Near Monifieth. 

Spathularia, Pers. 
flavida, Pers. H. 179. Burnside Woods, Mr G. Don. 

Mitrula, Fries. 



FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 293 

M. paludosa, Fries. II. 180. Marshy places in Baldovau 
Woods. 

Peziza, Dill. 

vesiculosa, Bull. H. 188. Near Airlie. 

cupularis, L. H. 189. In one spot near spruce trees, 
where the old stump of a tree had been burnt, a little 
above the N.W. corner of Deerhill Wood, April 1845. 
In small quantity, varying in diameter from half a 
line to a quarter of an inch. 
rutilans, Fries. H. 190. Baldovan Woods. 8. al~ 
pestris, Hook. On Tetraphis pellucida, Bassies, 
Clova, August 1843. 

scutellata, L. H. 193. Rotten wood, banks, &c, fre- 
quent. 

stercorea, Pers. H. 194. On droppings of cattle, fre- 
quent. 

bicolor, Bull. H. 195. Invergowrie thicket. 

Fusarioides, Berk. On twigs, Reeky Linn. 

pulchella, Berk. On fallen larch twigs, Balgay Wood. 

insidioides, Desm. On dead ivy leaves. 

Cyphella, Fries. 

muscicola, Fr. On Hypna, Reeky Linn. Baldovan 
Woods. 

Exidia, Fries. 

Auricula- Judos, L. H. 217- Near Reeky Linn, on 
trees. 

Sclerotium, Tode. 

durum, Pers. H. 224. On dead stems near Moni- 
fieth. 

minutum, Desm. (Described in Desmazier's Plantaz 
Cryptogames.) On the dead stems and seed-vessels 
of Rhinanthus Crista- Galli, west-end of Hare Craigs. 

Phallus, Mich. 

impudicus, L. H. 226. Balgay Wood, &c, frequent- 
Tuber, Mich. 

cibarium, Sibth, H. 228. Mr G. Don found them in 
trenching up his garden, about two and a half feet 
below the surface. 

Spharia, Hall. 



294 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

militaris, L. H. 232. Var. in turfy spots, Kirrie- 
muir, Messrs Hooker and Klotzsch. 

Hypoxylon, L. H. 234. On tree roots, common. 
fusca, Pers. H. 237- On dead twigs, Den of Airlie. 

leiphcemia, Fries. EL 250. Balgay Wood. 

stilbostoma, Fries. H. 280. On dead twigs, Sidlaw 
Hills. 

hypodermia, Fries. H. 251. Balgay Wood. 

cinnabarina, Tode. H. 252. On dead twigs, Camper- 
down, &c. 

coccinea, Pers. H. 253. Balgay Wood. 

Jilicina, Fries. H. 255. On dead stems of Pteris 
aquilina, common. 

Jitnci, Fries. H. 256. Frequent on Juncus conglo- 
merate. 

stria formis, Fries. H. 256. On dead stems of her- 
baceous plants. 

yraminis, Pers. H. 257. On grasses, frequent. 

myriocarpa, Fries. H. 266. On rotten branches and 
stumps of broom in Deerhill Wood, and heaths near it. 

strobilina, Holl. and Schm. H. 271. On cones of Pinus 
sylvestris, Baldovan Woods. 

I litis, Schleich. H. 273. On dead holly leaves, Mains 
Castle. 

complanata, Tode. H. 274. On dead stems of umbel- 
liferous plants, common. Var. minor, Fries. Den of 
Airlie. 

hedercecola, Fries. H. 279. On ivy leaves, common. 

(The following species are new to our Flora.) 

cucubitula, Tode. Twigs on the beach, Sands of Barrie, 
probably wafted down the Tay, and may have come 
from either the county of Perth or Fife. 

verrucosa, Berk. Invergowrie thicket, on fallen twigs. 

herpotrichia, Fries. On old stems of Amophila arun- 
dinacea, Sands of Barrie. It is undescribed, but 
registered in the Annals of Natural History. It 
was associated with a species of Peziza, which the Rer. 
M. J. Berkeley thinks may be new. 

Gardineri, Berk. MSS. On dead ivy leaves, first found 
near Balmerino, Fife, March 1845. A new species, 
and undescribed. 

Another species, as yet undescribed and unnamed, was 



FLORA OP FORFARSHIRE. 295 

found on the Juncus Balticus, upon the Sands o 
Barrie, Sep. 1845. 

Ccuihospora, Fries. 

phacidioides. Grev. H. 2B3. On dead holly leaves 
Mains Castle. 

Phoma, Fries. 

Pustula, Pers. H. 284. On oak leaves, frequent. 

Rhytisma, Fries. 
Acerinum, Pers. H. 290. On decaying leaves of the 
plane tree. 

Pkacidium, Fries. 

Patella, Tode. H. 291. On dead stems, Reeky Linn. 

Hysterium, Tode. 

Fraxini, Pers. H. 294. Near Lundie. 
rugosum, Fries. H. 294. Den of Airlie. 
macular e, Fries. H. 296. On dead ivy leaves, fre- 
quent. 

Lepiostroma, Fries. 

Spirece, Kunz. H. 298. On dead stems of Spiraea 
Ulmaria, Baldovan Woods. 

litigiosa, Berk. On dead stems of Pteris aquilina, Sid- 
law Hills, frequent. 

Lycoperdon, Tourn. 

gemmatum, Batsch. H. 304. Sands of Barrie, Balgay 
Wood, &c. 

Reticularia, Bull. 

atra, Alh. and Schvv. H. 308. Kirriemuir, Klotzsch. 

Diderma, Pers. 

vernicosum, Pers. H. 310. On mosses, Baldovan 
Woods. 

Illosporium, Mart. 

roseum, Fries. H. 328. On the crust of lichens, as 
Borrera tenella, Parmelia ollvacea, saxatilis, &e. 



296 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Mucor, Mich. 

Mucedo, L. H. 332. On old paste, &c, common. 

Cladosporium, Link. 

herbdrum, Link. H. 338. On dead Amophila arun- 
dinacea and Salsola Kali, Sands of Barrie. 

Acrospermum., Tode. 

compression, Tode. Reeky Linn. 

Tubercularia, Tode. 

vulgaris, Tode. H. 354. Invergowfie thicket, Cam- 
perdown, Den of Airlie, &c. 

Puccinia, Pers. 

Compositarum, Schlecht. H. 365. On Apargia au- 

tumnalis, Sands of Barrie. 
Mgopodii, Link. H. 366. On JEgopodium Poda- 

grarice, near Baldovie. 
7 Epilobii, DC. H. 368. On Epilobium alpinum, near 

Loch Brandy^ Clova. 
Khodiola, Berk. On Sedum Rhodiola, Clova and Glen 

Callater. A new species. 

JEcidium, Pers. 

rubellum, Pers. H. 369. On docks and sorrels, not 

uncommon. 
Mentha, DC. H. 369. On mints, particularly the 

stems. 
compositarum, Mart. H. 370. On Crepis paludosa, 

Hatton Den ; on Sonckus arvensis near Baldovie ; 

and on Senecio Jacobcea, Carnoustie. 
Bunii, DC. H. 370. On Heracleum sphondylium, 

Baldovan ; and on Chixrophyllum sylvesire, Den of 

Mains. 
leucospermum, DC. H. 371. On Anemone nemorosa, 

Rescobie. 
Thalictri, Grev. H. 371. On the leaves and stems of 

Thalictrum alpinum, on the mountains, frequent. 
Viola, Schum. H. 372. On Viola canina, Baldovan 

Woods. 
Vrticcs, DC. H. 374. On Urtica dioica, Den of 

Mains,, 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 297 

M. Pini, Pers. H. 374. On living leaves of 'Pinus si/l- 

veslris, Sidlaw Hills. 
Gall ii, Berk. On Galium verum, Sands of Barrie. 

Uredo, Pers. 

segetum, Pers. H. 374. On the cereal plants, as oats, 
barley, and wheat, too common, especially on poor 
soils. 
Rubigo, DC. H. 37-5. On grasses and corn, frequent. 
oblongata, Grev. H. 376. On Luzula sylvatica, 
Rhinanthacearum, DC. H. 377- On Euphrasia offi- 
cinalis, and Bartsia Odontites, common. 
Labiatarum, DC. H. 378. On Mentha aquatica, 

Rescobie. 
I'acciniorum, Johnst. H. 378. On Vaccinium Vitis- 

Idcea, Baldovan Woods. 
Pyrohe, Grev. H. 378. On Pyrola minor, Baldovan 

Woods. 
Campanula', Pers. H. 378. On Campanula rotun- 

difolia, near Monifieth, Lundie, &c. 
compransor, Schlecht. H. 379. On Tussilago far- 

fara, Rescobie. 
Sonchi, Pers. H. 379. On Sonchus arvensis, not un- 
common. 
suaveoleus, Pers. H. 379. On Cnicus arcensis, com- 
mon. 
Senecionis, Schlecht. H. 379. On Senecio vulgaris 

frequent. 
Rosce, DC. H. 381. On the leaves of various Roses. 
effusa, Strauss. H. 381. On Rosa canina, Reeky 
Linn ; on Rosa spinossissima, Den of Pitairlie, on the 
leaves and fruit; and more common on Spircea Ul- 
maria. 
Potentillarum, DC. H. 382. On Potentilla Fragari- 
astrum, and more frequently on Alchemilla vulgaris. 
bifrons, Grev. H. 382. On Rumex Acetosa. 
conflueus, DC. II. 383. On Mercurialis perennis, 

Den of Mains. 
Candida, Pers. H. 384. On Arabis hirsuta, near 

Carnoustie, 
Lint, DC. H. 384. On Linum cal'iarticum, Sands 
of Barrie. 

n2 



298 FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE. 

g>jrosa, Reb. H. 384. On leaves of Bub us Idaus, 

Baldovan Woods. 
cylindrica, Strauss. H. 385. On poplar leaves, Auld- 

bar. 
mixta, Berk. Oh Salix viminalis and reticulata. 
Caprearum, DC. H. 385. On Salix Capraa, Res- 

cobie. 
Galiorum, Berk. On Galium verum, Sands of Barrie. 
rinosa, Berk. On the flowers of Oxyria reniformis, 

Glendole, CI ova, Aug. 1843. — " A new and extremely 

curious species." — Berk. 

The following species, new to our Flora, may be recorded : 

Diplodia Desmazierii, Berk. MSS. On dead ivy leaves. 

Myxosporium paradoxum, De Notaris. On living ivy 
leaves, Den of Airlie. " Described in the Turin Trans- 
actions." — Berk. 

Cylindrispora deformans, Berk. On Vaccinium Vitis- 
Idcea, Baldovan Woods, where I first detected it, and 
afterwards in several stations in Braemar. It is a new 
and undescribed fungus. 



( 299 ) 



TABLE 

F THE 

NATURAL ORDERS OF PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO BRITAIN; IN 
WHICH THOSE ABSENT FROM THE FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE 
ARE DISTINGUISHED BY BEING PRINTED IN ITALICS. 



VASCULARES. 



DICOTYLEDONES. 



THALAMIFLOR^. 



Banunculacese, 

Berberideae. 

Nympbaeaceae. 

Papaveraceae. 

Fumariacese. 

Cruciferae. 

Resedaceae. 

Cistineae. 

Violariae. 

Droseraceae. 

Polygaleae. 



F ran fee niaceoe. 

Elalinem. 

Caryopbylleas. 

Lineae. 

Malvaceae. 

Tiliaceae. 

Hypericineae. 

Aeerineae. 

Geraniaceae . 

Balsaminese. 

Oxalideae. 



CALYCIFLOR.£. 



Celastrineas. 

Rhamnece. 

Leguminosae. 

Rosaeeaa. 

Onagrariae. 

Halorageae. 

Ceratopbyllese. 

Lytlirariae. 

Tamariscinete. 

Cuctirbitacece. 

Portulaceas. 

Paroncbiae. 

Crassulaceas. 



Ericeaa. 
Monotropeae. 

Ilicinere. 

Jasruineae. 

Apocyneae. 

Gentianeae. 

Polemoniaceae. 

Convolvulacese. 

BoragLneae. 



Grossulaceae. 

Saxifrageae. 

Umbelliferae 

Araliaceae. 

Corneae. 

Loran these. 

Caprifoliaceae. 

Rubiaceae. 

Valerianeae. 

Dipsaceae. 

Corupositas. 

Campanulaceae. 

VaccinieaB. 



COROLLIFLOR^:, 



Solaneae. 
Orobanuhece. 
Scroplralurhieae. 
Labiatae. 
Verbenaeeas. 
ntibulari ae. 
Primulaeeae. 
Plumbagineae. 
Plantagineas. 



300 



FLORA OF FORFARSHIRE;, 



MONOCHLAMYDE.E. 



Amaranlhacece. 

Cheiiopodeae. 

Polygoneae. 

Eleagnece. 

Thymelece. 

Santalaceae. 

Aristolochiece. 



Empetreas. 

Euphorbiacea?. 

Urticeae. 

Ulmaceae. 

Amentaceae, 

Myriceae. 

Coniferae. 



MONOCOTYLEDONE8. 







PETALOIDEjE. 


Alismaceae; 




1 Aspbodeleas. 


Butomem. 






M elanthaceae. 


Juncagineae. 






Restiacece. 


Aroideae. 






Junceae. 


Pistiaceae. 






Hydrocbarideae-. 


Naiades, 






Orchideae. 


Smilaeeasi 






Irideae. 


Liliaceae. 






Amaryllideas. 
Dioscorem. 






fcLUMACE/E. 


Graminese. 




1 Cyperacese. 
VELLULARES. 

FILICES. 


I'olypodiacese. 




1 Morsileaceae. 


( tsinundaceae. 




Equisetaceae. 


Lycopodiaceae. 




1 


Musci. 






Hepaticae, 


Lichenes. 






Characeae. 


Algae. 






Fungi 


Vasculares— 


-Orders, British, 09 . Forfarshire, 80 


€ellulares. 


do. 


do. 11 . do. 11 


Total, 




British, 


110 . Forfarshire, 04 



( 301 ) 



INDEX TO THE ORDERS AND GENERA. 



Acer, 


39 


Aquilegia, 


6 


Botrycbinm, . 


223 


Acerine^e, 


39 


Arabia, . 


14 


Bracbypodium, 


200 


Achillaea, 


lie 


Aealiace/e, . 


86 


Brassica, 


17 


Acinos, . 


146 


Arbutus, 


121 


Briza, . 


202 


Acrospermum, 


296 


Arctium, 


104 


Bromus, 


203 


Adoxa, . 


so 


Areiiaria, 


31 


Bryum, 


2;9 


.Ecidium, 


296 


ArOIDE/E, 


173 


Buuium, 


81 


yEgopodium, 


SO 


Arrbcnatberum, 


199 


Buxbaumia, . 


253 


jEtbusa, 


82 


Artemisia, 


108 






Agaricus, 


290 


Artbonia, 


269 


Cakile, 


!» 


AgTimonia, 


02 


Arum, 


173 


CalamagTostis, 


190 


Agrostemma, 


29 


Arundo, 


205 


Calicium, 


208 


Agrostis, 


190 


Asperococcos, 


288 


Cal tbaumion, 


289 


Aira, 


197 


Asperugo, 


132 


Calluna, 


120 


Ajuga, . 


144 


Asperula, 


94 


('alocera, 


292 


A 1 aria, . 


288 


Asphodele^:, 


180 


Calotbrix, 


289 


Alcbemilla, 


63 


Aspidium, 


219 


Caltba, 


3 


Alectoria, 


282 


Asplenium, 


220 


Camelina, 


12 


ALG.E, 


287 


Aster, 


111 


Campanula, 


110 


Alisma, . 


172 


Astragalus, 


48 


CA1IPANULACE.E, 110 


Alismace^:, 


172 


Atriplex, 


156 


Cafrieoliace^e, 89 


Allium, . 


180 


Atrop 


133 


Capsella, 


10 


Alnus, 


163 


Avena, 


204 


C ardamine, 


13 


Alopecurus, 


193 


Azalea, 


120 


Carduus, 


105 


Alyssum, 


12 






Carex, 


210 


Amaryllide.i 


, 191 


Baeomyees, 


26S 


Carlina, 


1(10 


A.MENTACEjE, 


162 


Balsamine^:, 


43 


Carpinus, 


171 


Ammophila, 


194 


Barbarea, 


14 


6 arum, 


8] 


Aiiagallis, 


148 


Bartramia, 


252 


Caryophylle 


E, 24 


Ancbusa, 


128 


Bartsia, 


137 


Castanea, 


170 


Audraea, 


231 


Bairacbospermum 


290 


Catabrosa, 


196 


Anemone, 


2 


Bellis, . 


113 


Catenella, 


289 


Angelica, 


83 


BereeridejE, 


6 


Centanrea, 


100 


Anictangium, 


235 


Berbers, 


6 


Centunculus, 


152 


Anomodon, 


255 


Betula, 


162 


Ceramium, 


289 


Anthemis, 


116 


Bidens, 


107 


Cerastium, 


32 


Anthoceros, 


262 


Blecbnum, 


223 


Ceratophyt.l 


E^E, 72 


Antlioxanthum 


192 


Blysmus, 


208 


Ceratophyllum, 


7,> 


Anthriscus, 


85 


Boletus, 


291 


Cetrai'ia, 


279 


Antbyllis, 


45 


Boragine-e, . 


126 


Ceutbospora, 


295 


Apargia, 


97 


Borago, 


128 


Chasropbyllum 


85 


Apocyne*:, 


123 


Borrera, 


280 


Ciiara, 


287 



302 



INDEX TO THE ORDERS AND GENERA. 



ChARACEjE, . 

Clieiranthus, . 

ChenepodejE, 

Chenopodium, 

Cherleria, 

Chondrus, 

Chorda, 

Chordaria, 

Chroolepus, 

Chrysanthemum, 

Chrysosplenium, 

Cliylocladia, . 

Cichorium, 

Cicuta, 

Cinclidotus, 

Circaea, 

Cistine^e, 

Cladonia, 

Cladosporium, 

Cladostephus, 

Clavaria, 

Clinopodium, 

Cnicus, 

Cochlearia, 

Collema, 

Comarum, 

Composite, 

Conferva, 

CONIFERjE, 

Conium, 
Conostomum, 
Convallaria, . 

CONVOLVULACE^E, 

Convolvulus, 
Corallorhiza, 

CoRNEjE, 

Cornicularia, 

Cornus, 

Corydalis, 

Corylus, 

Chassulace^e, 

Crataegus, 

Crepis, 

Crucifer^e, 

Cryptogramma, 

Cuscuta, 

Cylindrispora, 

Cynoglossum, 

Cynosurus, 

CyPERACEjE, 

Cyphella, 

Cystopteris, . 
Cytisus, 

Dactyl is, 
Daltonia, 
Dasya, 



287 

16 

155 

155 

34 

289 

288 

2«8 

290 

114 

77 

288 

104 

80 

245 

70 

18 

285 

296 

289 

292 

146 

105 

10 

277 
59 
97 

289 

171 
79 

237 

178 

125 

125 

187 
87 

282 

87 

9 

171 

73 

66 

99 

9 

222 

126 

298 

132 

202 

207 

293 

220 
44 

202 
255 
289 



Daucus, 

Delesseria, 

Desmarestia, 

Dianthus, 

Diatovna, 

Dicranum, 

Dictyosiphon, 

Didercna, 

Didymodon, 

Digitalis, 

Diplodia, 

Diphyscium, 

Doronicum, 

Draba, 

Drosera, 

DroseracejE 

Dry as, 

Dumontia, 

Ecliium, 

Ectocarpus, 

Eleocharis, 

Elymus, 

EmpetrEjE, 

Empetrum, 

Encalypta, 

Endocarpon, 

Enteromorpha, 

Epilobium, 

Epipactis, 

Equisetaceje, 

Equisetum, 

Erica, 

Erice^e, 

Erigeron, 

Eriophorum, 

Erodium, 

Ervum, 

Eryngium, 

Erysimum, 

Erythraea, 

Eupatorium, 

EUPHORBIACE^E, 

Euphorbia, 
Euphrasia, 
Evernia, 
Exidia, 

Fagus, 

Fedia, 

Fegatella, 

Festuca, 

Filago, 

Filice8, 

Fissidens, 

Fistulina, 

Foeniculum, 

Fontinalis, 



288 

288 

24 

290 

243 

288 

295 

240 

139 

298 

235 

112 

11 

22 

22 

56 

289 

126 
289 
208 
205 
160 
160 
237 
269 
289 
68 
187 
226 
226 
119 
119 
111 
209 
42 
51 
78 
16 
123 
188 
100 
161 
137 
281 
293 

170 
95 

262 
202 

no 

218 

242 

292 

83 

255 



Fragaria, 

Fraxinus, 

Fucus, 

Fumaria, 

Fumariaceje 

Funaria, 

Fungi, 

Furcellaria, 

Galanthus, 

Galeopsis, 

Galium, 

Gelidium, 

Genista, 

Gentiana, 

GeNTIANEjE, 

Geoglossum, 

Geraniace^e, 

Geranium, 

Geum, 

Gigartina, 

Glaux, 

Glechoma, 

Glyphocarpa, 

Gnaphalium, 

Goodyera; 

GraminejE, 

Grimmia, 

GROSSULARlEjE 

Gymnadenia, 

Gymnostomum 

Gyrophora, 



Habenaria, 

Halidrys, 

HaloragEjE, 

Hedera, 

Hedwigia, 

Helianthemum, 

Helosciadium, 

HepaticjE, 

Heracleum, 

Hesperis, 

Hieracium, 

Hierochloe, 

Himanthalia, 

Hippuris, 

Holcus, 

Hookeria, 

Hordeum, 

Hyacintlms, 

Hydnum, 

HydrocharidejE,186 

Hydrocotyle, . 78 

Hymenophyllum, 223 

Hyoscyamus, 132 

Hypericineje, 36 



INDEX TO THE ORDERS AND GENEKA. 



ao3 



Hypericum, 


B6 


Lotus, 


47 


Hypmun, 


256 


Luzula, 


184 


Hypocbceris, . 


97 


Lychnis, 


27 


Hysterium, 


295 


Lycoperdon, . 


290 






Lycopodiace^e, ! 


Ilex, 


122 


Lycopodium, 


224 


Ilicine^, 


122 


Lyeopis, 


128 


Illosporium, . 


295 


Lyngbya, 


289 


Impatiens, 


43 


Lysimachia, . 


149 


Iridaeu, 


289 


Lythrari^e, 


72 


Irideje, 


190 






Iris, 


190 


Malaxis, 


190 


Isidium, 


283 


Malvaceae, . 


35 


Isoetes, 


225 


Malva, 


35 






Marchantia, . 


262 


Jasmines, 


122 


Marsiliacea?, 


225 


Juncagine^e, 


173 


Melampyruin, 


158 


JuXCEjE, 


181 


Melanthacej 


:, 181 


Juncus, 


181 


Melica, 


198 


Jungeruiannia 


203 


Melilotus, 


46 


Juniperus, 


172 


Mentha, 


141 






Menyanthes, 


125 


Kuautia, 


96 


Mercurialis, . 


160 






Meuni, 


83 


Labiate, 


141 


Milium, 


195 


Laminaria, 


288 


Mitrula, 


292 


Laniium, 


145 


Monotrope^e 


121 


Lapsana, 


103 


Montia, 


72 


Latbyrus, 


51 


Mucor, 


296 


Laurentia, 


288 


Musci, 


231 


Lecanora, 


272 


Mycinema, 


289 


Lecidea, 


271 


Myosotis, 


128 


Leguminos^e 


43 


Myrica, 


171 


Lemania, 


289 


Myrice.2E, 


171 


Lenina, 


174 


Myriophyllum, 


71 


Lentibulari. 


E, 147 


Mhyrris, 


86 


Leontodon, 


103 


Myxosporium, 


298 


Lepidium, 


10 






Lepraria, 


270 


Naiades, 


175 


Leptostroma, 


295 


Narcissus, 


191 


Lichina, 


288 


Nardus, 


192 


Lichenes, 


268 


Narthecium, 


185 


Ligusticum, 


83 


Nasturtium, 


15 


Ligustrum, 


122 


Neckera, 


254 


LlLIACE^E, 


180 


Nephroma, 


278 


Limosella, 


140 


Nuphar, 


7 


Linaria, 


139 


NympheacejE 


, 7 


Line^e, 


34 


Nymphasa, 


7 


Linnaea, 


91 






Linum, 


>34 


Odonathalia, 


288 


Listera, 


186 


CEdipodium, 


233 


Lithospernmm 


127 


GEnanthe, 


82 


Littorella, 


154 


Onagrari^e, 


68 


Lobelia, 


118 


Ononis, 


45 


Lolium, 


207 


Opegrapha, 


269 


Lonicera, 


90 


Ophioglossum, 


224 


Loranthe.E, 


89 


Orthotrichum, 


247 



Oscillatoria, 


2N9 


OrCHIDEjE, 


186 


Orchis, 


188 


Origanum, 


143 


Ornithopus, 


49 


Orobus, 


r,2 


Osmundace^E 


223 


Oxalide^e, 


43 


Oxalis, 


43 


Oxyria, 


160 


Oxytropis, 


4S 


PapaveracejS 


8 


Papaver, 


H 


Parietaria, 


162 


Paris, 


179 


Psumelia, 


275 


Parnassia, 


38 


ParonchiejE, 


73 


Pedicularis, 


138 


Peltidea, 


278 


Peplis, 


72 


Pertusaria, 


269 


Petasites, 


110 


Peziza, 


293 


Pbacidium, 


295 


Phalaris, 


194 


Phallus, 


293 


Phascum, 


231 


Phleum, 


194 


Phonia, 


295 


Phyllophora, 


289 


Pilularia, 


225 


Pimpinella, 


81 


Pinguicula, 


147 


Pimis, 


171 


PlSTIACEjE, 


174 


Plantagine^e, 153 


Plantago, 


153 


Plocadium, 


274 


Plocamium, 


28 s * 


Plumbagineje, 153 


Poa, 


199 


POLF.MONIACE.aE, 125 


Polemonium, 


125 


Polygale^e, 


23 


Polygala; 


23 


POLY'GONEiE, 


157 


Polygonum, 


157 


Polyides, 


288 


POLYPODIACEiE, 


Polypodium, 


218 


Polyporus, 


291 


Polysiphonia, 


289 


Polytrichum, 


246 


Populus, 


169 


Porphyra, 


289 



304 INDEXO 


THE ORDERS AND 


GENERA. 




PORTULACE*, 


72 


S«]eranthus, 


73 


Timmia, 


252 


Potamogeton, 


175 


Sclerotium, 


293 


Tofieldia, 


1S1 


Potentilla, 


6< 


3 Scolopendrium, 221 


Torilis, 


84 


PbIMULACEjE, 


148 


ScROPHULAEINE.ffi,134 


Tormentilla, 


62 


Primula, 


149 


Scrophularia, 


139 


Tortula, 


245 


Protonema, 


290 


Scutellaria, 


147 


Tragopogon, 


97 


Prunella, 


147 


Schizonema, 


290 


Trentepohlia, 


290 


Prunus, 


54 


Scyphophorus 


286 


Trichostomum 


, 241 


Psora, 


273 


Sedum, 


73 


Trientalis, 


152 


Pteris, 


222 


Sempervivum, 


73 


Trifolium, 


46 


Pterogo nium, 


251 


Senecio, 


112 


Triglochin, 


173 


Ptilota, 


289 


Sherardia, 


94 


Triodia, 


201 


Puccinia, 


296 


Sibbaldia, 


62 


Triticum, 


206 


Pycnothelia, . 


287 


Silene, 


25 


Trollius, 


5 


Pyretlirum, 


114 


Sinapis, 


17 


Tuber, 


293 


Pyrola, 


121 


Sistotrema, 


292 


Tubercularia, 


296 


Pyrus, 


67 


Sisymbrium, 


15 


Tulipa, 


180 






Sium, 


82 


Turritis, 


14 


Quercus, 


170 


Smilace^e, 


178 


Tussilago, 


111) 






Soxane.2E, 


132 


Typha, 


173 


Kadiola, 


34 


Solanum, 


133 






Bamalina, 


281 


Solidago, 


111 


Ulex, . . 


93 


BanunculacejE, 


1 


Solorina, 


278 


Ulmace^e, 


162 


Ranunculus, . 


3 


Sonchus, 


98 


Ulmus, 


162 


Baphanus, 


17 


Sparganium, 


174 


Ulva, . 


289 


Eesedace^e, . 


17 


Spathularia, 


292 


UmBELLIFER^E 


, 78 


Reseda, 


17 


Spergula, 


29 


Umbilicaria, . 


279 


Eeticularia, . 


295 


Sphacelaria, 


289 


Urceolaria, 


270 


Bbinanthus, . 


138 


Sphaeria, 


293 


Uredo, 


297 


Rhodiola, 


74 


Spbasrophoron 


283 


Urticje, 


161 


Bhodomela, . 


288 


Sphagnum 


232 


Urtica, 


161 


Ehodomenia, 


288 


Spiloma, 


•270 


Usnca, 


281 


Bhynchospora, 


207 


Spiraea, 


55 


Utricularia, 


147 


Bhytisma, 


295 


Splacbnum, 


236 






Eibes, 


74 


Sporocbnus, 


288 


VACCINIEJ3, . 


lis 


Eicoia, 


262 


Squamaria 


274 


Vaccinium, 


UK 


Eosace^e, 


54 


Stachys, 


145 


Valebiane^e, 


95 


Eosa, 


64 


Statice, 


153 


Valeriana, 


95 


Eubiace^;, . 


92 


Stellaria, 


30 


Variolaria, 


270 


Bubus, 


57 


Stereocaulon, 


283 


Vaucheria, 


289 


Eumex, 


158 


Sticta, 


276 


Verbascum, 


140 


Euppia, 


178 


Stigouema, 


289 


"Veronica, 


134 






Stratiotes, 


186 


Verrucaria, 


209 


Sagina, 


29 


Subularia, 


11 


Viburnum, 


90 


Salicornia, 


156 


Symphytum, . 


127 


Vicia, 


49 


Salix, . 


164 






Vinca, 


123 


Salsola, 


156 


Tanacetiun, . 


108 


VlOLACE-E, 


18 


Salvia, 


141 


Taxus, . 


172 


Viola, , 


18 


Sambucus, 


89 


Teesdalia, 


10 


Viscum, 


89 


Sanguisorba, 


64 


Tetraphis, 


236 






Sanicula, 


78 


Teucrium, 


143 


Weissia, 


237 
2IS 


Saussurea, 


10.4 


Thalictrum, . 


1 


Woodsia, 


SaxifbagEjE, 


75 


Thelephora, . 


292 






Saxifraga, 


78 


Thlaspi, 


9 1 


Zostera, 


178 


Scabiosa, 


96 


Thymus, 


142 


Zygodon, 


247 


Scandix, 


85 


Tiliace^:, 


35 Zygnema, 


289 


Scirpus, 


207 


Tilia, . 


35, 







( 305 ) 
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



At p. 12, after Camelina satira, insert, " Koniga mari- 
tima, Br. Sea-side Koniga. H. 24, B. 26. F. Augt. 
Oct. P. Montrose Links, south from the Asylum, Mr A. 
Kerr." 

P. 17. Add, after Brassica campestris, " In a field near 
the south side of Forfar Loch," Mr R. Maughan, New Bot. 
Guide. 

" Brassica Monensis, Br. Isle-of-Man cabbage. H. 31. 
B. 25. (Sinapis monensis, Bab.) F. June, Aug. B. or 
P. P Between Dundee and Forfar. Engl. Ft" 

P. 26. After Silene acaulis, add, "with white flowers on 
rocks half-way up the left side of Glen Dole, Mr H. C. 
Watson." 

P. 47. After Lotus corniculatus, add, 8. Bab. 77. 
H. 83. " Fields near Forfar. Engl. Fl." 

P. 48. The exact station for Oxytropis campestris, Mr 
Watson has shown to be Craig Rennet, and that for Astra- 
galus alpinus the higher rocks between Craig Rennet and 
Craig Maid. 

P. 71. After Myriophyllum should be inserted, 
Callitriche, L. Water Starwort. 
Br. sp. and v. 6. F. 1. 

C. verna L. Vernal water Starwort. H. 115. B. 108. 
F. Apr. Sept. A. ? Ditches frequent. 

P. 75. Saxifraga nivalis. Add, " below the Oxytropis 
station, and Garrybnrn rocks, Mr H. C. Watson.'' 

P. 121. Insert, after Arbutus Uva-Ursi, A. alpina, L. 
Black Bearberry. H. 211. B. 192. "Hill of the White 
Haugh, [The Bashes] Mr J. Macnab, and on White Bent, 
Clova, Mr W. Brand:' 

P. 121. After P. secunda, add, "Loch Lee, Mr W. 
Brand" 



306 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



P. 154. After Plantago maritima, add, " wayside ber 
tween Forfar and Kirriemuir, Mr H. C. Watson" 

P. 142. After Mentha viridis, insert, 

M. piperita, Sm. Peppermint. H. 249. B. 229. F. 
June, July, P. " Sides of a stream, the origin of the Bro- 
thick, near a spring called Nine Wells, about 6 miles from 
Arbroath ; abundant, and undoubtedly wild, New Bot. 
Guide." 

P. 162. Before Ulmus insert, Ord. lxxvii. UlmacEjE ; 
and before Betula, Ord. lxxviii. Amentace^e. 

P. 163. After Betula nana, add, " Sparingly on the 
mountain between Glen Dole and Glen Bradooney, almost 
in a line with the old Sonchus station and the shooting-cot- 
tage [Bachnagairn], Mr H. C. Watson.'" 

P. 181. After Allium, add, 

Gagea, Salisb. Gagea. 

Br. sp. 1. F. 1. 

G. lutea, Ker. Yellow Gagea. H. 349. B. 304. F. 
March, April, P. "Woods at Cortachy Castle, in abundance, 
and truly wild," Fl. Scot. 

P. 184. After Juncus triglumis, add, 

J. biglumis, L. Two-flowered Rush. H. 359. B. 312. 
F. July, Aug. P. " Clova mountains, Flora Scotica." I have 
not yet detected it there, though it occurs on the Breadalbane 
range, as Ben Lawers, &c. 

P. 190. After Iris Pseud-acorus, add, " In a marsh near 
Colonel Kinloch's of Logie, I discovered, in 1810, the Iris 
xiphoides, new to Britain. It was growing among Carices 
and Juncus effusus, and articulatus, in a situation where it 
had never been cultivated," Mr G. Don. It had likely found 
its way to the spot accidentally, and become naturalized. 

P. 288. For rhodomela read " Rhodomela," the third line 
below Odonthalia, it being the next genus after that. 

Glyphocarpa cernua, p. 234. From a notice in the Phy- 
tologist ii. 1017, from my friend Mr Croall, the discoverer of 
this little beauty in Forfarshire, it appears to have been re- 
christened by Bruch and Schimper, and now wears the name 
of Bartramidula Wilsoni. 



( 307 ) 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES. 



The Most Noble the Marchioness 

Cornwallis. London 
Lady Harvey, Edinburgh 
Mrs S. Fot'hringham of Fothring- 

ham and Tealing 
Mrs Dumbleton, Bagshot 
Mrs Doxat, Wandsworth 
Mrs Ambrose Moore, Loudon 
Mrs Robertson, Carron Vale 
Mrs Bickerstetb, Shrewsbury 
Mrs E. Nugent, Nairn 
Miss Moseley, Great Malvern 
Miss Leigh, Kuutsford 
Miss M. Beaver, Coniston 
Miss Cutler, Budleigh 
Miss C. Hcnslow, St Albans— (4 

copies) 
Miss H, Carter, Malmsbury 
Miss Henry, Caton 
Miss Stokes, Shrewsbury 
The Right Hon. Lord Brougham 

and Vaux, London 
The Right Hon. Lord Kinnaird 
Sir W. J. Hooker, K.H., LL.D., &c, 

Kew 
Sir John Ogilvy of Inverquharity, 

Bart. 
Provost Brown, Dundee 
Professor Balfour. Edinburgh 
Professor Henslow, Cambridge 
Professor Johnston, Edinburgh 
Lieut. W. Zwackh-Holzhausen, Mu- 
nich 
Captain Abraham, Bagshot 
The Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Kings- 

cliffe 
The Rev. J. S. Barty, Bendochv 
The Rev. J. O. Haldane, Ki'ngol- 

drum 
' The Rev. W. Borwick, Dundee 
The Rev. W. W. Spicer, Hurst-per- 

Poiut 
The Rev. A. Bloxam, Twycross 
The Rev. G. B. Moxon, Lynu 
Dr G. M. Osborne, Dundee 
Dr C. Dubuc, Edinburgh 
Dr Neill, Edinburgh 
Dr Dickson, Jersey 



Dr J. F. Young, London 
Dr R. J. N. Streeten, Worcester 
Dr Dickenson, Liverpool 
Charles Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy 
Robert Webster, Esq. of Balruddery 
C W. Boase, Esq., Dundee Bank 
Richard Gardiner, Esq., Dudhope 
Ebenezer E. Scott, Esq., Dundee 
Francis Robertson, Esq., Dundee 
Robert Marshall, Esq., Dundee 
John Morrison, Esq. Dundee 
David Wedderburn, Esq. of Pearsie 
P. Wedderburn Ogilvie, Esq. of 

Ruthveu 
William Neish, Esq , Dundee 
James Bell, Esq., Dundee 
G. J. Lyon, Esq , Glasgow 
C. C.Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

G.S., B.S., &c, Cambridge 
Churchill Babington, Esq., Cam- 
bridge 
William Borrer, Esq., F.R.S., L.S., 

B.S., &c, Henfield 
James Lowe, Esq., Liverpool 
Robert Hudson, Esq., F.R.S., G.S., 
&c, Clapham Common-(2 copies) 
James Kennedy, Esq., Dundee 
J. Wild, Esq., Clapham Lodge, Sur- 
rey 
David Cameron, Esq., Botanic Gar- 
den, Birmingham 
Henry Shepherd, Esq., Botanic Gar- 
den, Liverpool 
David Moore, Esq., Moijal Botanic 

Garden, Dublin 
E. G. Varenne, Esq., Kelvedon 
N. B. Ward, Esq., London 
W. O. Newnham, Esq., Cambridge 
J. W. G. Gutch, Esq., London 
W. W. Saunders, Esq , Wandsworth 
J. G. Children, Esq., V.P.R.S., 

F.L.S., &c, London 
George Crossfield, Esq., Liverpool 
David Steuart, Esq., F.B.S.E., Edin- 
burgh 
Thomas Deuchar, Esq., Edinburgh 

— (2 copies) 
W. D. Proctor, Esq., Glammis 



308 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES. 



A. T. Willmott, surgeon, Eoss — (2 

copies) 
W. Brand, Esq., Treas, Bot. Soc. Ed. 
J. H. Wilson, Esq., Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford 
W. W. Fyfe, Esq., North Brit. Daily 

Mail, Ed. 
John Bathgate, Esq., Procurator- 
Fiscal for Peeblesshire 
Thos. Sopwith, Esq., F.K.S., F.G., 

Allenhead 
Ernest Donald, Esq., Aberdeen 
Mr James Hamilton, teacher, Dun- 
dee 
Mr James Gibb, teacher, Kettins 
Mr George Hedger, Stepney 
Mr William Jackson, junr., Dundee 
Mr George Lawson, Dundee 



Mr John Laing, Experim. Garden, 

Edinburgh 
Mr Archibald Bousie, Pit/our Gar- 
den, near Perth 
Mr J. Bobertson, Kinfauns Garden, 

near Perth 
Mr Thomas Blezard, Wray 
Mr E. M. Stark, Edinburgh 
Mr Eobert Millar, Dundee 
Mr William Ogilvie, Dundee 
Mr John Boots, Wentworth 
Mr James Donald, London 
Mr Alexr. Croall, Ardersier 
Mr G. C. Donaldson, Keithock 
Mr J. Inches, Drummond Castle 
Mr D. Speedie, Drummond Castle 
Mr A. Sangster, Moston Bank 
&c. &c. 



Just Published, 

THIED EDITION, 

TWENTY LESSONS ON BRITISH MOSSES, 

Illustrated with Specimens, Price 3s. 



OPINIONS OF FIRST AND SECOND EDITIONS. 

" Several donations to the Library and Museum were announced, par- 
ticularly from Mr William Gardiner, Dundee, his elegant little work on 
the Mosses, intended as an introduction to the study of that interesting 
tribe of plants, and which seems well fitted to accomplish the object in 
view." 

Report of Meeting of Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh, in Edin. Even. Post, 
15th April, 1846. 

" This little volume, so far as it goes, is most unexceptionable, and is a , 
great boon conferred upon the lovers of botany." 

Dundee Courier, May 19. 1846. 

" It is only some eight months since we noticed, at some length, in our 
columns, the above valuable little treatise on the Mosses, when we confi- 
dently stated our opinion that it would become a highly popular work 
among botanists. The rapid sale of the first impression has confirmed the 
justness of our opinion as then expressed. We would strongly recom- 
mend his little volume to the notice of parents." 

Notice of 2d ed., Dundee Courier, Jan. 19: 1847. 

" We heartily recommend this little publication to the notice of our 
readers, as one of the prettiest botanical presents that could be made to 
their juvenile acquaintance." 

Phytologist, July 1846. 

" The delicate and varied tints of the Mosses are preserved in a remark- 
able manner, and insure the recognition of the plants in a growing state. 
By means of this ingenious and interesting little book, any one, without 
the assistance of a teacher, may acquire a thorough elementary acquaint- 
anceship with the leading tribes of Mosses." 

Chambers's Ed. Journal, No. 172. 

" Lord Brougham hopes Mr Gardiner will persevere in his useful la- 
bours, which are eminently calculated to improve the minds and elevate 
the pursuits of all, but especially the young." 

" Than your exceedingly pretty and tempting introduction to a taste for 
muscology, nothing can be better imagined for the purpose." 

Charles Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. 



" I have carefully gone over your little work on the Mosses, and am 
particularly pleased with it, and the manner in which you illustrate each 
lesson. I hope you will meet with sufficient encouragement to induce you 
to bring out more volumes in illustration of some of the other classes of 
cryptogamic plants." 

G. M. Osborne, Esq., M.D., Dundee. 

' " I was quite delighted with your little work on Mosses." 

Robert Hudson, Esq., F.E.S., &c, Surrey. 

" I cannot sufficiently express to you the gratification I have derived 
from your most instructive and interesting little book on Mosses." 

Thomas Sopwith, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c, Allenheads. 

" Your gem of a work serves as an admirable stepping- stone to Hooker's 
Cryplogamic Flora." 

T. Lister, Esq., Barnsley. 

" The ' Twenty Lessons ' is indeed a gem. I was particularly struck 
with the beauty of the little volume. It well illustrates how feeble the at- 
tempts of our most gifted artists are, wben compared with the works of the 
Great Artist of Nature." 

Dt Drummond, Newhurgh. 

, "Mr Gardiner's ' Lessons on Mosses' is universally admired, as it de- 
serves to be." 

Miss C. Henslow, St Albans. 

" I doubt not that it will much facilitate the study of this interesting 
tribe of plants ; and I shall certainly most strongly recommend it to those 
of my friends who have any botanical taste." 

The Rev. A. Bloxam, Twycross. 

" I much admire your little book ; it is written in an excellent spirit, 
and I shall be very happy to reoommend it." 

Thomas Bodenham, Esq., Shrewsbury. 

" The tone is so amiable and instructive for the young admirers of na- 
ture, that it cannot fail to do good wherever it becomes known." 

Captain Abraham, Frimley, Bagshot. 

" I prize the little book most highly myself, and find it universally ad- 
mired." 

Mrs Blagg, St Albans. 

" Miss Moxon approves of it exceedingly, and will do as muoh as she 
can to promote the sale of so useful and instructive a publication." 

The Lodge, Twickenham. 



These Testimonials, to which might have been added a host 
of similar ones, are given purely with the view of showing 
that the Author's humble efforts to promote a taste for the 
study of nature have been generally approved of. 



A SECOND SERIES OF LESSONS ON BRITISH MOSSES, 

Price 3s., 

Will be published at an early period ; and these will be fol- 
lowed by similar little elementary books on the Hepatica, 
Lichens, Algce, Fungi, and Zoophytes, all illustrated with 
specimens. 

Lately Published, 

BOTANICAL RAMBLES IN BRAEMAR, Is. 

" We can confidently recommend it to all lovers of British plants, and 
to all lovers of Natnre also." 

Sir J. W. Hooker's London Journal of Botany, April 1845. 

"We have great pleasure in recommending this little pamphlet to the 
attention of our readers. Such of them as have participated in Mr Gardi- 
ner's annual distribution of the gems of the Scottish Flora, will find in its 
pages a store of agreeable observations on the interesting localities where- 
in these treasures have been collected. To such as have not hitherto 
made acquaintance with the author's valuable packets of plants, it will ex- 
hibit a pleasing picture of the botanical riches of a district abounding in 
scenery of the most splendid and romantic character." 

Phytologist, March 1845. 

" Our crowded columns prevent our giving extracts from the work ; but 
we recommend all lovers of botanical gossip to procure the pamphlet for 
themselves. It is worth reading. To those who purchase Mr Gardiner's 
dried specimens of Scottish plants, which, by the way, are vert cheap, it 
will be particularly interesting." 

Gardeners' Chronicle, April 26. 1845. 



A CATALOGUE OF BRITISH MOSSES, 

THIRD EDITION, 

Alphabetically arranged, to facilitate correspondence, price 2d. ; 
A CATALOGUE OF BRITISH HEPATITE, price Id. ; 

AND 

COLLECTIONS OF BOTANICAL SPECIMENS, 

as follows : — 

250 Specimens Mosses, Hepatica?, Lichens, Algae, 
Fungi, &c, 

... Ditto, mounted in two volumes, 
120 Ditto, ..... 

... Ditto, mounted in one volume, 

60 Ditto, ..... 

... Ditto, mounted in one volume, 



Si o 





2 





10 





1 





5 





10 






Preparing for Publication, 

CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS A FAUNA OF FORFARSHIRE, 

Including as full lists as can be obtained of the Quadrupeds, 
Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, Zoophytes, &c, that 
have been ascertained to be inhabitants or visitants to the 
county, or its coast. 



W. G. begs also to announce that it is his intention to pub- 
lish, next season, Collections of British Ferns, mounted in 
volumes, the price of which will vary from £1 to £2, accord- 
ing to the extent of the Collection. The names of Subscribers 
will be thankfully received at their earliest convenience. 

\4A, or 158, Overgate, Dundee,